Christchurch
Ōtautahi (Māori)
Nickname: 
The Garden City
Motto(s): 
Fide Condita Fructu Beata Spe Fortis
English: Founded in Faith, Rich in the Fulfillment thereof, Strong in Hope for the Future[1]
Christchurch is located in South Island
Christchurch
Christchurch
Christchurch is located in New Zealand
Christchurch
Christchurch
Coordinates: 43°32′S 172°37′E / 43.533°S 172.617°E / -43.533; 172.617
CountryNew Zealand
IslandSouth Island
RegionCanterbury
Communities
  • Banks Peninsula
  • Coastal-Burwood
  • Fendalton-Waimairi-Harewood
  • Halswell-Hornby-Riccarton
  • Linwood-Central-Heathcote
  • Papanui-Innes
  • Spreydon-Cashmere
Wards
  • Banks Peninsula
  • Burwood
  • Cashmere
  • Central
  • Coastal
  • Fendalton
  • Halswell
  • Harewood
  • Heathcote
  • Hornby
  • Innes
  • Linwood
  • Papanui
  • Riccarton
  • Spreydon
  • Waimairi
Settled by the UK1848
Named forChrist Church, Oxford
NZ ParliamentBanks Peninsula
Christchurch Central
Christchurch East
Ilam
Selwyn
Waimakariri
Wigram
Te Tai Tonga (Māori)
Government
 • MayorPhil Mauger
 • MPs
 • Territorial authorityChristchurch City Council
Area
 • Territorial1,426 km2 (551 sq mi)
 • Land1,415.47 km2 (546.52 sq mi)
 • Urban
295.15 km2 (113.96 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,408.1 km2 (929.8 sq mi)
Elevation20 m (70 ft)
Population
 (June 2023)[4]
 • Territorial396,200
 • Density280/km2 (720/sq mi)
 • Urban
384,800
 • Urban density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
 • Metro
521,881
 • Metro density220/km2 (560/sq mi)
 • Demonym
Cantabrian
Time zoneUTC+12:00 (NZST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+13:00 (NZDT)
Postcode(s)
8011, 8013, 8014, 8022, 8023, 8024, 8025, 8041, 8042, 8051, 8052, 8053, 8061, 8062, 8081, 8082,
Area code03
Local iwiKāti Māmoe, Ngāi Tahu
WebsiteChristchurchNZ.com

Christchurch (/ˈkrsɜːr/ ; Māori: Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island and the second-largest city by urban area population in New Zealand, after Auckland.[a] Christchurch lies in the Canterbury Region, near the centre of the east coast of the South Island, east of the Canterbury Plains. It is located near the southern end of Pegasus Bay, and is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean and to the south by Banks Peninsula. The Avon River / Ōtākaro flows through the centre of the city, with a large urban park along its banks. Christchurch has a reputation for being an 'English' city, with its architectural identity and common nickname the "Garden City" due to similarities with garden cities in England.

The city's territorial authority population is 396,200 people, and includes a number of smaller urban areas as well as rural areas.[4] The wider Christchurch metropolitan area, including the satellite towns of Rangiora, Kaiapoi, Rolleston and Lincoln, is home to over half a million people. Christchurch is served by the Christchurch Airport in Harewood, the country's second-busiest airport.

The area of modern-day greater Christchurch was originally swampland with patchworks of marshland, which became a bustling Māori settlement. Evidence of human activity in the area goes as far back as 1250 AD, with evidence of prolonged occupation by the Waitaha iwi beginning no later than 1350. The Waitaha were superseded as mana whenua in the Christchurch area by Kāti Mamoe and Kāi Tahu. The area of Christchurch was an important foraging ground and a seasonal settlement for local iwi and hapū before the arrival of Europeans, with Kaiapoi being the site of a major and trading centre. Christchurch was settled as a British colonial settlement in the mid-nineteenth century. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims from Britain to Lyttelton Harbour in 1850. It became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, making it officially the oldest established city in New Zealand. Later, industrialisation and the opening of the Main South Line railway and the connection to Lyttelton Harbour by the Lyttelton Rail Tunnel saw rapid growth in the city's economy and population, with large industrial premises built along the railway. The city has been recognised as an Antarctic gateway since 1901, when the Discovery Expedition left from Lyttelton Harbour, and is nowadays one of the five Antarctic gateway cities hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. Christchurch hosted the 1974 British Commonwealth Games at the purpose-built Queen Elizabeth II Park. The early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.

The city suffered a series of earthquakes from September 2010, with the most destructive occurring on 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city suffered severe damage, with a few central city buildings collapsing, leading to ongoing recovery and rebuilding projects. The city later became the site of a terrorist attack targeting two mosques on 15 March 2019.

Toponymy

The name Christchurch was adopted at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. The reason it was chosen is not known with certainty, but the most likely reason is it was named after Christ Church, Oxford, the alma mater of many members of the association, including John Robert Godley.[7] Christ Church college had similarities with the planned new city, including its own cathedral, the smallest in England.[8] Other possibilities are that it was named for Christchurch, Dorset, or for Canterbury Cathedral. Many of the early colonists did not like the name, preferring instead the name Lyttelton, but the Colonists' Council resolved to stick with the name of Christchurch in 1851, because it had been used by surveyors and distinguished the settlement from the port.[9]

The Māori name Ōtautahi, meaning 'the place of Tautahi', was adopted in the 1930s. Ōtautahi was the name of a specific site by the Avon River / Ōtākaro (near the present-day fire-station on Kilmore Street).[10][11] The site was a seasonal food-gathering place of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Pōtiki Tautahi. Although, a different account claims the Tautahi in question was the son of the Port Levy chief Huikai.[12][13] Prior to that, Ngāi Tahu generally referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, an anglicised version.[14][15][16]

"ChCh" is commonly used as an abbreviation of Christchurch.[17][18][19]

In New Zealand Sign Language, Christchurch is signed with two Cs.[20]

