From top, left to right:
Flag of Chernivtsi
Coat of arms of Chernivtsi
"Little Vienna"[1][2]
The Chernivtsi City Municipality (center) on the map of Chernivtsi Oblast.
The Chernivtsi City Municipality (center) on the map of Chernivtsi Oblast.
Chernivtsi is located in Chernivtsi Oblast
Location of Chernivtsi in Chernivtsi Oblast
Chernivtsi is located in Ukraine
Location of Chernivtsi in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°18′0″N 25°56′0″E / 48.30000°N 25.93333°E / 48.30000; 25.93333
Country Ukraine
Oblast Chernivtsi
HromadaChernivtsi urban
First mentioned1408
City rights14th century
 • MayorRoman Klichuk[3] (United Alternative[4])
 • Total153 km2 (59 sq mi)
248 m (814 ft)
 • Total264,298
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
Area code+380 372
Vehicle registrationCE/26
Sister citiesSalt Lake City, Konin, Suceava, Nazareth Illit, Saskatoon, Klagenfurt
"Czarnowce" on a 1639 Beauplan map centered on Pokuttia; placed in "Wallachia or Little Moldavia", bottom right

Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: Чернівці, pronounced [tʃern⁽ʲ⁾iu̯ˈts⁽ʲ⁾i] ; Romanian: Cernăuți, pronounced [tʃernəˈutsʲ] ; see also other names) is a city in southwestern Ukraine on the upper course of the Prut River. Formerly the capital of the historic region of Bukovina, which is now divided between Romania and Ukraine, Chernivtsi serves as the administrative center for the Chernivtsi Raion, the Chernivtsi urban hromada,[5] and the oblast itself. In 2022, the Chernivtsi population, by estimate, is 264,298 (2022 estimate),[6] and the latest census in 2001 was 240,600.[7]

The first document that refers to this city dates back to 1408,[8] when Chernivtsi was a town in the region of Moldavia, formerly as a defensive fortification, and became the center of Bukovina in 1488. In 1538, Chernivtsi was under the control of the Principality of Moldavia under Ottoman Empire suzerainty, and the Moldavian control lasted for two centuries until 1774, when Austria took control of Bukovina in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War.[9] Chernivtsi (known at that time as Czernowitz) became the center of the Galicia's Bukovina District until 1848, later becoming the Duchy of Bukovina until 1918. In the aftermath of World War I, Romania united with Bukovina in 1918, which led to the city regaining its Romanian name of Cernăuți; this lasted until the Soviets occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Chernivtsi was under the control of the Soviet Union from 1940 to 1941, after which Romania recovered the city, and then again from 1944 until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, after which it became part of independent Ukraine.

Chernivtsi is viewed as one of Western Ukraine's main cultural centers. The city is also considered one of Ukraine's important educational and architectural sites. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed "Little Vienna"[1][2] and "Jerusalem upon the Prut". Chernivtsi is twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is a major regional rail and road transportation hub, also housing an international airport.


Aside from its Ukrainian name of Chernivtsi, the city is also known by several different names in various languages, which still are used by the respective population groups much as they used to be throughout the city's history, either in connection with the rule by one country or another or independently from it: Romanian: Cernăuți ([tʃernəˈutsʲ] ); German: Czernowitz ([ˈtʃɛɐ̯novɪts] ); Polish: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic, Yiddish: טשערנאָוויץ, romanizedTshernovits, Russian: Черновцы́, romanizedChernovtsy, (In Russian until 1944: Чернови́цы, romanizedChernovitsy).[10]

In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality (1199-1253), the city's name was Chern.[citation needed]

In "Documents of Western Russia" (Russian: Акты Западной России) published in Saint Petersburg in 1846 (Volume 1, page 32, document #21), the city is mentioned as Chernov'tsi (Russian: Черновьци).


