The Cabinet of New Zealand (Māori: Te Rūnanga o te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa)[n 1] is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, accountable to the New Zealand Parliament. Cabinet meetings, chaired by the prime minister, occur once a week; in them, vital issues are discussed and government policy is formulated. Cabinet is also composed of a number of committees focused on specific areas of governance and policy. Though not established by any statute, Cabinet wields significant power within the New Zealand political system, with nearly all government bills it introduces in Parliament being enacted.

The New Zealand Cabinet follows the traditions of the British cabinet system. Members of Cabinet are collectively responsible to Parliament for its actions and policies. Cabinet discussions are confidential and are not disclosed to the public apart from the announcement of decisions.

All ministers in Cabinet also serve as members of the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of his or her formal constitutional functions. Outside Cabinet, there are a number of non-Cabinet ministers, responsible for a specific policy area and reporting directly to a senior Cabinet minister. Ministers outside Cabinet are also part of Cabinet committees and will regularly attend Cabinet meetings which concern their portfolios. Therefore, although operating outside of Cabinet directly, these ministers do not lack power and influence as they are still very much part of the decision making process.[1]

Constitutional basis

Swearing-in of ministers by Governor-General Dame Patsy Reddy, 26 October 2017. Cabinet members are first appointed as executive councillors before receiving warrants for their ministerial portfolios.

Cabinet is not established by any statute or constitutional document but exists purely by long-established constitutional convention.[2][3] This convention carries sufficient weight for many official declarations and regulations to refer to Cabinet; a government department—the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet—is responsible for supporting it. Although Cabinet lacks any direct legislative framework for its existence, the Cabinet Manual has become the official document which governs its functions, as well as on which its convention rests.[3][4]

The structure of Cabinet has as its basis the formal institution known as the Executive Council, the body tasked with advising the governor-general in the exercise of their formal constitutional functions (the "Governor-General in Council").[5] Most ministers hold membership of both bodies, but some executive councillors, known as "ministers outside Cabinet",[6] are not ranked as Cabinet members and do not normally attend. The convention of a cabinet meeting separately from the Executive Council began during Edward Stafford's first tenure as premier (1856–1861).[7] Stafford, a long-time advocate of responsible government in New Zealand, believed the colonial government should have full control over all its affairs, without the intervention of the governor. Because the governor chaired the Executive Council, Stafford intentionally met with his ministers without the governor present, thus reducing the Council to its formal role.[7]

Powers and functions

A meeting of Cabinet in 1972. At this time, Cabinet members were usually Pākehā and male; Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan (seated second-left from the centre) was the only female Cabinet minister.

The lack of formal legislation establishing Cabinet leaves the powers of its members only loosely defined. Cabinet generally directs and controls policy (releasing government policy statements), and is responsible to the House of Representatives, the elected component of Parliament. It also has significant influence over law-making, and all draft government bills must be submitted to the Cabinet Legislation Committee before they can be introduced to the House.[8] Convention regarding Cabinet's authority has considerable force, and generally proves strong enough to bind its participants. Theoretically, each minister operates independently, having received a ministerial warrant over a certain field from the Crown. But the governor-general can dismiss a minister at any time, conventionally on the advice of the prime minister, so ministers are largely obliged to work within a certain framework.[3]

Collective responsibility

Further information: Cabinet collective responsibility

Cabinet itself acts as the accepted forum for establishing this framework. Ministers will jointly discuss the policy which the government as a whole will pursue, and ministers who do not exercise their respective powers in a manner compatible with Cabinet's decision risk losing those powers. This has become known as the doctrine of Cabinet collective responsibility.[9][10] Collective responsibility is grounded in three key principles. The first principle is unanimity, where members of Cabinet must publicly support decisions and defend them in public, regardless of any personal views on the matter. Secondly, the confidentiality limb means that all Cabinet discussions are to be kept confidential.[2] This allows for open and explicit conversation, discussion and debate on the issues Cabinet chooses to look at.[10] The final principle is confidence, where Cabinet and executive government must have the confidence of the House of Representatives. If there is no government, the governor-general has the ability to intervene to find a government that does have confidence.[11]

Formally all ministers are equals and may not command or be commanded by a fellow minister. Constitutional practice does, however, dictate that the prime minister is primus inter pares, meaning 'first among equals'.[12]

