Ordu
Ordu is located in Turkey
Ordu
Ordu
Location of Ordu within Turkey
Ordu is located in Black Sea
Ordu
Ordu
Ordu (Black Sea)
Ordu is located in Europe
Ordu
Ordu
Ordu (Europe)
Coordinates: 40°59′N 37°53′E / 40.983°N 37.883°E / 40.983; 37.883Coordinates: 40°59′N 37°53′E / 40.983°N 37.883°E / 40.983; 37.883
CountryTurkey
RegionBlack Sea
ProvinceOrdu
Government
 • MayorHilmi Güler (AKP)
Area
 • District5,861 km2 (2,263 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2019)[2]
 • Urban
229,214
 • District
742,341
 • District density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code
52xxx
Area code(s)0452
Licence plate52
ClimateCfa

Ordu (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈoɾdu]) or Altınordu is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, historically also known as Cotyora or Kotyora (Pontic: Κοτύωρα), and the capital of Ordu Province with a population of 229,214 in the city center.

Name

Kotyora, the original name of the city is a legacy of indigenous Colchians. The name is allegedly composed of an old Laz word for pottery ('Koto', similar to Mingrelian 'Koto', Georgian 'Kotani' and Laz 'Katana') and a common Kartvelian suffix indicating belonging ('Uri'). In Zan (aka Colchian) Kotyora means a place where pottery is made.[3] This point is supported with several other Kartvelian place names existing in the region as well as the region itself historically being known as Djanik (Djani being another name for Laz).[4]

The contemporary name of Ordu meaning 'army camp' in Ottoman Turkish was adopted during the Ottoman Empire because of an army outpost being located near the present day city.

History

The city during the Ottoman era
The city during the Ottoman era
The Black Sea coast
The Black Sea coast
Ordu coast and Boztepe hill
Ordu coast and Boztepe hill
Traditional houses at the historic Taşbaşı district
Traditional houses at the historic Taşbaşı district
Old Greek Orthodox Church at Taşbaşı/Altınordu.
Old Greek Orthodox Church at Taşbaşı/Altınordu.

In the 8th century BC, Cotyora (Κοτύωρα) was founded by the Miletians as one of a string of colonies along the Black Sea coast. The Diodorus Siculus write that it was a colony of the Sinopians.[5] Xenophon's Anabasis relates that the Ten Thousand rested there for 45 days before embarking for home.[6][7][8] Strabo also mentions it.[9] Under Pharnaces I of Pontus, Cotyora was united in a synoikismos with Cerasus.[6] Arrian, in the Periplus of the Euxine Sea (131 CE), describes it as a village "and not a large one."[10] Suda mentioned that it was also called Cytora (Κύτωρα).[11]

The area came under the control of the Danishmends, then the Seljuk Turks in 1214 and 1228, and the Hacıemiroğulları Beylik in 1346. Afterwards, it passed to the dominion of the Ottomans in 1461 along with the Empire of Trabzon.[12]

The modern city was founded by the Ottomans as Bayramlı near Eskipazar as a military outpost 5 km (3 mi) west of Ordu.

In 1869, the city's name was changed to Ordu and it was united with the districts of Bolaman, Perşembe, Ulubey, Hansamana (Gölköy), and Aybastı. At the turn of the 20th century, the city was more than half Christian (Greek and Armenian), and was known for its Greek schools.[8]

On the 4th of April 1921, Ordu province was created by separating from Trebizond Vilayet.[13]

Archaeology

In 2016, archaeologist discovered a marble statue of Cybele. In 2018, at the same site, they also discovered sculptures of Pan and Dionysus.[14] In 2021, archaeologists complained because a stone quarry used dynamite destroying some of the rock tombs.[15]

In December 2021, archaeologists announced 1600 year-old eight tombs in the Kurtulus district of Ordu. Researchers also uncovered human and animal remains, many pieces of jewelry made of gold, sardine stone, silver, glass, and bronze, a glass bottle and beads.[16][17]

Ordu today

Old houses in Taşbaşı/Altınordu.
Old houses in Taşbaşı/Altınordu.
Ordu Municipality Building
Ordu Municipality Building
The view of the city from Boztepe.
The view of the city from Boztepe.

The Sağra factory shop, selling many varieties of chocolate-covered hazelnuts, is one of the town's attractions.

The Boztepe aerial tramway is another popular attraction which is set to become a modern symbol for the city.

Local music is typical of the Black Sea region, including the kemençe. The cuisine is primarily based on local vegetables and includes both typical Turkish dishes — such as pide and kebab — and more interesting fare such as plain or caramel 'burnt ice-cream'.

Economy

Ordu is one of the provinces where hazelnuts are grown the most in Turkey.[18] Ordu is famous for hazelnuts, producing about 25 percent of the worldwide crop. The province relies on the crop for up to 80% of its economic activity. Turkey as a whole produces about 75 percent of the world's hazelnuts.[19] As of 1920, Ordu was one of the few producers of white green beans, which were exported to Europe.[20] Ordu also had mulberry tree plantations for sericulture.[21] Today, the city is partially industrialized and a member of the Anatolian Tigers with its 7 companies.