The city's coat of arms until 1918
The city's coat of arms from 1918 to 1940.and from 1941 to 1944
Historical affiliations

Golden Horde 1241–1342
 Moldavia 1346–1775
 Habsburg Monarchy 1775–1804
 Austrian Empire 1804–1867
 Austria-Hungary 1867–1918
 Kingdom of Romania 1918–1940
 Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR) 1940–1941
 Kingdom of Romania 1941–1944
 Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR) 1944–1991
 Ukraine 1991–present


Archaeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture,[11] the Corded Ware culture; artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city. In the Middle Ages there lived East Slavic tribes White Croats and Tivertsi.[12]

Under Principality of Halych

A fortified settlement located on the left (north-eastern) shore of the Prut dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl.[13] Legendary accounts refer to this fortress-city as Chern', or Black city; it is said to owe its name to the black color of the city walls, built from dark oak layered with local black-colored soil.[14] This early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in 1259. However, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes; in the 17th century they were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant.[citation needed]

Map of the United States of Greater Austria, proposed in 1906, shows the city at the border of the areas inhabited by Romanians and Ukrainians.

Following the destruction of the fortress, later settlements in the area centered on the right (south-western) shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous, elevated location. In 1325, when the Kingdom of Poland seized control of Galicia, and came into contact with the early Vlach (Romanian) feudal formations, a fort was mentioned under the name Țețina; it was defending the ford and crossing point on the Prut River. It was part of a group of three fortifications; the other two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River, an upriver tributary of Prut.[citation needed]

Under the Principality of Moldavia

Between 1359 and 1775, the city and its surroundings were part of the Principality of Moldavia, one of the historic provinces of Romania; the city being the administrative center of the homonymous ținut (county).[15] The name Cernăuți is first attested in a document by Alexandru cel Bun (Alexander the Good) on 8 October 1408.[16] In Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as "Çernovi".[citation needed]

Under Austro-Hungarian rule

In 1775, the northwestern part of the territory of Moldavia was annexed by the Habsburg Empire; this region became known as Bukovina. The city became the region's capital, organized as the Bukovina District part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which in 1849 was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city received Magdeburg rights.[17] The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration. He invited many merchants, craftsmen and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peter's Fairs (1–15 July) had given a new vibrant impulse to the market development from 1786. In the late 19th century the German language—due to the Habsburg and the very important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca and more and more newspapers were edited in German, also a remarkable literary production in German began in this period, featuring most prominently Karl Emil Franzos.[18]

During the 19th and early 20th century, Chernivtsi became a center of both Romanian and Ukrainian national movements. In 1908, it was the site of the first Yiddish language conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinated by Nathan Birnbaum. When Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, followed by two years of political uncertainty in Europe due to the aftermath of World War I, the city and its surrounding area became part of the Kingdom of Romania, which gained worldwide diplomatic recognition by the end of 1920.[19] During those two years, even most city residents did not know of which country they were citizens, with most assuming Czernowitz still belonged to Austria-Hungary.[20] German remained the lingua franca of the city and its suburbs for another decade. In 1930, the city reached a population of 112,400: 26.8% Jews, 23.2% Romanians, 20.8% Germans, 18.6% Ukrainians, the remainder Poles and others. It was one of the five university centers of interwar Romania.[citation needed]

Soviet occupation and rule

Soviet occupation troops entering Chernivtsi in 1940

In 1940, the Red Army occupied the area; the area around the city became known as Chernivtsi Oblast, and was allotted to the Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union.[19] The city's large Romanian intelligentsia found refuge in Romania; while the Bukovina Germans were "repatriated" according to a Soviet-Nazi agreement. Under the regime of military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania had switched from an ally of France and Britain to one of Nazi Germany; subsequently, in July 1941, the Romanian Army retook the city as part of the Axis attack on the Soviet Union during World War II. Chernivtsi would become the capital of the Romanian Bukovina Governorate.[21] In August 1941, Antonescu ordered the creation of a ghetto in the lowland part of the city, where 50,000 Bukovina Jews were crammed, two-thirds of whom would be deported in October 1941 and early 1942 to Transnistria, where the majority died. The Romanian mayor of the city Traian Popovici managed to persuade Antonescu to raise the number of Jews exempted from deportation from 200 to 20,000.[22][23]

In 1944, when Axis forces were driven out by the Red Army, the city was reincorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Over the following years, most of the Jews emigrated to Israel; the city was an important node in the Berihah network. Bukovina Poles were expelled by the Soviets after World War II. The city became a predominantly Ukrainian one.[citation needed]


Since 1991, Chernivtsi has been a part of an independent Ukraine. In May 1999, Romania opened a consulate general in the city.

Until 18 July 2020, Chernivtsi was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to any raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Chernivtsi Oblast to three, the city was merged into Chernivtsi Raion.[24][25]

Russian invasion of Ukraine

Since the start of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the city has been a host for refugees from the fighting in eastern and central Ukraine[26] and a resting point for refugees on their way to nearby Romania.[26] Some Chernivtsi residents have also left the country.

