A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas which, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area in which transportation has developed to link areas. They create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.[1]

Patrick Geddes coined the term in his book Cities In Evolution (1915). He drew attention to the ability of the new technology at the time of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, and gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands, and the Northeastern Seaboard in the United States.[2]

The term as described is used in Britain whereas in the United States, each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Internationally the term "urban agglomeration" is often used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation".[3][4] A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis. In a megalopolis the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous, and the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. A conurbation should also be contrasted with a megacity. A megacity is hierarchical with an indisputable dominant urban core, whereas a conurbation is polycentric and no single urban centre has the dominant role over all other centres.



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The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Curepipe, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 (49% of the island's population) as of 2011.




Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns including Ikeja and Ojo. Also various suburban communities such as Agege, Alimosho, Ifako-Ijaiye, Kosofe, Mushin, Oshodi and Shomolu are included in the area.[6]

South Africa

Johannesburg, Ekurhuleni (East Rand), and Tshwane (greater Pretoria) merged to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million.[7]



Urban population rate: 67% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 23% (2015)[8]


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The city of Dhaka is linked with Narayanganj and Gazipur city; there are no gaps between Dhaka and those two cities. This conurbation which consists of the areas of the city of Dhaka and its surrounding cities and towns is collectively knowns as the Greater Dhaka City. The city of Dhaka is the core city of the conurbation and has a population of about 10 Million. The satellite cities of the conurbation include Narayanganj, Gazipur, Tongi, Fatullah, Keraniganj, Tarabo, and Kaliganj.


Urban population rate: 22% (2015)[8]


The ten largest urban centers in China

There are 3 well-known conurbations in China.[10]


Data are referred to pre-1974 Turkish Army occupation boundaries. Urban population rate: 59% (2015)[8]

East Timor

Urban population rate: 31% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 56% (2015)[8]


Greater Jakarta or Jabodetabek comprises the largest urban area in Indonesia and the second-largest in the world with a population of around 30 million.[14] The center and national capital, Jakarta, has a population of 10.3 million within its borders.[15]

The second-most populated city in Indonesia, Surabaya, also forms a conurbation known as Gerbangkertosusila with a metropolitan population of about 10 million compared to the city proper of 3 million.[16] Conurbations are also present around Bandung and Medan.


The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) consists of Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. The region has an area of 4,355 km2 and with a population of 20.5 million,[17] and is among the top ten most populated urban agglomerations in the world. It is linked together through the Mumbai Suburban Railway system and a large network of roads.

The National Capital Region (NCR) is a name for the coordinated planning region which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi as well as several surrounding districts in the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. However, the conurbation of Delhi is actually limited to the NCT of Delhi and the neighbouring contiguous urban areas comprising Gurgaon, Faridabad, Noida, Greater Noida and Ghaziabad. The area is officially known as the Central National Capital Region (CNCR), a small part of overall NCR.[18] The population of this conurbation was estimated 21.7 million in 2011.[19] It is the world's third most populous urban agglomeration.

The Amaravati Metropolitan Region (AMR) of Andhra Pradesh is a conurbation of three cities, namely Vijayawada, Eluru and Guntur and 11 other towns which include Mangalagiri, Tadepalle, Tenali, Ponnuru, Chilakaluripeta, Narasaraopeta, Sattenapally, Nandigama, Jaggayyapeta, Nuzividu, Gudivada and Vuyyuru. The new capital city of the state, Amaravati, is being developed between the cities of Vijayawada and Guntur at the center of the conurbation. The region holds a total population of 58 lakhs.

The Jamshedpur Metropolitan Area has a plan of Greater Jamshedpur. This place contains the area and city of Adityapur, Maango and Jugsalai


Data are referred to 1949 Armistice boundaries, after 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Urban population rate: 59% (2015)[8]


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The Taiheiyō Belt is the largest conurbation in Japan in every sense, extending from Ibaraki Prefecture to Fukuoka Prefecture, running almost 1,200 km, with the total population of 82.9 million. However, it is rarely referred to in Japan itself with each Prefecture maintaining separate identities. The Greater Tokyo Area, also called Shutoken (the National Capital Region), is a metropolitan area in the Kantō region, with the estimated population of 35,676,000 in 2007, often referred to as the most populous and economically largest metropolitan area in the world.


Urban population rate: 80% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 38% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 98% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 37% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 74% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area 6,512,807 2015 [9]
Georgetown Metropolitan Area (Georgetown + Kulim) 1,418,262
Johor Bahru Metropolitan Area 1,067,776
Ipoh Metropolitan Area 643,327
Kota Kinabalu Metropolitan Area 608,027
Melaka Metropolitan Area 446,719
Kuching Metropolitan Area 441,554
Seremban Metropolitan Area 390,884
Tawau Metropolitan Area 354,494
Sandakan Metropolitan Area 337,268
Kota Bharu Metropolitan Area 326,948
Sungai Petani Metropolitan Area 269,176
Kuantan Metropolitan Area 217,879
Alor Star Metropolitan Area 203,262
Taiping Metropolitan Area 198,018
Miri Metropolitan Area 187,443
Sibu Metropolitan Area 185,385
Kuala Terengganu Metropolitan Area 147,996
Lahad Datu Metropolitan Area 133,110
Kluang Metropolitan Area 109,597
Muar Metropolitan Area 106,024
Bintulu Metropolitan Area 101,436
Semporna Metropolitan Area 101,230



Urban population rate: 65% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 21% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 76% (2015)[8]


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Data are referred to 1949 Armistice boundaries, after 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Papua New Guinea

Urban population rate: 10% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 59% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Manila Metropolitan Area 22,311,771 2015 [9]
Cebu Metropolitan Area 2,678,296
Davao Metropolitan Area 1,196,303
Angeles Metropolitan Area 1,056,211
Dagupan Metropolitan Area 876,322
Cagayan de Oro Metropolitan Area 735,692
Bacolod Metropolitan Area 539,696
Zamboanga Metropolitan Area 498,587
Iloilo Metropolitan Area 489,034
General Santos Metropolitan Area 452,060
Baguio Metropolitan Area 451,844
Batangas Metropolitan Area 326,496
Naga Metropolitan Area 291,374
Iligan Metropolitan Area 279,731
Cotabato Metropolitan Area 274,670
Tagum Metropolitan Area 252,700
Tacloban Metropolitan Area 244,458
Lipa Metropolitan Area 235,919
Legaspi Metropolitan Area 221,694
Marawi Metropolitan Area 207,205
Cabanatuan Metropolitan Area 198,568
Butuan Metropolitan Area 185,655
Olongapo Metropolitan Area 182,832
Tarlac Metropolitan Area 181,691
San Pablo Metropolitan Area 174,317
San Pedro Metropolitan Area 172,148
Dumaguete Metropolitan Area 166,127
Guagua Metropolitan Area 160,448
Puerto Princesa Metropolitan Area 156,713
Pagadian Metropolitan Area 145,146
San Fernando Metropolitan Area 134,798
Malolos Metropolitan Area 123,101
Tuguegarao Metropolitan Area 122,965
Tagbilaran Metropolitan Area 120,097
Ozamis Metropolitan Area 117,388
Roxas Metropolitan Area 108,370
Dipolog Metropolitan Area 108,335
Balanga Metropolitan Area 108,162
Gapan Metropolitan Area 103,963