History

Main article: History of Christchurch

Māori settlement

Prior to human settlement, the area of modern-day greater Christchurch was swampland with patchworks of marshland, grassland, scrub and some patches of tall forest. Evidence of human activity in the area goes as far back as 1250 AD,[21] with evidence of prolonged occupation beginning no later than 1350.[22] These people in the archaic Māori period are believed to have been moa-hunters, who occupied coastal caves around modern-day Sumner.[23][24] These early settlers and their descendants are known from Ngāi Tahu tradition as the Waitaha iwi.[25] Around 1500, the Kāti Māmoe tribe migrated south from the east coast of the North Island, and gained control of much of Canterbury.[25] They were later joined by Ngāi Tahu beginning in c. 1600,[25] who ultimately absorbed both the Waitaha and Kāti Māmoe through a mixture of conflict and marriage.[25][26] Over time the Ngāi Tahu tribe would develop a large based around Kaiapoi, which was a major centre for the trade of pounamu.[27]

British settlement

European settlement began in the mid nineteenth century. The first Europeans to be established in the area were the brothers William and John Deans, who established a farm they called Riccarton. Their farm took over the abandoned holdings of a failed pioneer farm. In 1848 the New Zealand Company acquired land from Ngāi Tahu with the signing of Kemp's Deed, and within a few years the Canterbury Association had begun surveying and planning to establish the city of Christchurch. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the "Canterbury Pilgrims" to Port Cooper in 1850.[b] The early settlers set about draining the swampy ground, and over the following decades they established Christchurch as a British colonial outpost.

On 18 November 1947 a fire engulfed the Ballantynes department store in central Christchurch and resulted in 41 deaths, making it New Zealand's deadliest fire.[30]

2010–11 earthquakes

On Saturday, 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck Christchurch and the central Canterbury region at 4:35 am. With its epicentre near Darfield, west of the city at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), it caused widespread damage to the city and minor injuries, but no direct fatalities.[31][32]

Nearly six months later, on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a second earthquake measuring magnitude 6.3 struck the city at 12:51 pm. Its epicentre was located closer to the city, near Lyttelton, at a depth of 5 km (3 mi).[33] Although lower on the moment magnitude scale than the previous earthquake, the intensity and violence of the ground shaking was measured to be IX (Violent), among the strongest ever recorded globally in an urban area, which killed 185 people.[34][35][36]

Port Hills fires

On 13 February 2017, two bush fires started on the Port Hills. These merged over the next two days and the single very large wildfire extended down both sides of the Port Hill almost reaching Governors Bay in the south-west, and the Westmorland, Kennedys Bush, and Dyers Pass Road almost down to the Sign of the Takahe. Eleven houses were destroyed by fire, over one thousand residents were evacuated from their homes, and over 2,076 hectares (5,130 acres) of land was burned.[37]

In 2024, a second fire on the Port Hills burned 700 hectares (1,700 acres) of the hills in a similar area to the previous 2017 fire. The fire was also started under similarly suspicious circumstances. Lessons from the 2017 fire contributed to a more effective emergency response, and the fire was more-quickly contained.

2019 mosque shootings

Fifty-one people died from two consecutive mass shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre by an Australian white supremacist carried out on 15 March 2019.[38][39][40][41][42] Forty others were injured.[43] The attacks have been described by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern as "one of New Zealand's darkest days".[44] On 2 June 2020, the attacker pleaded guilty to multiple charges of murder, attempted murder, and terrorism.[45][46] On 27 August, he was sentenced to life in prison without parole, the first time such a sentence was handed down in New Zealand.[47][48][49]

Geography

Satellite image showing Christchurch and surrounding areas
Travis Wetland

Setting

Christchurch lies in Canterbury, near the centre of the east coast of the South Island, east of the Canterbury Plains. It is located near the southern end of Pegasus Bay, and is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean coast and the estuary of the Avon / Ōtākaro and Ōpāwaho / Heathcote Rivers. To the south and south-east, the urban portion of the city is limited by the volcanic slopes of the Port Hills separating it from Banks Peninsula. To the north, the city is bounded by the braided Waimakariri River.

Geology

Further information: Geology of the Canterbury Region

The present land mass of New Zealand split from the super continent of Gondwana around 85 million years ago. Prior to that time, mudstone and hardened sandstones commonly known as greywacke was deposited and deformed by tectonic movement. Following the split from Gondwana, during the period between 80 and 23 million years ago, the land became eroded and subsided below sea level. Marine and terrestrial sediments were deposited, leaving the greywacke as the oldest and deepest layers (basement rock). Around 11–6 million years ago, volcanic eruptions created the Banks Peninsula volcanic complex. Over the last two million years as the Southern Alps were rising, there were multiple periods of glaciation. Rivers flowing from the mountains carried alluvial gravels over the area that is now the Canterbury Plains, covering the underlying rock to depths of between 200 and 600 metres. Continuing tectonic movement created faults that penetrate from the greywacke rock into the layers above. These faults remain beneath Canterbury and Christchurch.[50]: 21 

The glacial/interglacial cycles of the Quaternary Period led to multiple rises and falls in sea level. These sea level changes occurred over a period when there was also slow subsidence in the eastern coastal plains of Canterbury and Christchurch. The result has been the deposition of sequences of mostly fluvial gravel (occurring during periods of low sea level and glaciation), and fine deposits of silt, sand and clay, with some peat, shells and wood (occurring during interglacial periods when the sea level was similar to the present).[51]: 13 

Aquifer and spring-fed streams

The layers of gravel beneath the eastern Canterbury plains and Christchurch area form an artesian aquifer with the interbedded fine sediments as an impermeable layer, or aquiclude. Water pressure from the artesian aquifer has led to the formation of numerous spring-fed streams. In Christchurch, the Avon River / Ōtākaro and Ōpāwaho / Heathcote River rivers have spring-fed sources in the western suburbs of Christchurch, and the Halswell River begins north-west of the Port Hills on the periphery of Christchurch and flows to Lake Ellesmere / Te Waihora).[51]: 14 

As a consequence of the flat terrain and spring-fed streams, large parts of the area now occupied by Christchurch City were originally a coastal wetland, with extensive swamp forests. Much of the forest was destroyed by fire, mostly likely by the earliest inhabitants, from around 1000 CE. When European settlers arrived in the 19th century, the area was a mixture of swamp and tussock grasslands, with only remnant patches of forest. An early European visitor was William Barnard Rhodes, captain of the barque Australian, who climbed the Port Hills from Lyttelton Harbour in September 1836 and observed a large grassy plain with two small areas of forest. He reported that "All the land that I saw was swamp and mostly covered with water".[52] Most of the eastern, southern and northern parts of the city were wet areas when European settlement began.[53]

