New Zealand First
AbbreviationNZ First
LeaderWinston Peters
PresidentJulian Paul[1]
SecretaryHolly Howard[2]
Deputy LeaderShane Jones
Founded18 July 1993; 30 years ago (18 July 1993)
Split fromNational Party
Ideology
Colours  Black
MPs in the
House of Representatives
8 / 123
Website
nzfirst.nz

New Zealand First, commonly abbreviated to NZ First,[3] is a populist[4][5][6] and nationalist[7][8] political party in New Zealand. The party formed in 1993 following the resignation of its leader and founder, Winston Peters, from the National Party. Peters had been the Member of Parliament for Tauranga since 1984 and it was the base for New Zealand First until defeats to National Party candidates in 2005 and 2008. The party has formed coalition governments with both major political parties in New Zealand: with the National Party from 1996 to 1998 and 2023 to present, and with the Labour Party from 2005 to 2008 and 2017 to 2020. New Zealand First currently serves in a coalition government with both National and ACT as part of the Sixth National government.

New Zealand First takes a broadly centrist and interventionist position on economic issues and a socially conservative position on moral issues.[9] The party distinguishes itself from the mainstream political establishment through its use of populist rhetoric, and supports binding referendums for major social and political change. The party is also anti-immigration[10][11] and anti-globalisation,[12] while also supportive of protectionism[13][14] and pensioners' interests.[15] The party's support base is mostly composed of middle-aged to elderly, rural and Māori voters.[9][16]

The party entered the New Zealand House of Representatives shortly after its formation in 1993. New Zealand First had 17 members of parliament (MPs) at its peak, following the 1996 New Zealand general election, first mixed-member proportional representation election, though by the end of that term the New Zealand First caucus was 9 MPs due to internal conflict over the coalition government with the New Zealand National Party. It left parliament following the 2008 New Zealand general election in which it failed to gain enough party votes to retain seats. However, in the 2011 New Zealand general election, New Zealand First gained 6.59% of the total party vote, entitling it to eight MPs. The party increased its number of MPs to eleven at the 2014 New Zealand general election. During the 2017 election, the party's number of MPs dropped to nine members.[17] In the weeks following the 2017 election, New Zealand First formed a coalition government with the Labour Party.[18] In the 2020 election New Zealand First's share of the party vote fell to 2.6%, with all incumbent MPs, including Peters, losing their seats in Parliament.[19]

In the 2023 general election, New Zealand First gained 6.08% of the total party vote, entitling the party to eight seats in Parliament.[20] Subsequently, New Zealand First entered the National Party-led government, with Peters serving as deputy prime minister for the third time.

History

Foundation

Winston Peters founded the party in 1993

In June 1992, Winston Peters, a former Minister of Māori Affairs in the National Party governor of Jim Bolger, was told that he would not be allowed to run for another term as National Party Member of Parliament for Tauranga in the 1993 election.[21][22] Peters had previously been dismissed from the Cabinet in 1991, after he publicly criticised National's economic policy.[21]

On 19 March 1993, Peters resigned from the National Party.[21][23] He also resigned from Parliament, triggering a by-election in his electorate on 17 April 1993 in which he stood as an independent, winning with 90.8% of votes due to neither Labour nor National running a candidate.[24] On 18 July 1993, shortly before the writs were issued for that year's general election, Peters formed New Zealand First as a political grouping.[25][26] At the time of its formation, New Zealand First's policy platform was broadly conservative. Peters claimed to be reviving National policies from which the Bolger government had departed.[25]

1993 general election

Original party logo (1993–2017)

In the April 1993 special by-election, Tauranga voters re-elected Peters as an independent. At the general election six months later, New Zealand First received 8.4% of the total vote.[27] Peters easily retained Tauranga, and Tau Henare, another New Zealand First candidate, won the Northern Māori seat, giving the party a total of two MPs. This did much to counter the perception of New Zealand First as merely a personality-driven vehicle for Peters.

1996 general election

With the switch to the mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 election, smaller parties could gain a share of seats proportional to their share of the vote. Before the election, New Zealand First was polling unprecedentedly highly due to the popularity of its leader, Winston Peters. At its peak, New Zealand First was polling at 29% support on 16 May 1996.[28]

This enabled New Zealand First to win 13% of the vote and 17 seats, including all five Māori electorates. New Zealand First's five Māori MPs—Tau Henare (the party's deputy leader), Tuku Morgan, Rana Waitai, Tu Wyllie and Tuariki Delamere—became known as the "Tight Five".[29]

The election result put New Zealand First in a powerful position just three years after its formation. Neither of the two traditional major parties (National and Labour) had enough seats to govern alone, and only New Zealand First had enough seats to become a realistic coalition partner for either. This placed the relatively new party in a position where it was the kingmaker, a position which allowed the party to effectively choose the next Prime Minister of New Zealand.

