Ardahan Province
Ardahan ili
Lake Çıldır
Location of the province within Turkey
Location of the province within Turkey
CountryTurkey
SeatArdahan
Government
 • ValiHayrettin Çiçek
Area
4,934 km2 (1,905 sq mi)
Population
 (2022)[1]
92,481
 • Density19/km2 (49/sq mi)
Time zoneTRT (UTC+3)
Area code0478
Websitewww.ardahan.gov.tr

Ardahan Province (Turkish: Ardahan ili; Kurdish: Parêzgeha Erdêxanê;[2] Georgian: არტაანის რეგიონი) is a province in the north-east of Turkey, bordering Georgia and Armenia. Its area is 4,934 km2,[3] and its population is 92,481 (2022).[1] The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan. Ardahan borders the Turkish provinces of Erzurum, Artvin and Kars.

Demographics

Ethnographic map of Ardahan okrug in 1902

In 1886, 43,643 people lived in Ardahan Vilayet of which 46.6% was Turkish, 16% was Kurdish, 14.3% Karapapakh, 12.9% Greek, 7.2% Turkmen, 2.4% Russian and 0.6% Armenian. The town of Ardahan had a population of 778 of which 51.8% was Turkish, 22.1% Russian, 18.1% Armenian and 6.2% Greek.[4]

In the 1897 Russian Empire Census, Ardahan okrug had a population of 65,763 of which 42.6% was Turkish, 19.1% Kurdish, 12% Karapapakh, 11.9% Greek, 6.6% Turkmen and 2.9% Armenian. Slavs constituted 3.9% of the population.[5] The town of Ardahan had a population of 4,142 of which 37.1% was Slavic, 31.7% Armenian, 18% Turkish and 2.6% Greek.[6]

In 1908, Ardahan sancak had a population of 71,469 of which 41.6% was Turkish, 18.1% was Kurdish, 15.4% Greek, 14.4% Karapapakh, 7.9% Turkmen, 2.2% Russian and 0.4% Armenian.[7]

In the first Turkish census taking place in 1927, Ardahan District had a population of 88,989 of which 85.8% spoke Turkish as first language, while 13.8% spoke Kurdish. 98.8% of the Kurdish-speaking population lived in Göle sub-district.[8] In the same census, almost 100% of the population was Muslim. 14 Christians lived in the district.[9] The district had a population of 104,911 in 1935.[10]

History

The first surviving record about this region is attributed to Strabo, who calls it Gogarene (Gugark) and mentions that it was a part of the Kingdom of Armenia, taken away from the Kingdom of Iberia.[11][12] In the Middle Ages Ardahan served as an important transit point for goods arriving from the Abbasid Caliphate and departing to the regions around the Black Sea. During the 8th to 10th centuries the region was in hands of the Bagrationi princes of Tao-Klarjeti, and later part of Kingdom of Georgia between 11th to 15th centuries. It was a theatre of war during the Byzantine-Georgian wars. According to the Arab historian Yahya of Antioch, the Byzantines razed Ardahan and slaughtered its population in 1021.[12] The Mongols took hold of the region in the 1230s but the Georgian princes of Samtskhe were able to recapture it in 1266. As a result of Peace of Amasya, signed in 1555, Ardahan passed to Ottoman hands and reorganized into the Ardahan sanjak as part of eyalet of Childir. In 1578 Ottomans appointed the former Georgian prince, Manuchar (who took the name of Mustafa after converting to Islam) as the first governor.[13] From 1625 onwards the entire eyalet was a hereditary possession of the now-Muslim atabegs of Samtskhe,[14] which administered it as hereditary governors, with some exceptions, until the mid-18th century.[13]

In 1878, after the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), the region was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and until 1918 was known as Kars Oblast. Northern part of the province is Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921 and southern part of the province is Democratic Republic of Armenia from 1918 to 1920, Ardahan was reclaimed by Turkey under the Treaty of Kars in 1921. Ardahan Province was created in 1992 from the northern part of Kars Province.[15][16]

The construction of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline gave the local economy a brief boost from 2000 onwards.

Geography

Ardahan province is located in the far north east of Turkey, where the eastern extremity of the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia converges with the Lesser Caucasus mountain range. It is consequently an area of very high altitude and severe winters. This is attractive open countryside which however spends many months of the year under snow. At this altitude temperatures on average reach −20 °C (−4 °F) and can drop below freezing all year round, including summer months.

The local economy depends on farming and raising livestock. Until 1993 Ardahan was a district of the province of Kars, becoming a province in its own right has meant more investment in infrastructure

There are two crossing points into the Samtskhe–Javakheti district of Georgia, one at Posof and the other (currently closed) at Çıldır. The Turkish military have a strong presence in this border district, another boost to the local economy.

Climate

The predominant climate in the Ardahan province is humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Dfc), with most large settlements in the province being located in lowest possible elevation areas, in attempt to avoid the year-round cold temperatures, thus staying just below the subarctic limit. Smaller locales, districts, villages and a significant portion of the landscape, exhibits a true subarctic climate (Dfc), being the second most widespread climate in the region.[17]

Districts

Ardahan province is divided into 6 districts (capital district in bold):

Cities and towns

Places of interest

There is a unique natural incident, between mid of June and mid July during sunset, depending on angles of the sunrays. An image resembling the silhouette of Atatürk's face can be seen as a shadow on the hillside. It was first seen by a shepherd who was with his herd over the hill.[18]

See also

41°06′47″N 42°49′15″E / 41.11306°N 42.82083°E / 41.11306; 42.82083

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ a b "Address-based population registration system (ADNKS) results dated 31 December 2022, Favorite Reports" (XLS). TÜİK. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
  2. ^ "Bakûr di bin berfê de ye! Rêya 1.609 gundan hate girtin" (in Kurdish). Sopger. 18 January 2019. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  3. ^ "İl ve İlçe Yüz ölçümleri". General Directorate of Mapping. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
  4. ^ Şimşek, p. 209.
  5. ^ "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России". Demoscope (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2021-02-25. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам. Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России". Demoscope (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  7. ^ Şimşek, p. 210.
  8. ^ Şimşek, p. 221.
  9. ^ Şimşek, p. 224.
  10. ^ Ural, Selçuk (2016). "Atatürk Dönemi Iğdır'da Nüfus Sayımları (1923- 1938)" (PDF). Kafkas University Journal of the Institute of Social Sciences (in Turkish). Kafkas University: 525.
  11. ^ Strabo. Geographica. 11.14.7 Archived 2014-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b (in Armenian) «Արդահան» [Ardahan]. Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. ii, p. 7.
  13. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  14. ^ D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 140. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  15. ^ Kanun No. 3806, Resmî Gazete, 3 June 1992.
  16. ^ "İl İdaresi ve Mülki Bölümler Şube Müdürlüğü İstatistikleri - İl ve İlçe Kuruluş Tarihleri" (PDF) (in Turkish). p. 11. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  17. ^ "Climate:Ardahan". Climate-data.org. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  18. ^ "Ardahan'da "Atatürk Silueti" görülmeye başlandı".