Urban population rate: 46% (2015)[8]

South Korea

Urban population rate: 84% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Sudokwon Metropolitan Area (Seoul + Incheon + nearby cities in Gyeonggi Province) 22,009,222 2015 [9]
Busan Metropolitan Area (Busan + Gimhae + Yangsan) 3,675,312
Daegu Metropolitan Area 2,474,025
Daejeon Metropolitan Area 1,534,182
Gwangju Metropolitan Area 1,469,650
Ulsan Metropolitan Area 922,819
Jeonju Metropolitan Area (Jeonju + Iksan) 771,294
Changwon Metropolitan Area 738,115
Cheongju Metropolitan Area 664,464
Cheonan Metropolitan Area (Cheonan + Asan) 465,353
Pohang Metropolitan Area 359,501
Gumi Metropolitan Area 332,203
Suncheon Metropolitan Area (Suncheon + Gwangyang + Yeosu) 307,002
Mokpo Metropolitan Area 273,421
Jinju Metropolitan Area 203,662
Wonju Metropolitan Area 181,058
Gunsan Metropolitan Area 158,532
Chuncheon Metropolitan Area 157,839
Geoje Metropolitan Area 153,898
Jeju Metropolitan Area 119,740
Gangneung Metropolitan Area 102,592


Satellite view of the Taipei-Taoyuan-Keelung Metropolitan Area, the largest metropolitan area in Taiwan
Satellite view of the Kaohsiung-Pingtung-Tainan metropolitan area

Urban population rate: 80% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Northern Conurbation (Greater Taipei + Taoyuan + Zhubei + Hsinshu + Toufen) 9,869,666 2015 [9]
Southern Conurbation (Greater Tainan + Greater Kaohsiung + Pingtung) 3,664,955
Central Conurbation (Greater Taichung + Changhua + Nantou + Yunlin) 3,400,809
Chiayi Metropolitan Area 472,172
Hualien Metropolitan Area 144,677


Urban population rate: 29% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 37% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Krung Thep Conurbation (Bangkok and nearby cities) 14,954,100 2015 [9]
Chiang Mai Metropolitan Area 493,149
Phuket Metropolitan Area 426,293
Chonburi Metropolitan Area 392,467
Hat Yai Metropolitan Area 297,792
Pattaya Metropolitan Area 242,133
Nakhon Pathom Metropolitan Area 186,325
Si Racha Metropolitan Area 168,554
Phitsanulok Metropolitan Area 165,001
Songkhla Metropolitan Area 162,380
Nakhon Ratchasima Metropolitan Area 159,579
Khonkaen Metropolitan Area 154,057
Surat Thani Metropolitan Area 150,127
Udon Thani Metropolitan Area 149,983
Nakhon Si Thammarat Metropolitan Area 146,307
Rayong Metropolitan Area 138,423
Lopburi Metropolitan Area 128,924
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Metropolitan Area 126,849
Ubon Ratchathani Metropolitan Area 126,488
Ranong Metropolitan Area 118,553
Yala Metropolitan Area 111,221
Ban Chang Metropolitan Area 110,390
Kanchanaburi Metropolitan Area 102,628


Urban population rate: 71% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Istanbul Metropolitan Area 14,565,437 2015 [9]
Ankara Metropolitan Area 4,460,522
Izmir Metropolitan Area 2,794,142
Bursa Metropolitan Area 1,680,190
Gaziantep Metropolitan Area 1,434,973
Antalya Metropolitan Area 944,864
Konya Metropolitan Area 791,429
Mersin Metropolitan Area 786,305
Izmit Metropolitan Area 784,331
Kayseri Metropolitan Area 772,654
Adana Metropolitan Area 737,574
Samsun Metropolitan Area 559,413
Denizli Metropolitan Area 537,507
Diyarbakir Metropolitan Area 536,794
Eskisehir Metropolitan Area 528,380
Kahramanmaras Metropolitan Area 464,945
Van Metropolitan Area 451,519
Malatya Metropolitan Area 447,745
Sanliurfa Metropolitan Area 431,505
Antakya Metropolitan Area 397,544
Trabzon Metropolitan Area 364,103
Batman Metropolitan Area 363,642
Elazig Metropolitan Area 324,305
Sivas Metropolitan Area 303,202
Sakarya Metropolitan Area 269,660
Manisa Metropolitan Area 294,069
Iskenderun Metropolitan Area 256,743
Cerkezkoy Metropolitan Area 242,264
Isparta Metropolitan Area 234,121
Osmaniye Metropolitan Area 225,567
Aydin Metropolitan Area 210,247
Adiyaman Metropolitan Area 203,680
Yenice Metropolitan Area 181,480
Corum Metropolitan Area 181,012
Ordu Metropolitan Area 180,011
Siverek Metropolitan Area 160,312
Tarsus Metropolitan Area 159,692
Zonguldak Metropolitan Area 158,521
Inegol Metropolitan Area 155,697
Giresun Metropolitan Area 147,434
Usak Metropolitan Area 141,288
Duzce Metropolitan Area 139,560
Yumurtalik Metropolitan Area 139,104
Siirt Metropolitan Area 136,101
Tokat Metropolitan Area 134,631
Karabuk Metropolitan Area 130,402
Kutahya Metropolitan Area 129,641
Erzurum Metropolitan Area 129,246
Karaman Metropolitan Area 127,506
Aksaray Metropolitan Area 126,210
Turgutlu Metropolitan Area 125,953
Rize Metropolitan Area 123,482
Agri Metropolitan Area 121,725
Yalova Metropolitan Area 120,828
Afyonkarahisar Metropolitan Area 120,660
Fethiye Metropolitan Area 117,452
Keskin Metropolitan Area 114,207
Viransehir Metropolitan Area 113,091
Kadirli Metropolitan Area 111,158
Silopi Metropolitan Area 105,037
Eregli Metropolitan Area 104,760
Cizre Metropolitan Area 104,061
Ceyhan Metropolitan Area 103,840
Elbistan Metropolitan Area 100,020