See also: Ukrainian refugee crisis (2022–present)


Coat of arms of Chernivtsi

Coat of arms

The Chernivtsi coat of arms is framed by a bronze ornamental cartouche, and a red heraldic shield depicting an open stone gate with a figured trident in the middle. Under the gate, there are two crossed laurel branches, tied with ribbons. The crown of the symbol is the stone crown.

Flag of Chernivtsi

The Chernivtsi flag consists of a tree, the top, and a rectangular cloth, the front of which forms framed by a red tooth-like ornament white background with an inscription in Ukrainian in the center, over which there is inscribed in Ukrainian: "Chernivtsi". Under the coat of arms, there is the sign "1408" – the date of the first written mention of the city. On both sides of the coat of arms and all four corners of the field are filled with floral ornaments and with the addition of two beech branches with nuts and leaves. The reverse side is formed by a yellow background with the coat of arms of Ukraine in the center with frames and ornaments similar to the front side.

Honorary chain of the mayor of Chernivtsi

The mayor's honorary chain is a symbol of Chernivtsi mayor's authority, which is served on behalf of the territorial community. Founded in 1908 and restored in 2008. The symbol is a medallion with the inscription engraved on it: "From Chernivtsi community to freely elected head", on the reverse – "The foundation of a free state is a free community". The medallion is attached to a chain consisting of stylized coats of arms Ukraine, Chernivtsi region and the city of Chernivtsi. The symbol is made of gold colour metal.

Medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi"

The medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi" is an honorary distinction of the Chernivtsi City Council, introduced to the 600th Anniversary of Chernivtsi (2008) in order to reward individuals who actively contributed to the prosperity of the city and its promotion in Ukraine and the world. The award is made of silver-gilt, it has a circle shape with a diameter of 28 mm (1"). The medal's strip is white with red stripes, which corresponds to the colours of the Chernivtsi flag. At the bottom of the strip, there is a beech branch. The obverse depicts the emblem of Chernivtsi and the inscription – "To the glory of Chernivtsi". On the reverse – the official Chernivtsi logo, designed and approved for the anniversary. The medal is awarded, according to the decision of the executive committee of the City Council, annually during the celebration of the city day.

The official motto of modern Chernivtsi, "Спільними зусиллями!", is a Ukrainian-language version of the Latin Viribus Unitis ("With United Forces"), the personal motto of Franz Joseph, who personally bestowed the right to use it on Chernivtsi. This indicates a special attitude of the emperor to the city. Along with the capital of Bukovina, only the first naval ship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (SMS Viribus Unitis) was honoured with such honour.

Logotype of Chernivtsi

The official ''Chernivtsi 600'' logo was developed and approved by the anniversary of the city in 2008. It was recognized so successful that it continues to be used. The main idea of components for emblem is based on the antiquity of the city, its exceptional architectural heritage and the hard work of its inhabitants. The symbol is made in the form of a blacksmith's work of art, which testifies to the soundness, prosperity, and success. The color scheme of the logo, represented by dark blue and yellow, has a higher degree of comfortable contrast and coincides with the colors of the State Flag of Ukraine.[27]

In the early 2010s, a new city logo was developed and approved, and at the same time the official slogan was affixed: "Chernivtsi is unique in diversity". Old and new symbols of Chernivtsi were chosen for its creation. To the left, in the foreground, there is a trumpet player who wins the trumpet tune "Marichka". In the middle of the background, there is the town hall. The former Metropolitan Residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia which is recognized as the architectural pearl of the city is pictured to the right in the background.

The colour scheme of the logo represented in orange, blue and red, the name is purple. Such a combination is characteristic of tourism, which uses the notion of happiness, well-being, the joy of relaxation, visualizing positive symbols and images in a colourful, warm and vibrant colour scheme. The new logo uses old symbols from the "Chernivtsi 600" logo.


Chernivtsi is located in the historic region of Bukovina, which is currently shared between Romania (south) and Ukraine (north). Chernivtsi is located in the southwest of Ukraine, in the eastern Carpathians, on the border between the Carpathians and the East European Plain, 40 km (25 miles) from the border with Romania. The city lies 248 meters (817') above sea level and is surrounded by forests and fields. The River Prut runs through the city's landscape. The city is located in the Eastern European time zone in the region of meridian 26.