Over the period since European settlement commenced, land drainage works have enabled development of land across the city. There are now only small remnants of wetland remaining, such as Riccarton Bush, Travis Wetland, Ōtukaikino wetland, and the Cashmere Valley.[54]

Central City

Main article: Christchurch Central City

Christchurch Central City is defined as the area centred on Cathedral Square and within the Four Avenues (Bealey Avenue, Fitzgerald Avenue, Moorhouse Avenue and Deans Avenue).[55] It includes Hagley Park, and the Christchurch Botanic Gardens. The design of the central city with its grid pattern of streets, city squares and parkland was laid out by 1850.[56]

The central city was among the most heavily damaged areas of Christchurch in the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes.[57] Following the second earthquake, the Central City Red Zone was set up as an exclusion zone for public safety reasons, and many parts remained closed to the public until June 2013.[58] A large number of heritage buildings were demolished following the earthquake, along with most of the city's high rise buildings.[59][60] The Christchurch Central Recovery Plan was developed to lead the rebuild of the city centre, and featured 17 "anchor projects".[61][62] There has been massive growth in the residential sector in the central city, particulary in the East Frame development.[63]

Suburbs

Christchurch suburbs
Click on the top right box to expand to see suburbs

See also: Category:Suburbs of Christchurch

There is no legal definition of the boundaries of suburbs in Christchurch. The suburb boundaries are largely defined by third-party agencies, such as Statistics New Zealand and New Zealand Post, and may differ between agencies.[64]

The earliest suburbs of Christchurch were laid out with streets in a grid pattern, centred on Cathedral Square. Growth initially took place along the tramlines, leading to radial development.[65] Major expansion occurred in the 1950s and 60s, with the development of large areas of state housing. Settlements that had originally been remote, such as Sumner, New Brighton, Upper Riccarton and Papanui eventually became amalgamated into the expanding city.[66]

Satellite towns

The Christchurch functional urban area, as defined by Statistics New Zealand, covers 2,408.1 km2 (929.8 sq mi).[67] Towns and settlements in the functional urban area include:

Climate

Autumn in the Christchurch Botanic Gardens

Christchurch has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with a mild summer, cool winter, and regular moderate rainfall. It has mean daily maximum air temperatures of 22.6 °C (73 °F) in January and 10.9 °C (52 °F) in July.[68] Summer in the city is mostly warm, but is often moderated by a sea breeze from the north-east. A notable feature of the weather is the nor'wester, a hot föhn wind that occasionally reaches storm force, causing widespread minor damage to property.[69] Like many cities, Christchurch experiences an urban heat island effect; temperatures are slightly higher within the inner-city regions compared to the surrounding countryside.[70] The highest temperature recorded in Christchurch was 41.6 °C (106.9 °F) on 7 February 1973.[71]

In winter, it is common for the temperature to fall below 0 °C (32 °F) at night. There are on average 80 days of ground frost per year.[72] Snowfall occurs on average three times per year, although in some years none is recorded.[73] The lowest temperature recorded was −7.1 °C (19.2 °F) on 18 July 1945, the third-lowest recorded temperature of New Zealand's major cities.[73][74]

On cold winter nights, the surrounding hills, clear skies, and frosty calm conditions often combine to form a stable inversion layer above the city that traps vehicle exhausts and smoke from domestic fires to cause smog.[75] While not as bad as smog in Los Angeles or Mexico City, Christchurch smog has often exceeded World Health Organisation recommendations for air pollution. To limit air pollution, the regional council banned the use of open fires in the city in 2006.[76]

Climate data for Christchurch Airport (1991–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.1
(98.8)
41.6
(106.9)
35.9
(96.6)
29.9
(85.8)
27.3
(81.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.4
(72.3)
22.8
(73.0)
26.2
(79.2)
30.1
(86.2)
32.0
(89.6)
36.0
(96.8)
41.6
(106.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
22.2
(72.0)
20.3
(68.5)
17.2
(63.0)
14.7
(58.5)
11.7
(53.1)
11.2
(52.2)
12.5
(54.5)
14.8
(58.6)
16.9
(62.4)
18.8
(65.8)
21.1
(70.0)
17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
16.9
(62.4)
14.9
(58.8)
11.9
(53.4)
9.3
(48.7)
6.4
(43.5)
6.0
(42.8)
7.3
(45.1)
9.3
(48.7)
11.3
(52.3)
13.2
(55.8)
15.7
(60.3)
11.6
(52.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
11.5
(52.7)
9.5
(49.1)
6.6
(43.9)
3.9
(39.0)
1.2
(34.2)
0.7
(33.3)
2.0
(35.6)
3.9
(39.0)
5.8
(42.4)
7.6
(45.7)
10.4
(50.7)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−7.2
(19.0)
−6.8
(19.8)
−6.7
(19.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−7.2
(19.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 42.4
(1.67)
39.8
(1.57)
45.1
(1.78)
57.5
(2.26)
58.1
(2.29)
68.3
(2.69)
64.2
(2.53)
58.1
(2.29)
42.2
(1.66)
49.1
(1.93)
45.1
(1.78)
47.8
(1.88)
617.7
(24.33)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 5.3 5.7 7.7 7.1 8.6 7.7 7.3 6.2 7.2 7.0 7.0 82.8
Average relative humidity (%) 74.0 79.8 83.0 84.0 86.6 87.2 87.6 85.1 77.7 77.0 70.7 71.8 80.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 227.5 195.2 190.6 158.1 141.2 115.3 127.8 156.5 169.1 205.4 226.7 215.0 2,128.4
Percent possible sunshine 51 49 50 50 47 44 44 48 48 50 51 46 48
Average ultraviolet index 10 8 6 3 1 1 1 2 3 5 8 10 5
Source 1: NIWA Climate Data[77][78]
Source 2: Time and Date (potential monthly daylight hours)[79][80]

Demographics

Christchurch City covers a land area of 1,415.47 km2 (546.52 sq mi)[81] and had an estimated population of 396,200 as of June 2023,[4] with a population density of 280 people per km2.