Places of interest

Sports

The city is the home of the Orduspor football club. Its base is the 19 Eylül Stadium in the heart of the city. Orduspor football team has played in the Super League of Turkey several seasons. The club also has a basketball team.

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey

Ordu is twinned with:

Taşbaşı Church during the winter.
Taşbaşı Church during the winter.

Climate

Ordu has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa, Trewartha: Cf), like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey. It experiences warm summers, cool winters, and plentiful precipitation throughout the year, which is heaviest in autumn and winter.

Snowfall is occasional between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows.

The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 and 20 °C (46 and 68 °F) throughout the year.

Climate data for Ordu (1991–2020, extremes 1959–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.4
(77.7)
28.3
(82.9)
32.8
(91.0)
36.8
(98.2)
35.6
(96.1)
37.3
(99.1)
37.1
(98.8)
36.3
(97.3)
36.4
(97.5)
34.2
(93.6)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
11.4
(52.5)
12.8
(55.0)
15.4
(59.7)
19.8
(67.6)
24.8
(76.6)
27.7
(81.9)
28.5
(83.3)
25.2
(77.4)
21.1
(70.0)
16.7
(62.1)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.2
(45.0)
8.7
(47.7)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(61.0)
21.0
(69.8)
23.9
(75.0)
24.5
(76.1)
21.0
(69.8)
17.0
(62.6)
12.3
(54.1)
9.1
(48.4)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.2
(39.6)
5.7
(42.3)
8.5
(47.3)
13.0
(55.4)
17.4
(63.3)
20.4
(68.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.6
(63.7)
13.9
(57.0)
9.1
(48.4)
6.2
(43.2)
11.8
(53.2)
Record low °C (°F) −7.2
(19.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.4
(38.1)
8.4
(47.1)
12.6
(54.7)
13.0
(55.4)
8.2
(46.8)
2.5
(36.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
−7.2
(19.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 108.4
(4.27)
84.9
(3.34)
86.8
(3.42)
66.5
(2.62)
61.5
(2.42)
70.3
(2.77)
58.5
(2.30)
67.9
(2.67)
88.3
(3.48)
134.9
(5.31)
128.8
(5.07)
109.2
(4.30)
1,066
(41.97)
Average precipitation days 14.67 14.30 17.13 15.00 14.10 11.73 9.83 9.83 13.17 14.30 12.73 14.80 161.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3 84.8 99.2 135.0 170.5 195.0 189.1 186.0 150.0 120.9 102.0 71.3 1,575.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.5 5.5 6.5 6.1 6.0 5.0 3.9 3.4 2.3 4.3
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[28]

People from Ordu

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  3. ^ Özhan Öztürk. Pontus, Antikçağ'dan Günümüze Karadeniz'in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi, Genesis Yayınları. Ankara 2011, S.492
  4. ^ Özhan Öztürk. Pontus, Antikçağ'dan Günümüze Karadeniz'in Etnik ve Siyasi Tarihi. Genesis Yayınları. Ankara 2011. S.566
  5. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library, § 14.31.1
  6. ^ a b Olshausen, Eckart, "Cotyora" in Brill's New Pauly, Antiquity doi:10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e621460
  7. ^ Anabasis V.5.3f
  8. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition, s.v. Ordu
  9. ^ XII.3.17
  10. ^ 16.3 Translated in Arrian: Periplus Ponti Euxini, edited and translated by Aidan Liddle (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2003), p. 75
  11. ^ Suda, ka.2170
  12. ^ "Ordu ili tarihi". www.karalahana.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  13. ^ "Karadeniz Ansiklopedisi: Ordu maddesi". www.karalahana.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2005. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  14. ^ Dionysus, Pan sculptures found at site of 2,100-year-old goddess Kybele in northern Turkey
  15. ^ Ancient castle under threat of quarry
  16. ^ "4th-century tombs unearthed near Turkey's Black Sea coast". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  17. ^ "1,600-Year-Old Tombs Uncovered in Northern Turkey - Archaeology Magazine". www.archaeology.org. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  18. ^ Gazete, Banka (21 November 2021). "Döviz düşerken fındık fiyatı da düştü". Gazetebanka.com. p. https://gazetebanka.com/. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  19. ^ Schwartzstein, Peter (22 August 2015). "This small Turkish town grows a quarter of the world's hazelnuts". Quartz. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  20. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62.
  21. ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 64.
  22. ^ "GD8 Ordu-Boztepe – References – Company – LEITNER ropeways". Leitner-ropeways.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Tatilden dersler aldık". Erzurum Flaş (in Turkish). 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Batumi – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  25. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  26. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  28. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  29. ^ 25 May 1964, NY Times archives