Chernivtsi is located at the intersection of the transport arteries: E85, H03, and H10


The city is located in a temperate climate zone. The climate is continental with mild winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is +8,6 °C (47 °F), the lowest in January (-2,9 °C; 27 °F), the highest – in July (+19,8 °C; 68 °F). Winter weather usually comes on 28 November and ends 9 March; summer weather begins on 20 May, and ends on 10 September. The average annual rainfall in Chernivtsi is 621 mm (24+12"), with the lowest – in October and January–February, the highest – in June–July. Sometimes there are heavy rains during the summer.[28] Snow cover is formed each winter, but its altitude is insignificant. The average wind speed ranges from 3.3 m/s (7 mph) in July to 4.0 m/s (9 mph) in January. The average annual humidity is 77%.

Climate data for Chernivtsi (1991–2020, extremes 1941–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 0.3
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.7
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.4
Record low °C (°F) −30.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 8
Average rainy days 7 7 12 17 17 18 15 13 13 13 12 9 153
Average snowy days 15 15 10 3 0.03 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 64
Average relative humidity (%) 82.8 80.5 75.3 68.9 69.0 70.9 71.1 72.7 75.3 79.1 84.2 85.1 76.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61 81 137 194 245 258 277 260 190 130 64 50 1,947
Source 1:[29]
Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (humidity 1981–2010, sun 1991-2020)[30][31]


The total area of Chernivtsi within the administrative boundaries of 2013 is about 153 km2 (59 sq mi). According to the functional purpose the lands of the city are divided as follows: land of residential and public buildings (64%), lands of agricultural purpose (17%), lands of industry (9%), lands of recreational and environmental purpose (5%), lands of general use (3%), commercial land (2%).[32]

The main water source of Chernivtsi is the Prut River in its upper reaches, which divides the city in half. Besides, there are six small streams and nine lakes within the city.

The relief is characterized by significant relief dip – from 150 metres (492') above sea level in the Prut valleys to 537 metres (1762') in the western outskirts (Mount Tsetzino), which is caused by the location on the Chernivtsi Upland.

Chernivtsi is considered to be a "green city": the large territory is occupied by parks, squares, gardens, alleys and flower gardens. Nine objects are recognized as monuments of landscape art. The city has a botanical garden at the Yuriy Fedkovych National University with a unique orangery. Among the relict plants growing in the botanical garden, a special place is occupied by a giant Sequoiadendron.[33]

Chernivtsi is located in the center of Chernivtsi Regional Park, which borders zakaznik "Thetzino" in the west and Mount Berda in the north.

State of the environment

At the end of the twentieth century, the main pollutants of the Chernivtsi environment were industrial enterprises, including the MIC. In the 1990s much of them ceased to exist or significantly reduced production capacity and thus reduced industrial emissions. Despite this, 58 enterprises (38.4% of the total amount in the region) are the main pollutants of the environment. Approximately 1.2 tonnes of pollutants are released into the air annually (34.9% of the total area emissions). Non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide and substances in the form of solid suspended solids predominate in the structure of the emitted pollutants. In addition, carbon dioxide, which has a greenhouse effect, is periodically released into the atmosphere of the city. Emissions from stationary sources were 7.9 tonnes per 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) of Chernivtsi territory. Each inhabitant of the regional center accounts for an average of 4.8 kg (11 lb) of harmful emissions per year.[34]

In 2008, Chernivtsi established an Environmental Monitoring System (EMS), an information structure that integrates environmental monitoring organizations and industrial enterprises that pollute the environment or which may adversely affect the environment or its components.[35]

Since the late 1990s, transport is a significant factor in the negative impact on the environment. To some extent, the situation was improved with the construction of the first (2004) and the second (2010) queues of the bypass road, which connected the directions "Kyiv-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Suceava". The problem of transit transport in the city will be finally resolved after the construction of the third branch of the bypass road, which will connect the directions "Suceava-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Lviv".[36]

Government and subdivisions

See also: List of mayors of Chernivtsi

Chernivtsi is the administrative center of the Chernivtsi Oblast (province) and the city itself has own government within the oblast under direct subordination to oblast.