Urban population rate: 53% (2015)[20]

United Arab Emirates

Urban population rate: 85% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 40% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Tashkent Metropolitan Area 3,293,873 2015 [9]
Samarqand Metropolitan Area 795,848
Namangan Metropolitan Area 753,458
Qarshi Metropolitan Area 712,047
Fargona Metropolitan Area 469,110
Jizzax Metropolitan Area 385,490
Andijon Metropolitan Area 373,159
Shahrisabz Metropolitan Area 334,628
Qoqon Metropolitan Area 303,759
Nokis Metropolitan Area 288,240
Tortkul Metropolitan Area 252,614
Termiz Metropolitan Area 242,044
Urganch Metropolitan Area 215,566
Kattaqorgon Metropolitan Area 153,433
Denov Metropolitan Area 146,220
Buxoro Metropolitan Area 137,440
Xiva Metropolitan Area 136,679
Oltiariq Metropolitan Area 120,162
Kosonsoy Metropolitan Area 115,631
Quva Metropolitan Area 113,493
Gijduvon Metropolitan Area 110,910
Navoiy Metropolitan Area 110,554
Ibrat Metropolitan Area 101,566
Asaka Metropolitan Area 101,170
Shahrixon Metropolitan Area 100,375


Urban population rate: 33% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Ho Chi Minh (Sai Gon) Metropolitan Area 11,897,049 2015 [9]
Ha Noi Metropolitan Area 6,148,404
Tan Chau Metropolitan Area (Tan Chau + Long Xuyen) 1,359,497
Da Nang Metropolitan Area 1,075,589
Hai Phong Metropolitan Area 1,051,010
Can Tho Metropolitan Area 769,316
My Tho Metropolitan Area 759,179
Vinh Long Metropolitan Area 484,198
Nha Trang Metropolitan Area 468,627
Hue Metropolitan Area 419,391
Vung Tau Metropolitan Area 412,378
Thai Nguyen Metropolitan Area 363,000
Thanh Hoa Metropolitan Area 343,001
Vinh Metropolitan Area 326,520
Tay Ninh Metropolitan Area 319,289
Nam Dinh Metropolitan Area 292,782
Hai Duong Metropolitan Area 283,307
Qui Nhon Metropolitan Area 282,795
Rach Gia Metropolitan Area 276,783
Thai Binh Metropolitan Area 268,330
Buon Ma Thuot Metropolitan Area 254,680
Quang Ngai Metropolitan Area 246,708
Phan Thiet Metropolitan Area 243,919
Bac Giang Metropolitan Area 222,711
Play Cu Metropolitan Area 199,908
Bac Lieu Metropolitan Area 199,141
Phan Rang Metropolitan Area 198,679
Da Lat Metropolitan Area 195,370
Ca Mau Metropolitan Area 193,377
Ha Long Metropolitan Area 178,597
Lac Thanh Metropolitan Area 177,136
Cao Lanh Metropolitan Area 173,133
Cai Lay Metropolitan Area 172,776
Tra Vinh Metropolitan Area 159,016
Tuy Hoa Metropolitan Area 158,744
Binh Phuoc Metropolitan Area 155,011
Cao Mat Metropolitan Area 149,729
Kon Tum Metropolitan Area 144,425
Son Tay (Ha Noi) Metropolitan Area 139,803
Vinh Yen Metropolitan Area 139,418
Soc Trang Metropolitan Area 133,858
Viet Tri Metropolitan Area 129,341
Long Le Metropolitan Area 125,920
Mong Cai Metropolitan Area (Mong Cai + Dongxing) 125,104
Cam Pha Metropolitan Area 122,988
Ninh Binh Metropolitan Area 122,236
Cai Be Metropolitan Area 120,234
Tuyen Quang Metropolitan Area 114,216
Phu Ly Metropolitan Area 112,705
Tien Thanh Metropolitan Area 112,508
Tan Phu Metropolitan Area 111,991
Lang Son Metropolitan Area 110,770
Ho Kou Metropolitan Area (Ho Kou + Hekou) 105,453
Xuan Loc Metropolitan Area 103,836
Gia Rai Metropolitan Area 102,299
Yen Bai Metropolitan Area 102,149
Tam Ky Metropolitan Area 100,935
Vinh Tuy Metropolitan Area 100,364



Urban population rate: 56% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 69% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 76% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Minsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Minsk) 2,006,722 2015 [9]
Gomel Metropolitan Area (Greater Gomel) 429,237
Vitebsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Vitebsk) 354,209
Mogilev Metropolitan Area (Greater Mogilev) 334,165
Brest Metropolitan Area (Brest + Terespol) 326,182
Grodno Metropolitan Area (Greater Grodno) 309,064
Bobruisk Metropolitan Area (Greater Bobruisk) 197,539
Baranavici Metropolitan Area (Greater Baranavici) 162,854
Pinsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Pinsk) 132,029
Borisov Metropolitan Area (Greater Borisov) 112,218


Urban population rate: 98% (2015)[8]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Urban population rate: 52% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 73% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 61% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 76% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 88% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 71% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 86% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 86% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Ile-de-France Conurbation (Greater Paris) 9,711,512 2015 [9]
Lyon Metropolitan Area (Greater Lyon) 1,152,368
Marseille Metropolitan Area (Greater Marseille) 909,727
Lille Metropolitan Area (Lille + Mouscron) 903,281
Cote-d'Azur Conurbation (Nice + Cannes) 733,095
Toulouse Metropolitan Area (Greater Toulouse) 658,107
Bordeaux Metropolitan Area (greater Bordeaux) 585,031
Nantes Metropolitan Area (Greater Nantes) 436,853
Strasbourg Metropolitan Area (Strasbourg + Kehl) 422,097
Toulon Metropolitan Area (Greater Toulon) 368,851
Grenoble Metropolitan Area (Greater Grenoble) 338,199
Rouen Metropolitan Area (Greater Rouen) 320,960
Montpellier Metropolitan Area (Greater Montpellier) 293,865
Rennes Metropolitan Area (Greater Rennes) 227,572
Nancy Metropolitan Area (Greater Nancy) 213,797
Tours Metropolitan Area (Greater Tours) 211,591
Dijon Metropolitan Area (Greater Dijon) 208,040
Cambrin Metropolitan Area (Greater Cambrin) 207,779
Clermont-Ferrand Metropolitan Area (Greater Clermont-Ferrand) 191,311
Reims Metropolitan Area (Greater Reims) 189,743
Mulhouse Metropolitan Area (Greater Mulhouse) 189,297
Le Havre Metropolitan Area (Greater Le Havre) 187,643
Orleans Metropolitan Area (Greater Orleans) 179,869
Angers Metropolitan Area (Greater Angers) 176,839
Saint-Etienne Metropolitan Area (Greater Saint-Etienne) 172,766
Caen Metropolitan Area (Greater Caen) 164,788
Metz Metropolitan Area (Greater Metz) 151,221
Le Mans Metropolitan Area (Greater Le Mans) 147,383
Brest Metropolitan Area (Greater Brest) 142,527
Amiens Metropolitan Area (Greater Amiens) 136,532
Limoges Metropolitan Area (Greater Limoges) 129,255
Dunkerque Metropolitan Area (Greater Dunkerque) 127,529
Perpignan Metropolitan Area (Greater Perpignan) 115,845
Pau Metropolitan Area (Greater Pau) 112,672
Troyes Metropolitan Area (Greater Troyes) 109,941
Besançon Metropolitan Area (Greater Besançon) 108,712
Annecy Metropolitan Area (Greater Annecy) 102,728
Nimes Metropolitan Area (Greater Nimes) 101,743
Valenciennes Metropolitan Area (Greater Valenciennes) 101,583