Problems arise when the prime minister breaches collective responsibility. Since ministerial appointments and dismissals are in practice in the hands of the prime minister, Cabinet can not directly initiate any action against a prime minister who openly disagrees with their government's policy. On the other hand, a prime minister who tries to act against concerted opposition from their Cabinet risks losing the confidence of their party colleagues. An example is former Prime Minister David Lange, who publicly spoke against a tax reform package which was sponsored by then-Finance Minister Roger Douglas and supported by Cabinet. Douglas was forced to resign, but when the Cabinet supported Douglas against Lange, the Prime Minister interpreted this as a vote of no-confidence in his leadership and stepped down.[13]

Collective responsibility after MMP

Some political commentators, such as Professor Philip Joseph, have argued that it is a misnomer to deem the unanimity principle of collective responsibility a constitutional convention as such. Joseph views unanimity as merely a "rule of pragmatic politics", lacking a sufficient constitutional nature to be deemed a constitutional convention.[14] He states that, unlike a convention, governments may waive, suspend or abandon political rules,[14] as has happened since the introduction of the mixed-member proportional system (MMP) in 1993 (see § Electoral reform). One reform following the introduction of MMP allowed for junior parties in a coalition the ability to 'agree to disagree' with the majority in order to manage policy differences.[15] Following the 2011 general election the National-led government released the following statement in regards to the role of minor parties in the context of collective responsibility:

Collective responsibility applies differently in the case of support party Ministers. Support party Ministers are only bound by collective responsibility in relation to their own respective portfolios (including any specific delegated responsibilities). When support party Ministers speak about the issues in their portfolios, they speak for the government and as part of the government. When the government takes decisions within their portfolios, they must support those decisions, regardless of their personal views and whether or not they were at the meeting concerned. When support party Ministers speak about matters outside their portfolios, they may speak as political party leaders or members of Parliament rather than as Ministers, and do not necessarily support the government position.[16]

Ministers outside Cabinet retain individual ministerial responsibility for the actions of their department (in common with Cabinet ministers).[6]

Electoral reform and Cabinet structure

See also: Electoral reform in New Zealand

The 1993 electoral referendum in New Zealand resulted in a number of structural changes to Cabinet. The change to the MMP system ultimately led to a larger number of political parties in Parliament, as under the proportional representation system any political party can enter Parliament if they received five percent of the party vote or won one electorate seat.[17] The increased representation resulted in the need to form coalitions between parties, as no single party received a majority of votes and seats under MMP until 2020.[18]

In order to govern in a coalition under MMP, it is likely that a major party will have to relinquish and offer Cabinet positions to members of a minority party. The aftermath of the first MMP election in 1996 highlighted the changes resulting from the new proportional parliament. New Zealand First received 13.4% of the party vote, giving them 17 total seats in the House of Representatives (in contrast to 8.5% in the 1993 general election, conducted under the plurality voting system).[19] This ultimately resulted in the National–New Zealand First coalition as the National Party, who received 33.8% of the party vote, translating to 44 seats in the House, could not govern alone.[20]

Negotiations forming the new government took nearly two months however the ultimate result being that New Zealand First were to have five ministers inside Cabinet and four outside. This translated to having 36.4% of representation in the new government.[21] The Prime Minister following the 1996 election, Jim Bolger, was forced to tell his caucus during negotiations with New Zealand First, that he would not be able to satisfy all ambitions of the caucus, due to the forced inclusion of the minority party into the governmental framework, thus highlighting one of the challenges that came with MMP.[21]

The result of MMP on Cabinet structure in New Zealand is also highlighted below under the § Members heading. In the coalition deal following the election New Zealand First leader Winston Peters was given the position of deputy prime minister, and New Zealand First were given a number of ministerial portfolios including foreign affairs, infrastructure, regional economic development, and internal affairs.[22]

Meetings

Photograph taken before the first meeting of the Cabinet of the Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand, Beehive, 26 October 2017

See also: Secretary of the Cabinet (New Zealand)

Members of Cabinet meet on a regular basis, usually weekly on a Monday,[23] to discuss the most important issues of government policy. Matters that must be submitted to Cabinet include new legislation, involving draft government bills; financial proposals and budget decisions; constitutional arrangements; public service changes; government responses to select committee recommendations; portfolio interests of ministers; appointments to government bodies; and international treaties.[8]