The territory of Chernivtsi is divided into three administrative city raions (districts):

No. Name in Ukrainian Population
1 Pershotravnevy Raion Першотравневий район 69,370
2 Sadhora Raion Садгірський район 28,227
3 Shevchenko Raion[37] Шевченківський район 139,094

The current mayor of Chernivtsi is Roman Klichuk, who has been elected in 2020 Ukrainian local elections.[38]


Historical population
2013 (est.)259,897+8.0%
2022 (est.)264,298+1.7%

According to the latest All-Ukrainian population census in 2001, the population of Chernivtsi was approximately 240,600 people of 65 nationalities.[7] Among them, 189,000 (79.8%) are Ukrainians; 26,700 (11.3%) Russians; 10,500 (4.4%) Romanians; 3,800 (1.6%) Moldovans; 1,400 (0.6%) Polish; 1,300 (0.6%) Jews; 2,900 (1.2%) other nationalities.[14]

Based on the last available Soviet data, the population of the city, as of 1 January 1989, was approximately 295,000 residents. Among these, there are some 172,000 Ukrainians, 46,000 Russians, 16,000 Romanians, 13,000 Moldovans, 7,000 Poles and others.

The National Palace of the Romanians of Chernivtsi [ro; uk]

The Romanian population in Chernivtsi started decreasing rapidly after 1950. Many Romanians fled to Romania or were deported to Siberia (where most of them died), and the remaining Romanian population quickly became a minority and assimilated with the majority. Nowadays, the Romanian minority in Chernivtsi is still decreasing as a result of cultural assimilation and emigration to Romania.[39][40][41]

Jewish cemetery of Chernivtsi

Chernivtsi once had a Jewish community of over 50,000, less than a third of whom survived World War II. Romanian lawyer and reserve officer Theodor Criveanu [he; ro], as well as the then city mayor Traian Popovici, supported by General Vasile Ionescu saved 19,689 Jewish people. Initially, Governor of Bukovina Corneliu Calotescu allowed only 190 Jewish people to stay, but Traian Popovici, after an incredible effort, obtained from the then dictator of Romania Marshal Ion Antonescu an allowance of 20,000.[42] After World War II, the city was a key node in the Berihah network, which helped Jews to emigrate to the then Mandate Palestine from the difficult conditions after the War. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and the United States. A famous member of this latter emigration is the actress Mila Kunis.[43]

Chernivtsi was inhabited by Ukrainians, Romanians, Poles, Ruthenians, Jews, Roma, and Germans. During its affiliation with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Chernivtsi enjoyed prosperity and culture as the capital of the Bukovina crown land. Until 1918, the main language of the city was German, which, in addition to the Germans, was also spoken by Jews (together they made up half the population of the city) and even partly by Ukrainians, Romanians and Poles. After World War II, the Shoah and Porajmos, and the resettlement and expulsion of the whole ethnic groups, including Germans and Romanians, this status was diminished. Today, the Ukrainians are the dominant population group.

Chernivtsi's change in demographic diversity is demonstrated by the following population statistics. Once, Romanians and Ukrainians formed the majority of the population. However, after 1870, Yiddish-speaking or German-speaking Jews surpassed the Romanians as the largest population group of the town. After 1880, the Ukrainians surpassed the Romanians as the second-largest population group.[citation needed]

Jews in Chernivtsi
according to Austrian-Hungarian Census[44]
Year Approximate
Total Population
Jewish Population Percentage
1857 22,000 4,678 21.6%
1869 34,000 9,552 28.2%
1880 46,000 14,449 31.7%
1890 54,000 17,359 32.0%
1900 68,000 21,587 31.9%
1910 87,000 28,613 32.8%
  Chernivtsi (City) Chernivtsi (Suburbs)
Year Romanians Ukrainians Romanians Ukrainians
1860 9,177 4,133 20,068 6,645
1870 5,999 5,831 28,315 35,011
1880 6,431 8,232 8,887 23,051
1890 7,624 10,385 11,433 34,067
1900 9,400 13,030 13,252 25,476
1910 13,440 15,254 18,060 22,351


Distribution of the population by native language according to the 2001 census:[45]

Language Number Percentage
Ukrainian 187 465 79.20%
Russian 36 150 15.27%
Romanian (self-declared) 7 706 3.26%
"Moldovan" (Romanian) 2 557 1.08%
Other or undecided 2 813 1.19%
Total 236 691 100.00%