This is the second-most populous area administered by a single council in New Zealand, and the largest city in the South Island. The population comprises 384,800 people in the Christchurch urban area, 3,180 people in the Lyttelton urban area, 1,650 people in the Diamond Harbour urban area, and 6,570 people in rural settlements and areas.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1981281,721—    
1986288,948+0.51%
1991296,061+0.49%
1996316,611+1.35%
2001323,956+0.46%
2006348,456+1.47%
2013341,469−0.29%
2018369,006+1.56%
2023391,383+1.18%
Source: [82][83][84]

Christchurch City had a population of 391,383 in the 2023 New Zealand census, an increase of 22,377 people (6.1%) since the 2018 census, and an increase of 49,914 people (14.6%) since the 2013 census. There were 166,749 dwellings. The median age was 37.5 years (compared with 38.1 years nationally). There were 64,722 people (16.5%) aged under 15 years, 84,633 (21.6%) aged 15 to 29, 178,113 (45.5%) aged 30 to 64, and 63,912 (16.3%) aged 65 or older.[84]

Christchurch City had a population of 369,006 at the 2018 New Zealand census. There were 138,381 households, comprising 183,972 males and 185,034 females, giving a sex ratio of 0.99 males per female.

Of those at least 15 years old, 75,207 (24.6%) people had a bachelor's or higher degree, and 49,554 (16.2%) people had no formal qualifications. The median income was $32,900, compared with $31,800 nationally. 50,229 people (16.5%) earned over $70,000 compared to 17.2% nationally. The employment status of those at least 15 was that 153,480 (50.3%) people were employed full-time, 46,011 (15.1%) were part-time, and 11,466 (3.8%) were unemployed.[83]

Individual wards
Name Area (km2) Population Density (per km2) Households Median age Median income
Harewood Ward 113.60 21,552 189.72 8,043 42.1 years $35,500
Waimairi Ward 10.47 22,554 2,154.15 8,010 37.8 years $32,000
Papanui Ward 10.51 23,349 2,221.60 8,871 39.2 years $32,100
Fendalton Ward 9.08 22,785 2,509.36 8,586 42.5 years $38,500
Innes Ward 41.89 23,454 559.89 9,021 35.9 years $34,800
Burwood Ward 20.49 26,598 1,298.10 9,591 37.5 years $30,700
Coastal Ward 31.82 22,974 722.00 8,967 38.6 years $32,400
Hornby Ward 46.73 23,055 493.37 8,193 36.5 years $30,700
Halswell Ward 46.24 29,643 641.07 10,197 36.6 years $38,400
Riccarton Ward 9.62 24,861 2,584.30 7,596 27.7 years $20,100
Spreydon Ward 10.08 24,276 2,408.33 9,204 35.4 years $33,100
Central Ward 13.22 23,679 1,791.15 10,440 32.0 years $34,400
Cashmere Ward 23.89 21,615 904.77 8,217 41.6 years $40,200
Linwood Ward 16.46 24,501 1,488.52 9,549 35.5 years $28,000
Heathcote Ward 38.23 25,263 660.82 10,143 41.7 years $37,400
Banks Peninsula Ward 973.16 8,850 9.09 3,747 48.4 years $36,000
New Zealand 37.4 years $31,800

Culture and identity

Ethnicities, 2023 Census
Ethnicity Population
European
296,955
Māori
44,022
Pasifika
16,746
Asian
67,050
MELAA
7,422
Other
4,395

Ethnicities at the 2023 census were 75.9% European/Pākehā, 11.2% Māori, 4.3% Pasifika, 17.1% Asian, 1.9% Middle Eastern, Latin American and African New Zealanders, and 1.1% other. People may identify with more than one ethnicity.[84]

At the 2018 census, Europeans formed the majority in all sixteen wards, ranging from 57.7% in the Riccarton ward to 93.1% in the Banks Peninsula ward. The highest concentrations of Māori and Pasifika people were in the Linwood ward (18.3% and 9.0% respectively) followed by the Burwood ward (15.5% and 6.6%), while the highest concentrations of Asian people were in the Riccarton ward (34.9%) and Waimairi ward (26.7%).[85]

The proportion of people in Christchurch born overseas was 26.8%, compared with 27.1% nationally. The most common birthplaces of overseas-born residents were England (4.6%), the Philippines (2.8%), mainland China (2.8%), India (2.0%), and Australia (1.8%).[83]

Although some people chose not to answer the census's question about religious affiliation, 50.8% had no religion, 36.3% were Christian, 0.4% had Māori religious beliefs, 1.8% were Hindu, 1.1% were Muslim, 1.0% were Buddhist and 2.5% had other religions.

English is the most spoken language (95.9%) followed by Te Reo Māori (2.1%), Mandarin (1.9%), Tagalog (1.5%) and French (1.3%). Percentages add up to more than 100% as people may select more than one language.[83]

Economy

For the regional economy, see Canterbury Region § Economy.

Economic profile in 2023

In 2023, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Christchurch City was $31.5 billion, representing 8.4% of New Zealand's total GDP. The sector with the largest contribution to the Christchurch City GDP was professional, scientific and technical services, at 12%. This is higher than the 9.6% contribution that these services make to the national economy. The next highest contribution to the city GDP was from healthcare and social assistance at 8.8%, versus 6.5% in the national economy. Manufacturing contributed 8.1%, compared with 8.2% in the national economy.[86]

Christchurch City provides a diverse range of services for the Canterbury Region, but there are significant differences in the ranking of the sectors with the greatest contribution to GDP, when comparing the city GDP with the Canterbury Region GDP. Manufacturing and construction are the top two ranked sectors for the Canterbury region, but these two sectors are ranked third and fourth for the contribution to the city GDP. Conversely, professional, scientific and technical services are top ranked for the city, but third in the Canterbury Region GDP. Healthcare and social assistance is ranked second in the city GDP, but only seventh in the Canterbury Region GDP. Agriculture remains a significant contributor to the Canterbury Region GDP (sixth placed at $3.3 billion).[87]

The four largest industries in the city, based on the percentage of filled jobs were healthcare and social assistance, professional scientific and technical services, construction, and retail trade. Christchurch City had a higher proportion of people in employed in healthcare and social assistance (12.9%) than the national average (10.3%), but the proportions employed in professional, scientific and technical services, construction and retail trade were close to the national averages.[88]

A number of nationally and internationally recognised brands and companies were founded and have their headquarters in Christchurch including Macpac, Kathmandu, PGG Wrightson, Tait Communications, Cookie Time, and Smiths City.