Urban population rate: 76% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Ruhr Conurbation (Bonn + Cologne + Dusseldorf + Wuppertal + Dortmund + Hagen) 7,275,319 2015 [9]
Berlin Metropolitan Area (Greater Berlin) 3,390,255
Hamburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Hamburg) 1,677,733
Munich Metropolitan Area (Greater Munich) 1,573,652
Frankfurt am Main Metropolitan Area (Greater Frankfurt am Main) 1,523,808
Stuttgart Metropolitan Area (Greater Stuttgart) 1,160,180
Nurnberg Metropolitan Area (Greater Nurnberg) 679,089
Hannover Metropolitan Area (Greater Hannover) 599,164
Dresden Metropolitan Area (Greater Dresden) 513,723
Bremen Metropolitan Area (Greater Bremen) 506,342
Mannheim Metropolitan Area (Greater Mannheim) 466,696
Leipzig Metropolitan Area (Greater Leipzig) 455,581
Augsburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Augsburg) 312,094
Karlsruhe Metropolitan Area (Greater Karlsruhe) 286,982
Aachen Metropolitan Area (Aachen + Kerkrade) 226,264
Kassel Metropolitan Area (Greater Kassel) 222,869
Bielefeld Metropolitan Area (Greater Bielefeld) 214,193
Kiel Metropolitan Area (Greater Kiel) 209,786
Munster Metropolitan Area (Greater Munster) 207,455
Heidelberg Metropolitan Area (Greater Heidelberg) 196,429
Magdeburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Magdeburg) 193,706
Halle Metropolitan Area (Greater Halle) 185,076
Braunschweig Metropolitan Area (Greater Braunschweig) 180,612
Freiburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Freiburg) 179,912
Rostock Metropolitan Area (Greater Rostock) 168,453
Chemnitz Metropolitan Area (Greater Chemnitz) 168,021
Lubeck Metropolitan Area (Greater Lubeck) 150,413
Saarbrucken Metropolitan Area (Greater Saarbrucken) 146,109
Oldenburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Oldenburg) 144,961
Erfurt Metropolitan Area (Greater Erfurt) 141,749
Koblenz Metropolitan Area (Greater Koblenz) 138,095
Regensburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Regensburg) 133,794
Wurzburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Wurzburg) 121,062
Heilbronn Metropolitan Area (Greater Heilbronn) 121,015
Bremerhaven Metropolitan Area (Greater Bremerhaven) 116,975
Darmstadt Metropolitan Area (Greater Darmstadt) 116,051
Osnabruck Metropolitan Area (Greater Osnabruck) 105,944
Ulm Metropolitan Area (Greater Ulm) 103,439


Urban population rate: 64% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 70% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 65% (2015)[8]


Some Regional Laws approved during the 1970-1980s[22][circular reference] tried to define what an Italian conurbation is, but nowadays there's no government organization for a metropolitan area in Italy, so a conurbation has no official boundaries.

Urban population rate: 70% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Naples Metropolitan Area (Greater Naples) 3,699,987 2015 [9]
Milan Metropolitan Area (Greater Milan) 3,425,384
Rome Metropolitan Area (Greater Rome) 2,617,092
Turin Metropolitan Area (Greater Turin) 1,205,385
Florence Metropolitan Area (Greater Florence) 708,029
Palermo Metropolitan Area (Greater Palermo) 703,529
Catania Metropolitan Area (Greater Catania) 555,375
Genoa Metropolitan Area (Greater Genoa) 542,961
Bologna Metropolitan Area (Greater Bologna) 421,342
Bergamo Metropolitan Area (Greater Bergamo) 353,586
Bari Metropolitan Area (Greater Bari) 310,239
Cagliari Metropolitan Area (Greater Cagliari) 251,635
Venice Metropolitan Area (Greater Venice) 231,530
Padova Metropolitan Area (Greater Padova) 217,448
Pescara Metropolitan Area (Greater Pescara) 212,410
Verona Metropolitan Area (Greater Verona) 200,722
Messina Metropolitan Area (Greater Messina) 198,553
Brescia Metropolitan Area (Greater Brescia) 190,609
Trieste Metropolitan Area (Greater Trieste) 187,630
Livorno Metropolitan Area (Greater Livorno) 148,916
Modena Metropolitan Area (Greater Modena) 142,871
Parma Metropolitan Area (Greater Parma) 136,469
Reggio Calabria Metropolitan Area (Greater Reggio Calabria) 135,275
Taranto Metropolitan Area (Greater Taranto) 132,441
Foggia Metropolitan Area (Greater Foggia) 131,270
Massa Metropolitan Area (Greater Massa) 119,351
Rimini Metropolitan Area (Greater Rimini) 116,867
Reggio Emilia Metropolitan Area (Greater Reggio Emilia) 105,553
Bolzano Metropolitan Area (Greater Bolzano) 101,551