The meetings are chaired by the prime minister or, in the prime minister's absence, the next most senior minister in attendance, usually the deputy prime minister. Ministers outside Cabinet may occasionally be invited for the discussion of particular items with which they have been closely involved.[n 2] All Cabinet meetings are held behind closed doors, and the minutes are taken by the Cabinet secretary and kept confidential.[2] However, usually shortly after the weekly meeting the prime minister holds a press conference to discuss important national issues.[24]

The Cabinet secretary and their deputy are the only non-ministers who attend Cabinet meetings.[25] They are not political appointments and their role at Cabinet meetings is to formulate and record the Cabinet's decisions and advise on procedure, not to offer policy advice.[26] The secretary has a dual role as the clerk of the Executive Council where they provide a channel of communication and liaison between the Cabinet and the governor-general.[27][28]

The Cabinet room, where the weekly meetings are normally held, and related offices are located at the top of the Beehive (the Executive Wing of Parliament Buildings).[29]

Members

See also: Ministers in the New Zealand Government

The prime minister assigns roles to ministers and ranks them in order to determine seniority. A minister's rank depends on factors such as "their length of service, the importance of their portfolio and their personal standing with the prime minister".[6] The deputy prime minister is the second-highest ranked, after the prime minister.[30] Under MMP, there are typically three categories of minister: ministers within the 'core' Cabinet, ministers outside Cabinet, and ministers from support parties (i.e. minor parties which have agreed to support a government party during confidence and supply votes).[6][31] The size of Cabinet has grown over time. In the 1890s, for example, there were seven Cabinet ministers.[32] The number of ministers within Cabinet increased in the period up until the 1970s, but has plateaued at 20 since 1972; this despite increases in the number of members of parliament. By contrast, the numbers of ministers outside Cabinet has grown, especially since the introduction of MMP.[31]

Ministers are formally styled "The Honourable" (abbreviated to "The Hon."),[33] except for the prime minister who is accorded the style "The Right Honourable" ("The Rt. Hon.").[34] Previously, several senior ministers used "The Right Honourable" by virtue of membership of the Privy Council before appointments were discontinued in 2000.[32] Currently, Winston Peters retains this style due to his appointment as a member of the Privy Council in 1998.[35]

Current ministers

The current ministry[n 3] has a Cabinet of 20 ministers: 14 from the National Party, three from ACT, and three from New Zealand First. There are eight ministers outside Cabinet: five from National, two from ACT, and one from New Zealand First.[36] Additionally, two parliamentary under-secretaries assist ministers from a parliamentary standpoint.[n 4]

The table below lists all ministers, as of 26 January 2024.