Industry

Christchurch is the second-largest manufacturing centre in New Zealand behind Auckland, the sector being the second-largest contributor to the local economy,[89] with firms such as Anderson's making steel work for bridges, tunnels, and hydroelectric dams in the early days of infrastructure work. Now manufacturing is mainly of light products and the key market is Australia, with firms such as those pioneered by the Stewart family among the larger employers. Before clothing manufacture largely moved to Asia, Christchurch was the centre of the New Zealand clothing industry, with firms such as LWR Industries. The firms that remain mostly design and market, and manufacture in Asia. The city also had five footwear manufacturers, but these have been replaced by imports.

In the last few decades, technology-based industries have sprung up in Christchurch.[90] Angus Tait founded Tait Electronics, a mobile-radio manufacturer, and other firms spun off from this, such as Dennis Chapman's Swichtec. In software, Cantabrian Gil Simpson founded a company that made LINC and Jade programming languages, and a management buyout spawned local firm Wynyard Group.

There have also been spin-offs from the electrical department of the University of Canterbury engineering school. These included Pulse Data, which became Human Ware (making reading devices and computers for blind people and those with limited vision) and CES Communications (encryption). The Pulse Data founders had moved from the Canterbury University engineering school to work for Wormald Inc. when they set up Pulse Data through a Management buyout of their division.[citation needed]. Spin-off company Invert Robotics developed the world's first climbing robot capable of climbing on stainless steel, aimed at the dairy tank inspection market.[91]

In recent times, the University of Canterbury engineering school and computer science department play an important role in supplying staff and research for the technology industries, and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology provides a flow of trained technicians and engineers. Locally and nationally, the IT sector is known not for its size (the third largest in New Zealand) but for producing innovative and entrepreneurial solutions, products and concepts.[92]

Services for agriculture

Christchurch farmers' market, Riccarton, beside Riccarton House[93]

The agricultural industry was originally the economic core of Christchurch.[94] Its surrounding farming countryside was originally the basis of its industry, part of the original "package" sold to New Zealand immigrants.[95] PGG Wrightson, New Zealand's leading agribusiness, is based in Christchurch.[96] Its local roots go back to Pyne Gould Guinness, an old stock and station agency serving the South Island.[97]

Other agribusinesses in Christchurch have included malting, seed development and dressing, wool and meat processing, and small biotechnology operations using by-products from meat works.[94] Dairying has grown strongly in the surrounding areas, with high world prices for milk products and the use of irrigation to lift grass growth on dry land. With its higher labour use, this has helped stop declines in rural population. Many cropping and sheep farms have been converted to dairying. Conversions have been by agribusiness companies as well as by farmers, many of whom have moved south from North Island dairying strongholds such as Taranaki and the Waikato.

Cropping has always been important in the Canterbury Region. Wheat and barley and various strains of clover and other grasses for seed exporting have been the main crops. These have all created processing businesses in Christchurch. Agriculture in the region has diversified, with a wine industry developing at Waipara, and the beginnings of new horticulture industries such as olive production and processing. Deer farming has led to new processing using antlers for Asian medicine and aphrodisiacs. The high-quality local wine in particular has increased the appeal of Canterbury and Christchurch to tourists.[98]

An important component of the regions agricultural calendar is the Canterbury A&P Show. The first show took place in Christchurch on 22 October 1862[99] and is now the largest agricultural and pastoral show in New Zealand featuring a combination of agriculture presentations, trade stalls, competitions and entertainment over three days. The Friday of the A&P Show had since at least 1918 been the People's Day or Show Day, and sometime between 1955 and 1958, Christchurch City Council moved the anniversary day to coincide with Show Day, as this allowed banks and businesses to close and people to attend the A&P Show.

Tourism

Tourism is also a significant factor in the city economy. As a city with a major international airport and the largest city in the South Island, Christchurch is a gateway for international tourists visiting the South Island attractions of Aoraki / Mount Cook National Park, Queenstown, the West Coast and Kaikōura. However, the city is also a destination in itself because of its gardens, its history and heritage, galleries and museums, the scenery of the Port Hills, and the stories of the impact and recovery from the 2011 earthquakes.[100] The tourism sector contributed 3.7% of the GDP of Christchurch in 2023, a significant increase over the 2.1% contribution in 2000. Annual growth in the tourism GDP since 2000 has been an average of 5.9%, slightly below the national average growth rate of 6.9%.[101] The largest category of tourism expenditure in 2023 was sales at $780m (31.6% of total tourism spending). The next highest category was passenger transport, at $392.5M (15.9% of total).[102]

Gateway to the Antarctic

Christchurch has a history of involvement in Antarctic exploration – both Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton used the port of Lyttelton as a departure point for expeditions, and in the central city there is a statue of Scott sculpted by his widow, Kathleen Scott. Within the city, the Canterbury Museum preserves and exhibits many historic artefacts and stories of Antarctic exploration.

The International Antarctic Centre provides both base facilities and a museum and visitor centre focused upon current Antarctic activities. The United States Navy and United States Air National Guard, augmented by the New Zealand and Australian air forces, use Christchurch Airport as the take-off point for the main supply route to McMurdo and Scott Bases in Antarctica. The Clothing Distribution Center in Christchurch had more than 140,000 pieces of extreme cold weather gear for issue to nearly 2,000 United States Antarctic Program participants in the 2007–08 season.[103]

Government

Local government

The Canterbury Provincial Council Building

Christchurch's local government is a democracy with various elements, including:

Some of the local governments in Canterbury and the NZ Transport Agency have created the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy to facilitate future urban planning.[106]

Central government

Christchurch is covered by seven general electorates (Banks Peninsula, Christchurch Central, Christchurch East, Ilam, Selwyn, Waimakariri and Wigram) and one Māori electorate (Te Tai Tonga),[107] each returning one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives. As of the 2023 New Zealand general election there are four general electorate members of the National party and three members of the Labour party. The Māori electorate is represented by Te Pāti Māori.