Urban population rate: 69% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 69% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 86% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 88% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 50% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 84% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Rotterdam Metropolitan Area (Rotterdam + Delft + Den Haag) 1,913,888 2015 [9]
Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (Greater Amsterdam) 1,128,715
Utrecht Metropolitan Area (Greater Utrecht) 445,245
Leiden Metropolitan Area (Greater Leiden) 302,157
Eindhoven Metropolitan Area (Greater Eindhoven) 280,211
Heerlen Metropolitan Area (Heerlen + Herzongenrath) 262,204
Dordrecht Metropolitan Area (Greater Dordrecht) 240,823
Arnhem Metropolitan Area (Greater Arnhem) 199,884
Tilburg Metropolitan Area (Greater Tilburg) 196,361
Haarlem Metropolitan Area (Greater Haarlem) 195,554
Nijmegen Metropolitan Area (Greater Nijmegen) 180,486
Zoetermeer Metropolitan Area (Greater Zoetermeer) 166,121
Groningen Metropolitan Area (Greater Groningen) 163,386
Almere Metropolitan Area (Greater Almere) 162,857
Alkmaar Metropolitan Area (Greater Alkmaar) 154,296
Amersfoort Metropolitan Area (Greater Amersfoort) 142,167
Breda Metropolitan Area (Greater Breda) 135,821
Enschede Metropolitan Area (Greater Enschede) 131,601
Velsen Metropolitan Area (Greater Velsen) 126,175
's-Hertongenbosch Metropolitan Area (Greater 's-Hertongenbosch) 121,267
Maastricht Metropolitan Area (Maastricht + Maasmechelen) 113,653
Apeldoorn Metropolitan Area (Greater Apeldoorn) 107,444
Zwolle Metropolitan Area (Greater Zwolle) 101,499

Northern Macedonia

Urban population rate: 64% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 81% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 64% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Warsaw Metropolitan Area (Greater Warsaw) 1,789,294 2015 [9]
Katowice Metropolitan Area (Greater Katowice) 1,526,062
Krakow Metropolitan Area (Greater Krakow) 664,581
Lodz Metropolitan Area (Greater Lodz) 606,991
Gdansk Metropolitan Area (Greater Gdansk) 603,020
Wroclaw Metropolitan Area (Greater Wroclaw) 529,209
Poznań Metropolitan Area (Greater Ponzan) 527,670
Bydgoszcz Metropolitan Area (Greater Bydgoszcz) 324,027
Lublin Metropolitan Area (Greater Lublin) 320,313
Bialystok Metropolitan Area (Greater Bialystok) 289,226
Szczecin Metropolitan Area (Greater Szczecin) 269,836
Walbrzych Metropolitan Area (Greater Walbrzych) 182,732
Rzeszow Metropolitan Area (Greater Rzeszow) 180,696
Czestochowa Metropolitan Area (Greater Czestochowa) 177,138
Torun Metropolitan Area (Greater Torun) 171,535
Radom Metropolitan Area (Greater Costanta) 163,742
Kielce Metropolitan Area (Greater Kielce) 153,301
Olsztyn Metropolitan Area (Greater Olsztin) 146,867
Bielsko-Biala Metropolitan Area (Greater Bielsko-Biala) 136,717
Tychy Metropolitan Area (Greater Tychy) 106,186


Urban population rate: 63% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 60% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Bucharest Metropolitan Area (Greater Bucharest) 1,774,128 2015 [9]
Calarasi Metropolitan Area (Greater Calarasi) 369,759
Timisoara Metropolitan Area (Greater Timisoara) 288,523
Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area (Greater Cluj-Napoca) 278,493
Constanta Metropolitan Area (Greater Costanta) 249,829
Iasi Metropolitan Area (Greater Iasi) 237,903
Craiova Metropolitan Area (Greater Craiova) 228,226
Brasov Metropolitan Area (Greater Brasov) 200,225
Galati Metropolitan Area (Greater Galati) 196,601
Ploiesti Metropolitan Area (Greater Ploiesti) 175,454
Oradea Metropolitan Area (Greater Oradea) 156,341
Giurgiu Metropolitan Area (Giurgiu + Ruse) 141,675
Braila Metropolitan Area (Greater Braila) 138,888
Pitesti Metropolitan Area (Greater Pitesti) 132,100
Targu-Mures Metropolitan Area (Greater Targu-Mures) 118,255
Sibiu Metropolitan Area (Greater Sibiu) 117,695
Bacau Metropolitan Area (Greater Bacau) 117,407
Arad Metropolitan Area (Greater Arad) 112,052
Oltenita Metropolitan Area (Greater Oltenita) 108,928


Urban population rate: 59% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 58% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 53% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 79% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Madrid Metropolitan Area (Greater Madrid) 4,894,295 2015 [9]
Barcelona Metropolitan Area (Greater Barcelona) 3,832,012
Valencia Metropolitan Area (Greater Valencia) 1,323,120
Sevilla Metropolitan Area (Greater Sevilla) 861,043
Malaga Metropolitan Area (Greater Malaga) 799,997
Bilbao Metropolitan Area (Greater Bilbao) 778,852
Zaragoza Metropolitan Area (Greater Zaragoza) 503,982
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Metropolitan Area (Greater Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) 443,141
Palma de Mallorca Metropolitan Area (Greater Palma de Mallorca) 388,090
Granada Metropolitan Area (Greater Granada) 355,806
Murcia Metropolitan Area (Greater Murcia) 354,693
Alicante Metropolitan Area (Greater Alicante) 331,089
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Metropolitan Area (Greater Santa Cruz de Tenerife) 324,645
Pamplona Metropolitan Area (Greater Pamplona) 296,609
Valladolid Metropolitan Area (Greater Valladolid) 290,636
Vigo Metropolitan Area (Greater Vigo) 265,407
A Coruna Metropolitan Area (Greater A Coruna) 249,861
Gijon Metropolitan Area (Greater Gijon) 229,261
Algericas Metropolitan Area (Algericas + Gibraltar) 215,007
San Sebastian Metropolitan Area (Greater San Sebastian) 214,645
Santander Metropolitan Area (Greater Santander) 206,816
Vitoria Metropolitan Area (Greater Vitoria) 203,909
Alcala de Henares Metropolitan Area (Greater Alcala de Henares) 184,497
Oviedo Metropolitan Area (Greater Oviedo) 170,846
Almeria Metropolitan Area (Greater Almera) 169,121
Castellon de la Plana Metropolitan Area (Greater Castellon de la Plana) 158,875
Salamanca Metropolitan Area (Greater Salamanca) 143,857
Logrono Metropolitan Area (Greater Logrono) 142,370
Ceuta Metropolitan Area (Ceuta + Fnideq) 137,945
Girona Metropolitan Area (Greater Girona) 132,100
Tarragona Metropolitan Area (Greater Tarragona) 131,944
Jerez de la Frontera Metropolitan Area (Greater Jerez de la Frontera) 130,424
Cadiz Metropolitan Area (Greater Cadiz) 130,037
Melilla Metropolitan Area (Melilla + Ait Mansor) 126,133
Matarò Metropolitan Area (Greater Matarò) 123,418
Marbella Metropolitan Area (Greater Marbella) 119,627
Burgos Metropolitan Area (Greater Burgos) 117,187
Huelva Metropolitan Area (Greater Huelva) 113,533
Torrevieja Metropolitan Area (Greater Torrevieja) 105,360


Urban population rate: 86% (2015)[8]


Urban population rate: 74% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Zurich Metropolitan Area (Greater Zurich) 732,493 2015 [9]
Geneve Metropolitan Area (Geneve + Annemasse) 476,816
Basel Metropolitan Area (Basel + Lorrach + Buschwiller) 428,721
Lausanne Metropolitan Area (Greater Lausanne) 256,647
Bern Metropolitan Area (Greater Bern) 197,761
Luzern Metropolitan Area (Greater Luzern) 140,814

United Kingdom

Main article: List of conurbations in the United Kingdom

Industrial and housing growth in the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries produced many conurbations. Greater London is by far the largest urban area and is usually counted as a conurbation in statistical terms, but differs from the others in the degree to which it is focused on a single central area. In the mid-1950s the Green Belt was introduced to stem the further urbanisation of the countryside in South East England.