Parties
National
NZ First
ACT
Ranking Portfolios Image Incumbent Additional responsibilities Electorate
1 Prime Minister
Minister for National Security and Intelligence
Christopher Luxon Minister Responsible for Ministerial Services Botany
2 Deputy Prime Minister
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister for Racing
Winston Peters List
3 Minister for Regulation David Seymour Associate Minister of Education (Partnership Schools)
Associate Minister of Finance
Associate Minister of Health (Pharmac)
Associate Minister of Justice (Treaty Principles Bill)
Epsom
4 Minister of Finance
Minister for the Public Service
Minister for Social Investment
Nicola Willis Associate Minister of Climate Change List
5 Minister of Housing
Minister for Infrastructure
Minister Responsible for RMA Reform
Minister for Sport and Recreation
Chris Bishop Leader of the House
Associate Minister of Finance
Hutt South
6 Minister of Health
Minister for Pacific Peoples
Shane Reti Whangārei
7 Minister of Internal Affairs
Minister for Workplace Relations and Safety
Brooke van Velden Tāmaki
8 Minister for Oceans and Fisheries
Minister for Regional Development
Minister for Resources
Shane Jones Associate Minister of Finance
Associate Minister for Energy
List
9 Minister for Energy
Minister of Local Government
Minister of Transport
Simeon Brown Minister for Auckland
Deputy Leader of the House
Pakuranga
10 Minister of Education
Minister for Immigration
Erica Stanford East Coast Bays
11 Minister for Arts, Culture and Heritage
Minister of Justice
Minister for State Owned Enterprises
Minister for Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations
Paul Goldsmith List
12 Minister for the Community and Voluntary Sector
Minister for Social Development and Employment
Louise Upston Minister for Child Poverty Reduction Taupō
13 Attorney-General
Minister of Defence
Minister for Digitising Government
Minister Responsible for the GCSB
Minister Responsible for the NZSIS
Minister for Science, Innovation and Technology
Minister for Space
Judith Collins Lead Coordination Minister for the Government’s Response to the Royal Commission’s Report into the Terrorist Attack on the Christchurch Mosques Papakura
14 Minister of Corrections
Minister for Emergency Management and Recovery
Minister of Police
Mark Mitchell Mark Mitchell Whangaparāoa
15 Minister of Agriculture
Minister of Forestry
Minister for Hunting and Fishing
Minister for Trade
Todd McClay Todd McClay Associate Minister of Foreign Affairs Rotorua
16 Minister of Conservation
Minister for Māori Crown Relations: Te Arawhiti
Minister for Māori Development
Minister for Whānau Ora
Tama Potaka Tama Potaka Associate Minister of Housing (Social Housing) Hamilton West
17 Minister for ACC
Minister for Mental Health
Minister of Tourism and Hospitality
Minister for Youth
Matt Doocey Associate Minister of Health
Associate Minister of Transport
Waimakariri
18 Minister for Economic Development
Minister for Ethnic Communities
Minister for Media and Communications
Melissa Lee Associate Minister for ACC List
19 Minister for Courts Nicole McKee Associate Minister of Justice (Firearms) List
20 Minister of Customs
Minister for Seniors
Casey Costello Associate Minister of Health
Associate Minister for Immigration
Associate Minister for Police
List
Ministers outside Cabinet[n 2]
Minister of Climate Change
Minister of Revenue
Simon Watts North Shore
Minister for Disability Issues
Minister for the Environment
Minister for Tertiary Education and Skills
Penny Simmonds Associate Minister for Social Development and Employment Invercargill
Minister for Building and Construction
Minister for Land Information
Minister for Veterans
Chris Penk Associate Minister of Defence
Associate Minister of Immigration
Kaipara ki Mahurangi
Minister of State for Trade
Minister for Women
Nicola Grigg Associate Minister of Agriculture (Horticulture) Selwyn
Minister of Commerce and Consumer Affairs
Minister for Small Business and Manufacturing
Minister of Statistics
Andrew Bayly Port Waikato
Minister for Biosecurity
Minister for Food Safety
Andrew Hoggard Associate Minister of Agriculture (Animal Welfare, Skills)
Associate Minister for the Environment
List
Minister for Children
Minister for the Prevention of Family and Sexual Violence
Karen Chhour List
Minister for Rural Communities Mark Patterson Associate Minister of Agriculture
Associate Minister for Regional Development
List
Parliamentary Under-Secretaries
Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the
Minister for Media and Communications and Minister for Oceans and Fisheries
Jenny Marcroft List
Parliamentary Under-Secretary to the
Minister for Infrastructure and Minister for RMA Reform
Simon Court List


Committees

A Cabinet committee comprises a subset of the larger Cabinet, consisting of a number of ministers who have responsibility in related areas of policy. Cabinet committees go into considerably more detail than can be achieved at regular Cabinet meetings, discussing issues which do not need the input of ministers holding unrelated portfolios. Committee terms of reference and membership are determined by the prime minister and the exact number and makeup of committees changes with the government. As of February 2023, there were 10 Cabinet committees:[38]

Cabinet committees will often discuss matters under delegated authority or directly referred to them by Cabinet, and then report back the results of their deliberation. This can sometimes become a powerful tool for advancing certain policies, as was demonstrated in the Lange government. Minister of Finance Roger Douglas and his allies succeeded in dominating the finance committee, enabling them to determine what it recommended to Cabinet. The official recommendation of the finance committee was much harder for his opponents to fight than his individual claims in Cabinet would be. Douglas was able to pass measures that, had Cabinet deliberated on them itself rather than pass them to committee, would have been defeated.[39]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Translated as: "The Rūnanga (literally 'Council') of the Government of New Zealand"
  2. ^ a b Only members regularly attend Cabinet meetings, although ministers outside Cabinet and support party ministers can be invited to attend if an area of their portfolio is on the agenda. Thus all ministers listed below have a role in Cabinet's decision-making.
  3. ^ See List of New Zealand governments § List of ministries.
  4. ^ Unlike ministers, under-secretaries are not members of the Executive Council.[37]