Culture and entertainment

Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, damaged by the 2011 earthquake and subsequently demolished

The architecture of Christchurch has been said to be distinctly English; however, it contains various European elements, with strong Gothic Revival architecture.[108] As early settlers of New Zealand, Māori culture is also prevalent in the city. It features many public open spaces and parks, river beds and cafés and restaurants situated in the city centre and surrounding suburbs.[example needed]

Cinema

Historically, most cinemas were grouped around Cathedral Square.[109]

One of the first generation of suburban cinemas still operating as a cinema, the Hollywood in Sumner, operated from 1938 until 2022; before closing to be refurbished and becoming part of the Silky Otter cinema chain[110] which also runs a cinema in Wigram. The largest multiplexes were the Hoyts 8 in the old railway station on Moorhouse Avenue (now replaced by EntX)[111] and Reading Cinemas (also eight screens) in the Palms Shopping Centre in Shirley. Hoyts in Riccarton opened in 2005[112] with one of its screens for a time holding the record for the largest in New Zealand.

The Rialto Cinemas on Moorhouse avenue specialised in international films and art house productions. The Rialto also hosted the majority of the city's various film festivals and was home to the local film society. The Rialto was closed following the February 2011 earthquake.

The Alice Cinema first operated as a specialised video store, now has two screens and a comprehensive library foreign films, documentaries, cult and arthouse films to rent.[113]

The Canterbury Film Society is active in the city, operating every Monday evening from the Christchurch Art Gallery.[114]

The Peter Jackson film Heavenly Creatures (1994), starring Melanie Lynskey and Kate Winslet, was set in Christchurch.[115]

Parks and nature

Christchurch Botanic Gardens

The large number of public parks and well-developed residential gardens with many trees has given Christchurch the name of The Garden City. A British lawyer John Eldon Gorst, stated that Christchurch reminded him of the garden cities in England, and he called it as such.[116][117] Hagley Park and the 33-hectare (75 acre) Christchurch Botanic Gardens, founded in 1863,[118] are in the central city, which is an active habitat for kererū.[119] The Hagley Oval is a popular cricket field. Other sports such as association football, and rugby are popular in Hagley Park, and open-air concerts by local bands and orchestras.[120] North Hagley Park is known for its cherry blossoms, planted along Harper Avenue on Arbor Day in 1936.[121] During the flowering season the trees are popular with visitors.[122]

To the east lies Rawhiti Domain, in New Brighton, and north lies Spencer Park. And there are many inner city urban parks such as, Latimer Square, Cranmer Square, and Victoria Square.[123] To the north of the city is the Willowbank Wildlife Reserve. Travis Wetland, an ecological restoration programme to create a wetland, many native plants and birdlife thrive there, notably royal spoonbills and spotless crake.[124][125] And recent plantings of fork-leaved sundew.[126] It is sited to the east of the city centre near the suburb of Burwood and North New Brighton. There has been recent work to restore Papanui Bush, it begun in 2018, with recent plantings of naitive wildlife such as rimu and tōtara to restore this area like it was pre-European occupation.[127][128]

Orana Wildlife Park is New Zealand's only open-range zoo, sitting on 80 hectares of land, located on the outskirts of Christchurch.[129]

Theatre

The Isaac Theatre Royale, with Edwardian-style architecture.

Christchurch has a long history with performing arts, dating back to December 1861, when the first theatre opened on the current site of The Press building on Gloucester Street.[130] Across the road from that building is the Isaac Theatre Royal, originally opened in 1863, and has since been rebuilt four times, most recently the building was moderately damaged following the 2011 earthquake.[131][132] The Isaac Theatre Royal reopened to the public on 17 November 2014.[133]

Christchurch has one full-time professional theatre, the Court Theatre,[134][135] founded in 1971. Originally based in the Christchurch Arts Centre, the Court Theatre has been located in the suburb of Addington in temporary accommodation following the 2011 earthquakes.[136] Construction of a new premises located in the Performing Arts Precinct is due to be complete in 2025.[137]

The Free Theatre Christchurch was established in 1979 and based in the Arts Centre from 1982,[138] and Showbiz Christchurch, an incorporated society established in 1938 and primarily producing musical theatre.[139][140] There is also an active recreational theatre scene with community-based theatre companies, such as the Christchurch Repertory Society,[141] Elmwood Players,[142] Riccarton Players,[143] and Canterbury Children's Theatre,[144] producing many quality shows.

Music

The city is known for its many live acts,[145][146][147][148] including a professional symphony orchestra.[149] After the closure of Canterbury Opera in 2006, due to financial reasons, in 2009 another professional opera company, Southern Opera, was founded. After the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes, it suspended its activities, before merging with New Zealand Opera in 2013.[150] Christchurch is a home for the experimental music scene of New Zealand.

There are usually buskers around the town square, and Christchurch also hosts the World Buskers Festival in January each year.[151] Singer-songwriter Hayley Westenra launched her international career by busking in Christchurch.[152]

Some of New Zealand's acts, such as Shapeshifter, Ladi6, Tiki Taane and Truth are from Christchurch. Promoters, Venues and clubs such as Bassfreaks, The Bedford and Dux Live regularly have international, and New Zealand acts within the Drum and Bass scene performing live in Christchurch, along with dance parties, raves and gigs all featuring NZ and local Drum and Bass DJs, with often two or three happening on a single night or weekend (e.g. 2010 when UK Dubstep DJ Doctor P with Crushington was playing at The Bedford, while simultaneously Concord Dawn featuring Trei and Bulletproof was playing at Ministry).[citation needed]

In recent developments, hip hop has effectively landed in Christchurch.[153][154] In 2000, First Aotearoa Hip Hop Summit was held there.[155] And in 2003, Christchurch's Scribe released his debut album in New Zealand and has received five times platinum in that country, in addition to achieving two number one singles.[156][157]

Venues

Christchurch Town Hall (2019)