The list below shows the most populous urban areas in the UK as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Different organisations define conurbations in the UK differently for example, the Liverpool–Manchester or the Manchester–Liverpool conurbation[23] is defined as one conurbation by AESOP in a comparison report published by the University of Manchester in 2005 found here. The Liverpool–Manchester Conurbation has a population of 5.68 million.

Urban population rate: 89% (2015)[8]

Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
(England and Wales: 2011 census built-up area;[24] Scotland: 2016 estimates settlement;[25] Northern Ireland: 2001 census urban area)[26]
Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement
1 Greater London 9,787,426 London 11 Bristol 617,280 Bristol
2 Greater Manchester 2,553,379 Manchester 12 Edinburgh 512,150 Edinburgh
3 West Midlands 2,440,986 Birmingham 13 Leicester 508,916 Leicester
4 West Yorkshire 1,777,934 Leeds 14 Belfast 483,418 Belfast
5 Greater Glasgow 985,290 Glasgow 15 Brighton & Hove 474,485 Brighton
6 Liverpool 864,122 Liverpool 16 South East Dorset 466,266 Bournemouth
7 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton 17 Cardiff 390,214 Cardiff
8 Tyneside 774,891 Newcastle upon Tyne 18 Teesside 376,633 Middlesbrough
9 Nottingham 729,977 Nottingham 19 Stoke-on-Trent 372,775 Stoke-on-Trent
10 Sheffield 685,368 Sheffield 20 Coventry 359,262 Coventry


Urban population rate: 71% (2015)[8]

Name Population Year Notes
Kyiv Metropolitan Area (Greater Kyiv) 2,737,789 2015 [9]
Kharkiv Metropolitan Area (Greater Kharkiv) 1,430,661
Donetsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Donetsk) 1,158,998
Odesa Metropolitan Area (Greater Odesa) 1,117,970
Dnipro Metropolitan Area (Greater Dnipro) 903,205
Zaporizhzhia Metropolitan Area (Greater Zaporizzhya) 728,145
Lviv Metropolitan Area (Greater Lviv) 687,060
Krivyy Rih Metropolitan Area (Greater Krivyy Rih) 584,156
Mikolaiv Metropolitan Area (Greater Mikolaiv) 469,017
Mariupol Metropolitan Area (Greater Mariupol) 436,133
Luhansk Metropolitan Area (Greater Luhansk) 415,351
Vinnitsa Metropolitan Area (Greater Vinnitsa) 383,836
Simferopol Metropolitan Area (Greater Simferopol) 338,634
Chernihiv Metropolitan Area (Greater Chernihiv) 278,668
Cherkasy Metropolitan Area (Greater Cherkasy) 278,510
Poltava Metropolitan Area (Greater Poltava) 275,189
Kherson Metropolitan Area (Greater Kherson) 269,644
Khmelnitskyy Metropolitan Area (Greater Khmelnitskyy) 259,104
Zhytomir Metropolitan Area (Greater Zhytomir) 242,883
Chernivtsi Metropolitan Area (Greater Chernivtsi) 240,725
Ivano-Frankivsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Ivano-Frankivsk) 237,552
Rivne Metropolitan Area (Greater Rivne) 228,212
Kropivnitskyy Metropolitan Area (Greater Kropivnitskyy) 225,913
Kamianske Metropolitan Area (Greater Kamianske) 223,589
Lutsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Lutsk) 218,316
Sumy Metropolitan Area (Greater Sumy) 214,376
Kremenchuk Metropolitan Area (Greater Kremenchuk) 213,125
Bialitserkva Metropolitan Area (Greater Bialitserkva) 207,328
Horlivka Metropolitan Area (Greater Horlivka) 195,806
Sevastopol Metropolitan Area (Greater Sevastopol) 189,598
Ternopil Metropolitan Area (Greater Ternopil) 187,740
Melitopol Metropolitan Area (Greater Melitopol) 166,662
Kramatorsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Kramatorsk) 150,246
Alchevsk Metropolitan Area (Greater Alchevsk) 139,091
Nikopol Metropolitan Area (Greater Nikopol) 132,379
Sloviansk Metropolitan Area (Greater Sloviansk) 132,301
Uzhhorod Metropolitan Area (Greater Uzhhorod) 124,809

North America


Golden Horseshoe (Ontario)

The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. The largest cities in the region are Toronto, Mississauga, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Brampton, and Hamilton.[27] If metropolitan areas (which are somewhat distinct from the core urban area of the Golden Horseshoe by about 30 to 50 km of less developed and semi-rural land) are included (similar to Combined Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States as defined by United States Office of Management and Budget), the total population is 8.8 million people. This is slightly over a quarter (25.6%) of the population of Canada, approximately 75% of Ontario's population, and one of the largest metropolitan areas in North America.[28]

The larger area is named the Greater Golden Horseshoe and includes the metropolitan areas of Kitchener (including adjacent cities it is often referred to as Waterloo Region), Barrie, Guelph, Peterborough, and Brantford. The Greater Golden Horseshoe is also part of the Windsor-Quebec Corridor and its southeastern boundary is across the Niagara River from the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area in the United States.

Greater Montreal (Quebec)

Greater Montreal is Canada's second-largest conurbation.[29] Statistics Canada defines the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) as having 4,258.31 square kilometres (1,644.14 sq mi) and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents almost half of the population of the province of Quebec. Slightly smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning, transportation, and economic development.

Lower Mainland (British Columbia)

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British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada. It consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver (city and district municipality), West Vancouver, Burnaby, New Westminster, Richmond, Surrey, and Coquitlam, among others. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million (as of 2011) and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census.

