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Livvi-Karelian
Ливви
livvi
Native toRussia, Finland
Regionbetween Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega, northward of Svir River, Karelia
Native speakers
14,100–25,000 (2000–2010)[1]
Uralic
Latin (Karelian alphabet)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3olo
Glottologlivv1243
ELPLivvi
Distribution of Karelian and Ludic at the beginning of the 20th century[4][5]
Olonetsian is classified as Definitely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010)
PeopleKarelians
LanguageKarelian;
Livvi-Karelian
CountryKarelia

Livvi-Karelian[6] (Alternate names: Liygi, Livvi, Livvikovian, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian, Karelian; Russian: ливвиковское наречие, romanizedlivvikovskoye narechiye)[6][7] is a supradialect of the Karelian language, which is a Finnic language of the Uralic family,[8] spoken by Olonets Karelians (self-appellation livvi, livgilaizet), traditionally inhabiting the area between Ladoga and Onega lakes, northward of Svir River.

Tatiana Boiko speaks about the Livvi-Karelian dialect of the Karelian language and the VepKar corpus, with subtitles in English. KarRC RAS, 2018.

The name "Olonets Karelians" is derived from the territory inhabited, Olonets Krai, named after the town of Olonets, named after the Olonka River.

History

Dialects of the Karelian language includes Karelian Proper supradialect, Livvi-Karelian supradialect, Ludic supradialect.

Before World War II, Livvi-Karelian was spoken both in Russia and in Finland, in the easternmost part of Finnish Karelia. After Finland was forced to cede large parts of Karelia to the USSR after the war, the Finnish Livvi-Karelian population was resettled in Finland. Today there are still native speakers of Livvi-Karelian living scattered throughout Finland, but all areas in which Livvi-Karelian remains a community language are found in Russia.

Speakers of Livvi-Karelian may be found mainly in Olonetsky, Pryazhinsky, Pitkyarantsky, and partly Suoyarvsky districts of the Republic of Karelia.[9] Livvi-Karelian long remained relatively uninfluenced by the Russian language despite the large influx of Russians following the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703.[citation needed]

Phonology

Karelian dialects mapped out, with Number 4 being the Livvi-Karelian dialect.

Vowels

Front Back
rnd. urnd. rnd. urnd.
Close i y u
Mid e ø o
Open æ ɑ

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain pal.
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ (x) h
voiced z ʒ
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Approximant ʋ l j
Rhotic r

Alphabet

Livvi-Karelian uses the Latin alphabet and has the following letters in its alphabet, which is called the Karelian alphabet: Aa, Bb, Cc, Čč, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Šš, Zz, Žž, Tt, Uu, Vv, Yy, Ää, Öö.[11]

Until 2007, the ü letter was a part of the Livvi-Karelian alphabet, which has been recommended by the Karelian language board to be instead be changed to the y letter.[12]

Grammar

Livvi-Karelian and its grammatical cases are quite similar to the Finnish language and other related Finnic languages.

The word 'food' in Livvi-Karelian cases:[13]

case singular plural
nom. syömine syömizet
gen. syömizen syömizien
par. syömisty syömizii
ine. syömizes syömizis
ill. syömizeh syömizih
ela. syömizes syömizis
ade. syömizel syömizil
abe. syömizettäh syömizittäh
all. syömizele syömizile
abl. syömizel syömizil
ess. syömizenny syömizinny
tra. syömizekse syömizikse
com. syömizen syömizienke
prol. syömizeči syömiziči
term. syömizessäh syömizissäh
approx. syömizellyö syömiziellyö
acc. syömine syömizet

Common phrases

Hello! - Terveh!

How are you? - Kuibo dielot?

Good night! - Hyviä yödy!

Good afternoon! - Hyviä päiviä!

Do you speak Karelian? - Pagizetgo (sinä) karjalakse?

I'm sorry. - Minul on žiäli.

You're welcome. - Ole hyvä.

I love you. - Suvaičen sinuu.

Goodbye. - Jiä tervehekse.

My name is ... - Minun nimi on ...

Excuse me. - Prostikkua.

Help! - Avvutakkua!

Cheers! - Teijän tervehyökse!

Right. - Oigei.

Left. - Hurai.

Yes. - Da.

No.. - Ei.

One. - Yksi.

Two. - Kaksi.

Three. - Kolme.

Four. - Nelli.

Five. - Viizi.

See also

References

  1. ^ Karjalainen, Heini; Puura, Ulriikka; Grünthal, Riho; Kovaleva, Svetlana (2013). "Karelian in Russia. ELDIA Case-Specific Report". Studies in European Language Diversity. 26. ELDIA. ISSN 2192-2403.
  2. ^ Change in the regulation by the president of Finland about European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, 27.11.2009 (in Finnish)
  3. ^ "Законодательные акты: О государственной поддержке карельского, вепсского и финского языков в Республике Карелия". Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  4. ^ Rantanen, Timo; Tolvanen, Harri; Roose, Meeli; Ylikoski, Jussi; Vesakoski, Outi (8 June 2022). "Best practices for spatial language data harmonization, sharing and map creation—A case study of Uralic". PLOS ONE. 17 (6): e0269648. Bibcode:2022PLoSO..1769648R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0269648. PMC 9176854. PMID 35675367.
  5. ^ Rantanen, Timo, Vesakoski, Outi, Ylikoski, Jussi, & Tolvanen, Harri. (2021). Geographical database of the Uralic languages (v1.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4784188
  6. ^ a b "Livvi-Karelian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  7. ^ Moseley, Christopher (2007). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Psychology Press. p. 263. ISBN 9780203645659.
  8. ^ "Language Family Trees, Uralic, Finnic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  9. ^ "Karelian Language", at the website about livvic culture
  10. ^ Sarhimaa, Anneli (2022). Karelian. Oxford Guides to the World's Languages (1st ed.): Oxford University Press. pp. 274–275.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  11. ^ Pyöli, Raija (2011). Livvinkarjalan kielioppi (in Finnish). Karjalan Kielen Seura. ISBN 978-952-5790-25-2.
  12. ^ "Kirjaimikkuo suurendetah". Archived from the original on 24 September 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2024.
  13. ^ "VepKar :: Lemmas". dictorpus.krc.karelia.ru. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  14. ^ "Useful phrases in Livvi-Karelian". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  15. ^ Craig Gibson, Digital Dialects 2020. "Digital Dialects Karelian games". www.digitaldialects.com. Retrieved 17 October 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)