Native language of the population of the former districts of the city according to the 2001 census.[46]

Ukrainian Russian Romanian Moldovan Polish Belarusian
Chernivtsi 79,20 15,27 3,26 1,08 0,12 0,09
Sadhora Raion 93,43 4,04 0,38 0,51 0,13 0,08
Pershotravnevy Raion 77,45 16,22 3,53 1,43 0,12 0,09
Shevchenko Raion 77,19 17,08 3,70 1,02 0,12 0,09

According to a survey conducted by the International Republican Institute in April–May 2023, 82% of the city's population spoke Ukrainian at home, 15% spoke Russian, and 2% spoke Romanian.[47]


The total number of economic entities in the city is 25.4 thousand. On 1 January 2006, there were 6739 legal entities – business entities and almost 19,000 private entrepreneurs – individuals, primarily represented by small enterprises. The volume of sales and services provided to small enterprises is ₴578 million or 22% of the total Chernivtsi volumes. The share of the city's tax revenues is almost 35%. The most attractive for small businesses are trade and services, restaurant and tourist business.

Wholesale and retail trade, industry and construction are successfully developing in Chernivtsi. In 2005, wholesale and retail sales accounted for over 64%, industry – 23%, construction – 6%, real estate operations – 2.3%, transport and communications – more than 2%.


In the industrial sector of the city, there are 10 branches, which have 70 large enterprises with a total number of employees over 20 thousand people or 13% of the working population of the city. The annual volume of industrial production at these enterprises is about ₴775 million. The share of citywide tax revenues to the budgets of all levels of the industry is 21%. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Food processing companies produce sugar, bakery products, alcohol, oil, meat and milk, fruits, vegetables and other products. In the light industry, the production of garments, knitwear, hosiery, rubber and leather footwear and textiles prevails. Mechanical engineering is represented by the production of oil and gas processing equipment and agricultural machinery. The timber industry is dominated by the production of lumber, furniture, joinery and other wood products.

Trade and services

In 2005, there were 1922 trade enterprises, 609 restaurants, 892 services in the city. There are 22 markets and micro-markets in the city. ₴10 million are invested annually in their construction, reconstruction, improvement of trade conditions and creation of facilities for buyers. Chernivtsi City Shopping Complex, "Kalinivskiy Rynok" Municipal Enterprise is a modern multidisciplinary enterprise with powerful infrastructure. The average daily number of market visitors is 50,000 people, served by 9,100 entrepreneurs. The volume of services in 2005 amounted to almost ₴23 million, more than ₴18 million was paid into the city budget, or nearly 10% of the total revenues.

Health care

Bukovinian State Medical University

Almost all health care establishments of the region are concentrated in Chernivtsi. 39 medical establishments (hospitals, clinics, and polyclinics) provide citizens of Chernivtsi with necessary medical care.[48] Medical services are provided by 4.47 thousand people, of which – 1102 doctors, 1902 – average health workers, 1473 – junior and support staff.

Municipal medical establishments provide the following medical services:


Basilica of the Exaltation of the Cross

Throughout centuries Chernivtsi, as the center of Bukovina, was forming as a multinational city with tolerance atmosphere which became the cradle of artists representing different cultures.

The city has 2 theaters, a philharmonic, organ hall (in the Armenian Catholic Church),[49] more than 10 museums, 6 cinemas, 31 libraries, central palace of culture, 4 music schools and fine arts school.[50] The city has more than 100 religious organizations and diocesan authorities, 4 religious institutions. More than a dozen of active non-profit cultural organizations operate in Chernivtsi, including the A. Mickiewicz Polish Culture Society, the M. Eminescu Romanian Culture Society and the Society of Austrian and German Culture.[51] The National Palace of the Romanians of Chernivtsi [ro; uk] is a building of great relevance for the ethnic Romanians of the city and the surrounding area.[52]

Since 1997 Chernivtsi has hosted an international art event under "Days of European Culture Heritage" project. Every year "Bukovinian Meetings" folklore festival is held during the City Day in which art groups from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Germany take part.[51]

Important part of Chernivtsi cultural life is Malanka Fest, Ukraine's main carnival timed to the religious St. Melania ("Malanka") Day and St. Basil Day. Respectively, this is usually conducted on 14 January, although this date may be moved a bit to match the weekend.[53] During the Festival groups from different towns and settlements of Bukovina compete in the artistic ingenuity.