References

  1. ^ "Clearing up some coalition confusion". Newsroom. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government – Cabinet procedure". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Duncan, Grant (October 2015). "New Zealand's Cabinet Manual: How Does It Shape Constitutional Conventions?". Parliamentary Affairs. 68 (4): 737–756. doi:10.1093/pa/gsu023.
  4. ^ "Cabinet Manual". cabinetmanual.cabinetoffice.govt.nz. Cabinet Office of New Zealand. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Executive Council – Cabinet Manual". Cabinet Office of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government – Ministers and prime ministers in cabinet". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  7. ^ a b Bohan, Edmund (1990). "Stafford, Edward William". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  8. ^ a b Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government – What cabinet discusses". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  9. ^ "Cabinet Manual: Cabinet". Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  10. ^ a b Eichbaum, Chris. "Cabinet government – Collective responsibility". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  11. ^ Palmer, Matthew. "What is New Zealand's constitution and who interprets it? Constitutional realism and the importance of public office-holders" (PDF). Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  12. ^ Fairclough, Paul (2002). "6.1 The Prime Minister". Advanced Government and Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-913434-2.
  13. ^ Palmer, Geoffrey (2013). Reform: A Memoir. Victoria University Press. p. 586. ISBN 9780864739605.
  14. ^ a b Joseph, Philip A. (2021). Joseph on Constitutional and Administrative Law (5th ed.). Wellington. pp. 123, 126. ISBN 9781988553450.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  15. ^ Holl, Maarten; Palmer, Matthew (20 June 2012). "Helen Clark and Jim Anderton with their coalition agreement, 1999". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  16. ^ "CO (12) 3: National-led Administration – Consultation and Operating Arrangements". CO (12) 3: National-led Administration – Consultation and Operating Arrangements. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  17. ^ "What is the MMP voting system?". Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  18. ^ Martin, John E. (1 February 2015). "Parliament – Impact of MMP". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  19. ^ "General elections 1996–2005". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 30 December 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  20. ^ "General elections 1996–2005". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  21. ^ a b Spanhake, Craig (2005). "Cabinet Selection 1960–1997: An Overview of Political Process in New Zealand". Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  22. ^ Cheng, Derek (24 October 2017). "Labour-NZ First coalition: At a glance". The New Zealand Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  23. ^ Mulgan, R. G.; Aimer, Peter (2004). Politics in New Zealand (3rd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press. p. 80. ISBN 1869403185.
  24. ^ "Post Cabinet Press Conference". beehive.govt.nz. New Zealand Government. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Supporting the work of the Cabinet". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  26. ^ Mulgan, R. G.; Aimer, Peter (2004). Politics in New Zealand (3rd ed.). Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press. pp. 80–81. ISBN 1869403185.
  27. ^ Shroff, Marie (July 2001). The Role of the Secretary of the Cabinet – The View from the Beehive (PDF). New Zealand Centre for Public Law. ISBN 0-475-50066-0. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  28. ^ "Clerk of the Executive Council". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  29. ^ "Executive Wing (the Beehive)". New Zealand Heritage List/Rārangi Kōrero. Heritage New Zealand. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  30. ^ "Ministerial List 24 July 2023" (PDF). Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 11 November 2023.
  31. ^ a b Dowding, Keith; Dumont, Patrick (2014). The Selection of Ministers around the World. Routledge. pp. 27–28. ISBN 9781317634454. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Cabinet government". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  33. ^ "The Honourable". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  34. ^ "The Right Honourable". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  35. ^ "Appointments to the Privy Council". New Zealand Gazette. 28 May 1998. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
  36. ^ Palmer, Russell (24 November 2023). "Cabinet lineup for new government unveiled - who gets what?". RNZ. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
  37. ^ Constitution Act 1986, 13 December 1986, Section 9, retrieved 3 November 2020
  38. ^ "Circular. Cabinet Committees: Terms of Reference and Membership" (PDF). Cabinet Office. 10 February 2023. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  39. ^ Mitchell, Austin (1 March 2005). "Roger's Revolution: Blitzkrieg in Kiwiland". The Journal of Legislative Studies. 11 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1080/13572330500158219. S2CID 153653062.