Ottawa-Gatineau / National Capital Region

The National Capital Region (NCR) is made up of the capital, Ottawa, and neighbouring Gatineau which is located across the Ottawa River. As Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau is in Quebec, it is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other. The National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is very similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA. When all the communities are included, the population of the area is about 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces and is the fourth largest.[30]


Mexico City (CDMX)

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The "CDMX" is the most densely populated center in North America. Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México), constituted by Mexico City itself composed of 16 Municipalities—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo. However for normative purposes,[further explanation needed] Greater Mexico City most commonly refers to the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) an agglomeration that incorporates 18 additional municipalities. As of 2019 an estimated 27,782,000 people lived in Greater Mexico City, making it the largest metropolitan area in North America. It is surrounded by thin strips of highlands which separate it from other adjacent metropolitan areas, of which the biggest are Puebla, Toluca, and Cuernavaca-Cuautla, and together with which it makes up the Mexico City megalopolis.

Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara)

The Guadalajara conurbation in the state of Jalisco (colloquially known as the City of Guadalajara, as that is the state capital and most populous of the cities) comprises seven municipalities: Guadalajara, Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, El Salto, Zapotlanejo, and Tlajomulco de Zúñiga. Officially two other cities (Juanacatlán and Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos) are also considered part of the Metropolitan Area, though they are not contiguous with the other seven. The area had an estimated population of 4 500 000 in 2010, spread over a combined area of 2,734 square kilometres (1,056 sq mi).[31]

United States

Nocturnal view of the New York City metropolitan area, the world's most brightly illuminated conurbation and largest urban landmass Long Island extends 120 miles eastward from Manhattan, the central core of the conurbation.

Puerto Rico

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The Caribbean area has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Guaynabo, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, and Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", and houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of approximately 396.61 square kilometers (153.13 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area.

New York Tri-state area

One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area (the Tri-state region) centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007.[32] Approximately one-fifteenth of all U.S. residents live in the Greater New York City area, the world's most brightly illuminated urban conurbation and largest urban landmass. This conurbation is the result of several central cities whose urban areas have merged.[citation needed]

Greater Boston Area

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Holding a population of 7,427,336 as of 2005, the Combined Statistical Area including Greater Boston consists of Boston proper and a collection of distinct but intertwined cities including Providence, Rhode Island, Worcester, Massachusetts, and Manchester, New Hampshire. Most importantly, the cities that compose the Greater Boston CSA are interlinked by heavy public transportation infrastructure, maintain continuously urban interstices, and hold mutual commuting patterns.

San Francisco Bay Area

Another conurbation is the combination of the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose and several minor urban centers with a combined population of nearly 8 million people, known as the San Francisco Bay Area.[33]

Greater Los Angeles Area

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The Greater Los Angeles Area consists of the merging of several distinct central cities and counties, including Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura. This area is also often referred to simply as Southern California or colloquially as SoCal (a larger region which includes San Diego). In 2016, Southern California had a population of 23,800,500, making it slightly larger than the New York Tri-State Area, and is projected to remain so due to a faster growth rate. But because Southern California is not yet a recognized Combined Statistical Area by the United States Office of Management and Budget, the New York Tri-State Area officially remains the nation's largest as of now.

Greater Houston area

An example of a conurbation is seen in Greater Houston. Centered in Houston, the area is continuously urbanized from the coastal areas of Galveston extending through the northern side of the metro area, including The Woodlands, Conroe, and Spring, and going up to Huntsville. The suburbs of Fort Bend County, Texas extend through the cities of the Galveston Bay Area and beyond. It has a population of 7,197,883.[34]

Baltimore–Washington Area

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The traditionally separate metropolitan areas of Baltimore and Washington, D.C. have shared suburbs and a continuous urbanization between the two central cities (Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area).

San Diego–Tijuana

The largest conurbation between the United States and Mexico is San Diego–Tijuana. It includes the two countries' busiest border crossing and a shared economy.[35]

Dallas–Fort Worth

Three large cities—Dallas, Fort Worth, and Arlington—make up this area. Each city is linked by bordering city limits or suburbs. The area is also known as the Dallas–Fort Worth "metroplex", so called because it has more than one principal anchor city of nearly equal size or importance, and is included in the emerging megalopolis known as the Texas Triangle. According to Texas Monthly, the term is a portmanteau of the terms "metropolitan" and "complex"[36] and was created by a local advertising agency, TracyLocke.[36] The North Texas Commission trademarked the term "Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex" in 1972 as a replacement for the previously ubiquitous term "North Texas".[37] Urban areas with smaller secondary anchor cities (including Mexico City, New York City, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, and Phoenix) are not considered to be conurbations.


The major U.S. city of Detroit lies immediately across the Detroit River from Windsor, Ontario in Canada. In many respects—economically, historically, culturally, socially, and geographically—Windsor is more a part of Metro Detroit than of Ontario. The two cities and their surrounding suburbs are commonly referred to collectively as the Detroit–Windsor area. The Detroit-Windsor border is the largest commercial border crossing in North America and the busiest between the two countries.[38]

South Florida

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The entire tri-county area also known as the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach metropolitan area is now continuously urbanized along a roughly 100 miles (161 km) length of the Florida east coast as well as extending inland and continuing south of Miami as far as Florida City. Although this is generally all referred to as a single metropolitan area, not a conurbation, it is sometimes broken up into the Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach metros.

Minneapolis–St. Paul

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Minneapolis–Saint Paul is the most populous urban area in the state of Minnesota, and is composed of 182 cities and townships built around the Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix rivers. The area is also nicknamed the Twin Cities for its two largest cities, Minneapolis, with the highest population and Saint Paul, the state capital.

Quad Cities

The Quad Cities is a metropolitan area located along the border of Illinois and Iowa. Straddling the Mississippi River as it flows west, the area once known as the "Tri Cities" consists of a handful of larger cities and smaller municipalities that have grown together. The largest cities include Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline in Illinois as well as Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa.


Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut and fourth largest by population. Together, with Waterbury, New Haven, Bridgeport, and Stamford, these five cities form a conurbation, as people continue moving into the suburbs of these cities from rural areas, and the Boston and New York City metropolitan areas. Majority of Connecticut's growth in the last decade was centered in and around these five cities. Combined, the population exceeds 1 million.

The Valley of the Sun

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Phoenix is the capital and most populous city in Arizona. It is the center of The Valley of the Sun which is recognized by the United States Census Bureau as Chandler, Mesa, and Phoenix in the MSA. Other communities in the metropolitan area include Scottsdale, Glendale, Tempe, Gilbert, and Peoria.