One of the biggest literary festival in Ukraine is the Meridian Czernowitz International Poetic Festival. The purpose of the festival is to return Chernivtsi to the cultural map of Europe and to develop a dialogue between contemporary Ukrainian poets and their foreign colleagues.[54] The participants of Meridian Czernowitz are famous and interesting poets from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, United States, Denmark, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and others.[55]

Several of the publications of Ukraine's Romanian minority are published in Chernivtsi, including Zorile Bucovinei, Concordia, Libertatea Cuvântului, Curierul de Cernăuți, Arcașul and Septentrion literar. In Chernivtsi is also headquartered the private TV channel Cernăuți TV.[56]


Chernivtsi Regional Museum
Volodymyr Ivasyuk Memorial Museum
Museum of the Diaspora of Bukovina


There are many places which attract citizens of Chernivtsi and the visitors: Drama Theatre, Regional Philharmonic Society, Organ and Chamber Music Hall, puppet-theatre, Museum of Local Lore, History and Economy, Museum of Fine Arts, Bukovinian Diaspora Museum, Museum of Folk Architecture and Way of Life, memorial museums of writers, the Central Palace of Culture, the Star Alley in Teatralna Square.

Theatre Square of Chernivtsi

The city of Chernivtsi has a lot of architecturally important buildings. Many historic buildings have been preserved, especially within the city's center. However, after years of disrepair and neglect, the buildings are in need of major restoration. [citation needed]

As Chernivtsi was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was closely related to the empire's culture, including architecture. [citation needed] Main architectural styles present within the city include Vienna Secession and Neoclassicism, Baroque, late Gothic architecture, and fragments of traditional Moldavian and Hungarian architecture, Byzantine architecture as well as Cubism.[60] During the Interwar Romanian administration, a great number of buildings in the Neo-Romanian and Art Deco architectural styles were also built.The city is sometimes dubbed Little Vienna, because its architecture is reminiscent of the Austro-Hungarian capital Vienna.[1][2]

Central Square of Chernivtsi

The main architectural attractions of the city include: the Chernivtsi Drama Theater (1905); the Residence of Bukovinian and Damatian Metropolitans (the building of Chernivtsi University)—UNESCO World Heritage Site (1882); the Regional Museum of Fine Arts—the former savings bank (1900); the Regional Council—former Palace of Justice (1906); and the Chernivtsi Palace of Culture—former Jewish National House (1908); among many others. The magnificent Moorish Revival Czernowitz Synagogue was heavily damaged by fire in 1941, the walls were used to create the "Chernivtsi" movie theater.[61]

Chernivtsi University

The Czech architect Josef Hlávka designed, in 1864–1882, the buildings that currently house the Chernivtsi State University. They were originally the residence of the Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans. The Romanesque and Byzantine architecture is embellished with motifs of Ukrainian folk art; for example, the tile roof patterns duplicate the geometric designs of traditional Ukrainian embroidery.

Polish National House in Chernivtsi

Polish House in Chernivtsi

The history of the Polish community in Chernivtsi dates back to the late 18th century, when authorities of the Habsburg Empire encouraged Poles to move to Bucovina. By the mid-19th century, several Polish organizations existed in the city, including Bratnia Pomoc (Brotherly Aid) and Czytelnia Polska (Polish Reading Room). On the initiative of publishers of the Gazeta Polska daily newspaper, collection of money for the construction of Polish House was initiated.[62] In early 20th century, two Polish activists, doctor Tadeusz Mischke and judge Jakub Simonowicz purchased a house. In 1904, its expansion was initiated. It was carried out by architect Franciszek Skowron, interior decorator Konrad Górecki and sculptors from Zakopane, Skwarnicki and Gerasimowicz. The expansion was completed in 1905, and Polish House operated until World War II.

In 1945, Soviet authorities opened here a cinema, later a music school. Currently, the complex houses Adam Mickiewicz Association of Polish Culture.

Apart from the Polish House, Chernivtsi also has German, Romanian and Jewish Houses.

German National House in Chernivtsi

German House in Chernivtsi

It was built in the early 20th century by the union of the German community in Chernivtsi, which became the center of German cultural and social life in Chernivtsi and Bukovina.[63] The German House was built in 1908–1910 according to plans developed by architect Gustav Fric.[64] The building measures 1700 square metres, 25,000 cubic metres. built as a profitable house and a partnership house for 700,000 kroons on the site of the old German school building. The German House also had its own bank, and its own printing house, where various books, brochures, newspapers, and magazines were published, including the newspaper "German diary", which was popular at the time.