The Wolfbrook Arena is New Zealand's second-largest permanent multipurpose arena, seating between 5,000 and 8,000, depending on configuration. It is home of the Mainland Tactix netball side. It was the venue for the 1999 World Netball championships, and has been host to many concerts

The Christchurch Town Hall auditorium opened in September 1972, it was the first major auditorium design by architects Warren and Mahoney and acousticians Marshall Day.[158][159] It is still recognised as a model example of concert-hall design with an excellent modern pipe organ.[160] The hall was reopened on 23 February 2019, after being closed for eight years for repair after the significant damage caused by the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.[161][162]

Christchurch also has a casino,[163] and there are also a wide range of live music venues[145][164] – some short-lived, others with decades of history. Classical music concerts were held at the Christchurch Music Centre until it was demolished as a result of earthquake damage. The Piano was built to offer a variety of performance spaces for music and the arts.[165][166]

In late 2014 it was announced that a 475 million dollar project was underway to build a convention centre located on the block defined by Armagh Street, Oxford Terrace, Worcester Street and Colombo Street.[167] Gloucester Street becomes part of the Centre itself, but allows for retail use and public access. The convention centre, now called Te Pae, hosts several events at the same time; starting with space for up to 2,000 people, this complements facilities in Auckland and Queenstown. Te Pae opened on 17 December 2021.[168][169]

In 2012, in the Christchurch Central Recovery Plan, it was announced there will be a replacement for Lancaster Park. Construction started on a new stadium in 2022 and is due to be complete in April 2026.[170]

Festivals

Christchurch had a biennial Festival of Transitional Architecture (FESTA) from 2012 to 2018 founded by architectural historian Jessica Halliday.[171] This has turned into an annual festival of architecture events called Open Christchurch since 2019 run by Te Pūtahi Centre for Architecture and City Making.[172] Word Christchurch is a long running literary festival, the director in 2023 is Steph Walker.[173]

Sport

Teams

Events

Venues

Aerial view of Hagley Oval cricket ground: North is the Botanic Gardens end, East is the historic Umpires' Pavilion side, South is the Port Hills end and West is the Christ's College cricket ground end.

Ski fields

There are multiple ski fields within 2—4 hours driving time from Christchurch including a mix of commercial and club fields. Skifields include: Mount Hutt, Porters, Mount Cheeseman, Broken River, Mount Olympus and Craigieburn.[184]

Education

Further information: List of schools in Christchurch

The University of Canterbury is a tertiary education provider for Christchurch.

Secondary schools

Christchurch is home to the fourth-largest school in New Zealand, co-educational state school Burnside High School, with 2,439 pupils. Cashmere High School, Papanui High School and Riccarton High School are other large schools. There are four single-sex state schools: Shirley Boys' High School, Christchurch Boys' High School, Avonside Girls' High School and Christchurch Girls' High School.

Christchurch is also home to several single-sex private church schools, some of them of the traditional English public school type. These include St Thomas of Canterbury College, St Margaret's College, Christ's College, St Bede's College, Marian College, Catholic Cathedral College, St Andrew's College, Villa Maria College and Rangi Ruru Girls' School. Less conventional schools in the city include Ao Tawhiti, Hagley Community College, and the Christchurch Rudolf Steiner School.

Tertiary institutions

A number of tertiary education institutions have campuses in Christchurch, or in the surrounding areas.

Transport

See also: Public transport in Christchurch

Christchurch Brill Tram No 244 on the heritage tramway in inner-city Christchurch.
Looking down High Street while cyclists cross the intersection of Colombo and Hereford Streets

Christchurch is served by Christchurch Airport and by buses (local and long-distance) and trains. The local bus service, known as Metro,[185] is provided by Environment Canterbury. The car, however, remains the dominant form of transport in the city, as with the rest of New Zealand.

Christchurch has over 2,300 km of roads, of this 360 km is unpaved, and 43 km is motorway.[186] Christchurch has three motorways consisting of the Christchurch Northern Motorway (includes the Western Belfast Bypass), Christchurch Southern Motorway and the Christchurch-Lyttelton Motorway.[187][188]

Christchurch has an extensive bus network, with bus routes serving most areas of the city and satellite towns. Nearly all bus routes travelled through the central city Bus Exchange before the earthquake, but due to reduced passenger numbers since the earthquakes, especially in the central city, the bus network was reorganised to direct more localised services to hubs, such as major shopping centres, where they connect to the central station via core bus routes. Before the 2011 earthquakes, in addition to normal bus services, Christchurch also had a pioneering zero-fare hybrid bus service, the Shuttle, in the inner city. The service has been suspended following the earthquakes, and it is unclear whether it will resume again in the future.[189] Bus services are also available leaving Christchurch, daily passenger bus services[190] operates between Dunedin and Christchurch on the State Highway 1.

Historically, Christchurch has been known as New Zealand's cycling city,[191] even earning the nickname "Cyclopolis" around the turn of the 20th century.[192][193][194] Mark Twain described Christchurch in 1895 as a place "where half the people ride bicycles and the other half are kept busy dodging them".[195] The central city has very flat terrain and the Christchurch City Council has established a network of cycle lanes and paths, such as the Railway Cycleway. Post-quake public consultation on rebuilding the city expressed a strong desire for a more sustainable transport system, particularly greater use of cycling again, and this has been reflected in the council's strategic transport plan.[196] The number of cycle paths across the city has continued to increase since the earthquakes.[197] This has contributed to a 30% increase in bicycle journeys between 2016 and 2023, with over 3.6 million cyclists detected at counting stations in a 12-month period.[198]

There is a functioning tramway system in Christchurch, but as a tourist attraction; its loop is restricted to a circuit of the central city. The trams were originally introduced in 1905 as a form of public transport, and ceased operating in 1954,[199] but returned to the inner city (as a tourist attraction) in 1995. However, following the February 2011 earthquake, the system was damaged and within the cordoned off 'Red Zone' of the central city. The tramway reopened in November 2013 on a limited route, with plans to extend the tram route in 2014, first to reopen the complete pre-earthquake circuit, and then to open the extension travelling through the Re:Start Mall and High Street, which was being constructed when the 2011 earthquake struck.

There is a cable car system called the Christchurch Gondola which operates as a tourist attraction, providing transport from the Heathcote Valley to the top of Mount Cavendish in the city's south-east.