The Front Range Urban Corridor

Denver is the capital and most populous city in Colorado, as well as the most populous municipality in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This conurbation encompasses 18 counties in Colorado and Wyoming and had an estimated population of 4,976,781 in 2018, an increase of 14.84% since the 2010 United States Census.[39]




Albury and Wodonga are cross border cities which are geographically separated by the Murray River. Albury on the north of the river is part of New South Wales, while Wodonga on the south bank is in Victoria. In the early 1970s Albury-Wodonga was selected as the primary focus of the Whitlam government's scheme to arrest the uncontrolled growth of Australia's large metropolitan areas (in particular Sydney and Melbourne) by encouraging decentralisation.[40] The two cities combine to form an urban area with an estimated population of 93,603.[41]


A cross border built-up area comprising the nation's capital Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory and the city of Queanbeyan in New South Wales, which is considered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to have a single labour market.[42]

Newcastle, Sydney, Wollongong

Satellite photo from 2012 showing Sydney in the centre, with Wollongong visible on the left and the Central Coast on the right

This conurbation in New South Wales extends from Newcastle and surrounding satellite towns of the Hunter Valley through the Central Coast. It is broken up only by waterways and national parks, through to the greater Sydney metropolitan area and the Wollongong urban area. The total length from the top to the bottom of the conurbation is around 270km with a population of just over 6 million people.[43]

Transport is linked throughout the region by motorways, the M1, M2, M4, M5, M7, M8, M15 and M31. An extensive public transport network allows for commuting for work or services across and between multiple distinct but joined centres, with NSW TrainLink's intercity network serving Sydney, the Central Coast, Newcastle, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra.

Plans for making Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle a single city have been around since the 1960s. A report titled The Committee for Sydney contains a chapter called The Sandstone Mega-Region, Uniting Newcastle, the Central Coast, Sydney, Wollongong (since all of the cities are in a geological region called the Sydney Basin, which is made up of Sydney sandstone). The report says that the link would benefit the "six cities" within the region, which are: Illawarra and Wollongong, the Western City (Greater Western Sydney), the Central City (Parramatta), the Eastern City (Sydney central business district, eastern suburbs, and Northern Sydney), the Central Coast (Gosford) and Newcastle (including Lake Macquarie).[44]

Greater Perth

The Perth Metropolitan Region, and Peel regions form a continuous urban area in Western Australia more than 130 km (80 miles) long, on a north–south axis. It is sometimes known as Greater Perth and has a population of more than 2.3 million (2023).[45] Introduction of the Mandurah railway line in 2007 made it possible for commuters to travel the 70 km (43.5 mi) from Mandurah to Perth in 51 minutes.

South East Queensland

A built-up area 200 kilometres long[46] which is centred on Brisbane, includes the local government areas (LGAs) of Gold Coast, Ipswich, Logan City, Moreton Bay, Redland City, Sunshine Coast, Noosa Shire, and Tweed Heads, New South Wales. This area is served by a single public transport network, Translink.

Broader definitions of South East Queensland are also used, including the separate built-up area of Toowoomba (140 kilometres; 87 miles west of Brisbane), which is not part of the Translink network. Expansive definitions of South East Queensland give it a population of more than 3.4 million people (2014),[47] covers 22,420 square kilometres (8,660 sq mi), incorporates ten LGAs, and extends 240 kilometres (150 mi) from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast (some sources include Tweed Heads).

Greater Darwin

Main article: Darwin metropolitan area

The Greater Darwin metropolitan area is a built-up urban area in the Northern Territory that spans across two cities: Darwin (the capital of the Northern Territory) and Palmerston (Darwin's satellite city). It lies within three local government areas: the City of Darwin, Litchfield Municipality and the City of Palmerston.

New Zealand

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In 2010 Auckland became a unitary authority encompassing seven former city and district councils including Auckland City, Manukau City, North Shore City and Waitakere City as well as a number of smaller towns, rural area and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Auckland Council is the largest council in Australasia and the region has a population of 1,529,300, being almost 33% of the total population of New Zealand. The entire urban area rather than the constituent administrative city was often referred to as "Auckland" by New Zealanders long before formal recognition.

The Wellington Metropolitan Area compromises the four cities of Wellington City, Porirua and the cities of Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt, together known as Hutt Valley. The Wellington Metropolitan Area is the second largest urban population in New Zealand with a population of 440,900 as of the 2023 census (or 550,500 if the Wairarapa region is included), followed by Christchurch City at 396,200.[48]

South America

Full article in Spanish Wikipedia: List of Conurbations in South America


Conurbation Population Year Note
Greater Buenos Aires 13,641,973[49] 2010 Metro region excluding La Plata and its metro area (an additional 694,253 [ INDEC ]).


The entire Rio–São Paulo area is also sometimes considered a conurbation, and plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail. However the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, and population data may not be reliable.

Conurbation Population Year Note
CME São Paulo 27,640,577[50] 2009 The CME of São Paulo is federally defined as the São Paulo Metro region (RMSP) and its conurbations.
RM Rio de Janeiro 12,330,186[51] 2016 Metropolitan region.
RM Belo Horizonte 5,916,189[52] 2018 Usually referred to as the Greater Belo Horizonte, comprising 34 municipalities and some 16 other surrounding cities.


Conurbation Population Year Note
Metropolitan Area of Bogotá 10,733,206[53] 2014 Conurbation only between Bogota and Soacha
Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley 3,821,797[53] 2014 Metro region


Lima Metropolitan Area 9,500,000[54] 2017 Lima is expected to become a megacity before the end of the decade, and this conurbation is estimated to have grown by over one million people between 2007 and 2017.

See also


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  2. ^ Hall, Peter (2002). Cities of Tomorrow. ISBN 978-0-631-23252-0.
  3. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  4. ^ "Vision of Britain – Guide to Census Reports – Census Geographies". Visionofbritain.org.uk.
  5. ^ "Sale, Morocco". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com.
  6. ^ "EzineArticles Submission - Submit Your Best Quality Original Articles For Massive Exposure, Ezine Publishers Get 25 Free Article Reprints". Goarticles.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-24. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
  7. ^ Baker, Deane-Parker (15 September 2010). "South Africa's threat environment: a guide for the National Planning Commission". African Security Review. 19 (3): 54–64. doi:10.1080/10246029.2010.519878. ISSN 1024-6029. S2CID 144412546. ...what military force would relish tackling Johannesburg, Ekurhuleni (the East Rand) and Tshwane (greater Pretoria), which will by 2015 be a single polycentric urban region...
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj Ritchie, Hannah; Samborska, Veronika; Roser, Max (2024-02-23). "Urbanization". Our World in Data.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg "Global Human Settlement - Urban centres database 2018 visualisation - European Commission". human-settlement.emergency.copernicus.eu. Retrieved 2024-04-07.
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Further reading

Patrick Geddes"Cities In Evolution"
Edward Soja – "Postmetropolis"