Jewish National House in Chernivtsi

The Jewish National House in recent years.

See also: History of the Jews in Chernivtsi

The house was built in 1908 by the Jewish community and until the Second World War, it was the centre of Jewish life in Chernivtsi and home to various Jewish associations and organisations. At least 45,000 Jews from the Bukovina region fell victim to mass shootings, forced labour and deportations beginning in 1941.[65] With the advent of the Soviet government (1944), the building was transferred to the City House of Culture. Today it is the Central Palace of Culture of Chernivtsi


The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans is included in the UNESCO list of Architectural Heritage.


Chernivtsi is a known scientific and educational center in Western Ukraine. Research Institutes of Thermoelectricity, the Institute of Medical and Ecological Problems of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine, Chernivtsi National University, Bukovinian State Medical University, Trade and Economics Institute, Institute of Economics and Law, Bukovinian State Institute for Finance and Economics.[66][67]

Secondary education in Chernivtsi is provided by:

There are 5 gymnasiums, 3 lyceums, and 3 sport schools, the Municipal Center of Science, "Young Technicians" Club, "GERDAN" Theatre-Studio.[69][70]

There are 15 higher educational institutions (universities, institutes, colleges). Among them:


The most popular kinds of sports in Chernivtsi include archery, judo, field hockey, karate, power-lifting and orienteering.[74] Chernivtsi's baseball, ice hockey, and football clubs (FC Bukovyna Chernivtsi) are participants in the Ukrainian national championships.

Chernivtsi has a large number of sports establishments and facilities, including five stadiums, 186 sports grounds, two tennis courts, eleven football fields, five skating rinks, 21 shooting galleries, three swimming pools, 69 gyms, 62 gyms with special training equipment, and an international motorcycle racing track.[74]

Over 7,950 inhabitants are members of sport clubs within the city, and more than 50,000 people participate in various sport activities.[74] Currently, eight sportsmen from the city are members of national teams and twelve are members of national youth teams.[74] Three athletes from Chernivtsi were prize-winners in various world tournaments, two were winners of European and 42 of national championships in 2002.[74]

Chernivtsi has been host to the Sidecross World Championship a number of times,[75] most recently in June 2010.[76]


Central Train Station in Chernivtsi.

Chernivtsi public transport divides on two groups: trolleys and buses. All modes of transport cost approximately $0.20 . In 2018, Chernivtsi has begun testing its innovative hybrid trolleybuses. The new trolleybuses are designed to improve the public transport system of Chernivtsi by making it more energy-efficient, as well as covering the part of the town which currently has no trolleybus lines.[77]


There are three railway stations in Chernivtsi: Central Station (38 Gagarina Street., 1.5 km (0.93 mi) north from the centre), Chernivtsi-Pivnichna Railway station (Zavods'ka str., 13 (northwest 3 km [1.9 mi]) and Chernivtsi-Pivdenna Railway station (Malovokzalna str., 21 (south 5 km [3.1 mi])


Chernivtsi is served by the Chernivtsi International Airport (CWC) located 6 km (3.7 mi) south of the city centre (Chkalova Str., 30). Flights to Kyiv, Athens, Istanbul and Naples among others.


Chernivtsi has access to the M19 highway, which is part of the European route E85, which links it to Bucharest (south) and Ternopil and Lutsk (north). Moreover, the H03 and H10 highways link Chernivtsi to other cities in Ukraine, the former connecting it to the capital city of Kyiv, which is located about 500 kilometres (310 mi) north-east of Chernivtsi.

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine

The first international contacts with the city were established on 20 July 1989, when then-Mayor of Chernivtsi City Council Pavel Kaspruk, signed a twinning agreement with the Mayor of Salt Lake City (USA) – Lowell Turner. To commemorate this event, the Cradle of Peace was erected in Chernivtsi.

Chernivtsi is twinned with:[78]

Former twin cities

In February 2016 the Chernivtsi city council terminated its twinned relations with the Russian cities Bryansk and Podolsk due to the Russo-Ukrainian War.[84]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Chernivtsi

See also: List of mayors of Chernivtsi





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Further reading