Rail services, both long-distance and commuter, used to focus on the former railway station on Moorhouse avenue. Commuter trains were progressively cancelled in the 1960s and 1970s. The last such service, between Christchurch and Rangiora, ceased in 1976. After the reduction in services, a new Christchurch railway station was established at Addington Junction. The Main North Line railway travels northwards via Kaikōura to Picton and is served by the Coastal Pacific scheduled passenger train while the Main South Line heads to Invercargill via Dunedin and was used by the Southerner until its cancellation in 2002.

The most famous train to depart Christchurch is the TranzAlpine, which travels along the Main South Line to Rolleston and then turns onto the Midland Line, passes through the Southern Alps via the Otira Tunnel, and terminates in Greymouth on the West Coast. This trip is often regarded as one of the ten great train journeys in the world for the remarkable scenery through which it passes. The TranzAlpine service is primarily a tourist service and carries no significant commuter traffic.

Christchurch Airport is located in Harewood, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to the north-west of the city centre. The airport is the second-busiest airport in New Zealand, with regular passenger services from Christchurch to fifteen New Zealand and seven international destinations.[200] The airport serves as the major base for the New Zealand, South Korean, Italian and United States Antarctic programs.[201]

Utilities

Water supply

Christchurch has one of the highest-quality water supplies in the world, with its water rated among the purest and cleanest in the world.[202][203] Untreated, naturally filtered water is sourced, via more than 50 pumping stations surrounding the city, from aquifers emanating from the foothills of the Southern Alps.[204] However, since 2018 about 70% of Christchurch's water supply has been temporarily chlorinated due to well-head upgrades, and the chlorination is planned to be stopped after the upgrades have been completed and certified.[205][206]

Wastewater

Further information: Christchurch Wastewater Treatment Plant

Christchurch was the first city in New Zealand to develop an underground sewerage network.[207] In the early 1870s, Christchurch had a population of around 12,000 people. However, there was a high death rate from diseases such as typhoid, with 152 people dying in an epidemic from 1875–76.[208] The city was considered as the unhealthiest in New Zealand at that time. Most of the human waste was being discharged untreated into the Avon and Heathcote rivers, despite those rivers also being used for bathing. Following the passing of the Christchurch District Drainage Act 1875,[209] the Christchurch Drainage Board was established, holding its first meeting on 4 January 1876.[210] The first chairman of the board was the city mayor, Fred Hobbs, who had been a strong advocate for a drainage system.[211] In 1878, an English drainage engineer William Clark proposed detailed designs for an underground sewerage network for the city, with a pumping station to pump the sewage to sandhills in Bromley for irrigation over land adjacent to the estuary.[212] The city's first sewage pumping station was established in Tuam Street in 1882, with a boiler and steam-driven pumps. Homeowners were required to pay for a connection to the new sewerage system and establish flushing toilets, and by 1884 there were 293 connections.[208][213] The 1903 Cyclopedia of New Zealand stated that following the implementation of the drainage system "the city now ranks amongst the most healthy in the Colony".[214]

Electricity

The Christchurch City Council established the city's first public electricity supply in 1903, and the city was connected to Coleridge Power Station in 1914. Until 1989, electricity distribution and retailing in Christchurch was the responsibility of four entities: the Christchurch City Council Municipal Electricity Department (MED), Riccarton Electricity, the Port Hills Energy Authority, and the Central Canterbury Electric Power Board. In 1989, all four companies entered a joint venture, named Southpower. The 1998 electricity sector reforms required all electricity companies to separate their distribution and retailing businesses. Southpower retained its distribution business and sold its retail business to Meridian Energy. In December 1998, the distribution business was renamed Orion New Zealand.[215] Today, Orion owns and operates the local distribution network servicing the city, with electricity fed into it from two Transpower substations at Islington and Bromley.

The electricity distribution network in Christchurch suffered significant damage in the 2011 earthquakes, especially in the north-east, where the 66,000-volt subtransmission cables supplying the area were damaged beyond repair.[216] This necessitated major repairs to the existing infrastructure, as well as building new infrastructure to supply new housing developments.

At the 2013 census, 94.0% of Christchurch homes were heated wholly or partly by electricity, the highest in the country.[217]

Media

The major daily newspaper in Christchurch is The Press, which has a daily circulation of 31,207 and is owned by Stuff.[218] The Press was first published on 25 May 1861, originally as a weekly paper before becoming a daily paper in March 1863.[219] Weekly newspapers include The Star, owned by Allied Press, which began in 1868 as a daily evening newspaper before becoming a bi-weekly (and later weekly) free newspaper in 1991.[220][221]

The Christchurch radio market is the second-largest in New Zealand, with 511,700 listeners aged 10 and over. The three largest stations in Christchurch by market share are Newstalk ZB, More FM, and The Breeze.[222] As with other New Zealand radio makets, most radio stations in Christchurch are centralcast out of Auckland.

Television was introduced in Christchurch on 1 June 1961 with channel CHTV3. The channel networked with its NZBC counterparts in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin in 1969 and today is part of Television New Zealand (TVNZ).[223] As with radio, television channels in Christchurch are centralcast out of Auckland.

Notable people

Main category: People from Christchurch

Sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in New Zealand

Christchurch's sister cities are:[224]

Christchurch also has friendly relations with Gansu Province in China.[224]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Whether Christchurch or Wellington is New Zealand's second-largest city by population is debatable and depends on where the boundaries are drawn.[5] Using Statistics New Zealand boundaries, Christchurch is the second-largest urban area (384,800 vs 215,200),[4] territorial authority area (396,200 vs 216,200),[4] and functional urban area (470,814 vs 414,033).[6]
  2. ^ Lyttelton Harbour was known as Port Cooper when the four ships arrived. This name is no longer in common use.[28] Since 1998 it has been gazetted with a dual English-Māori name, Lyttelton Harbour / Whakaraupō.[29]

Bibliography

Citations

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  4. ^ a b c d e "Subnational population estimates (RC, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2023 (2023 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2023. (regional councils); "Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2023 (2023 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2023. (territorial authorities); "Subnational population estimates (urban rural), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2023 (2023 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2023. (urban areas)
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