New Zealand First entered into negotiations with both major parties. Before the election, most people (including many New Zealand First voters) had expected Peters to enter into coalition with Labour. In fact, he harshly attacked his former National colleagues during the campaign, and appeared to promise that he would not even consider going into coalition with them.[30]

Coalition with National: 1996–1998

To the surprise of the electorate, which had apparently voted for New Zealand First to get rid of National, New Zealand First decided to enter a coalition with National, enabling and becoming part of the third term of the fourth National government. The most common explanation for this decision involved National's willingness to accept New Zealand First's demands (and/or Labour's refusal to do so). However, Michael Laws (a former National Party MP who served as a New Zealand First campaign manager) claims that Peters had secretly decided to go with National significantly before this time, and that he merely used negotiations with Labour to encourage more concessions from National.[31]

Whatever the case, New Zealand First exacted a high price from Bolger in return for allowing him to stay in power. Under the terms of a detailed coalition agreement, Peters would serve as Deputy Prime Minister, and would also hold the specially created office of Treasurer (senior to the Minister of Finance). National also made considerable concessions on policy. Unusually for a junior coalition partner in a Westminster system, Peters was free to select the ministers from his own party, without Bolger's oversight.[32]

New Zealand First had a relatively smooth coalition relationship with National at first. Despite early concerns about the ability of Peters to work with Bolger, who had sacked him from cabinet during his time as Minister of Māori Affairs in 1991,[21][22] the two did not have major problems. New Zealand First had graver concerns about the behaviour of some of its MPs. A particularly damaging scandal involved Tuku Morgan, which consisted of him allegedly spending $4000 in public funds on clothing,[33] though the Serious Fraud Office later did not find him guilty of fraud.[34]

Gradually, however, the coalition tensions became more significant than problems of party discipline. This became increasingly the case after Transport Minister Jenny Shipley gained enough support within the National party room to force Bolger's resignation[35] and to subsequently become New Zealand's first woman Prime Minister on 8 December 1997. The tensions between the two parties also rose as New Zealand First adopted a more aggressive approach to promoting its policies (including those National would not implement). This new attitude probably fed off New Zealand First's poor performance in opinion polls, which (to Peters) indicated that the party's success rested on its confrontational style. Many commentators believe that Peters performs better in opposition than in government.

Return to opposition

On 14 August 1998, Shipley sacked Peters from Cabinet. This occurred after an ongoing dispute about the sale of the government's stake in Wellington International Airport,[36] directly in conflict with New Zealand First's general commitment to not sell off state assets.

Peters immediately tore up the coalition agreement. However, several other MPs, unwilling to follow Peters into opposition and wanting to continue to support a National-led government, tried to replace Peters as Leader of New Zealand First with Tau Henare, the then-Deputy Leader. This caucus-room coup failed, and Henare eventually led four other New Zealand First MPs in forming a new party, Mauri Pacific, which was a self-proclaimed multicultural party. Three others established themselves as independents. All eight departing MPs continued to support a National-led minority government. Many of these MPs had come under public scrutiny for their behaviour[citation needed]. Until the dissolution of Parliament in 1999, they provided Shipley with enough parliamentary support to stay in government without New Zealand First.[37]

1999 general election

In the 1999 election New Zealand First lost much of its support, receiving only 4% of the party vote.[38] Some voters had not forgiven Peters for forming a coalition with National after being led to believe that a vote for him would help get rid of National, and others likely changed their vote due to the instability within the party's ranks. Whatever the case, New Zealand First's support tailed off enough that it was nearly ejected from parliament. Under New Zealand's MMP system, a party must either win an electorate seat or 5% of the vote to qualify for list seats. Peters held his Tauranga electorate by a mere 63 votes after losing almost 20 percent of his vote from 1996, and New Zealand First received five seats in total.[39]

2002 general election

By the 2002 New Zealand general election, however, the party had rebuilt much of its support. This occurred largely because of Peters' three-point campaign for sensible immigration, scrutinising Treaty costs, and reducing crime.[citation needed] The party won 10.38% of the vote, which was a considerable improvement on its previous performance (although not as good as its performance in 1996), and New Zealand First won thirteen seats in parliament.[40] Peters' campaign slogan "Can We Fix It? Yes We Can"[41] attracted much media attention, as the same line appears in theme music for the children's television programme Bob the Builder. Party activists stated they were unaware the chant came from a children's cartoon.[42]

It appears that New Zealand First had hoped to play in 2002 a similar role to the one it had in 1996, where it found itself able to give power to either Labour or National depending on which offered the best deal. However, National's support, under the leadership of future Prime Minister Bill English, had collapsed to its worst result in the party's history, to the extent that it could not form a government even with New Zealand First's support, depriving the party of its hoped kingmaker position. In the end, however, this proved irrelevant, as Labour refused to consider an alliance with New Zealand First in any case[citation needed]. Instead, Labour relied on support from the newly significant United Future.

New Zealand First gained 8 seats in Parliament after the election, earning 13 MPs in total (including 1 electorate MP): Winston Peters, Peter Brown, Brian Donnelly, Ron Mark, Doug Woolerton, Barbara Stewart, Pita Paraone, Craig McNair, Jim Peters, Dail Jones, Edwin Perry, Bill Gudgeon, and Brent Catchpole.

After the 2002 election, in light of National's decreased strength, New Zealand First attempted to gain more prominence in Opposition, frequently attacking the Labour-led Coalition government on a wide range of issues. Speculation has occurred on efforts to create a more united front linking New Zealand First, the New Zealand National Party, and ACT New Zealand, but Peters has rejected this scenario, saying that the New Zealand voters will decide what alliances are necessary. Unlike the classical-liberal ACT New Zealand, which portrays itself as a natural coalition partner for the New Zealand National Party, New Zealand First welcomed the potential for a coalition government with any parliamentary political party.

For a period in early 2004 New Zealand First experienced a brief decline in the polls after Don Brash became leader of the National Party, a change which hugely revived National's fortunes after the controversial but highly popular Orewa Speech. The votes that had apparently switched to New Zealand First from National seemed to return to support Don Brash, and many commentators predicted that New Zealand First would lose a number of its seats in the next election[citation needed]. By 2005, however, the proportions had changed again, and as the campaign for the September 2005 election got under way, New Zealand First had again reached the 10% mark in opinion polling for the 2005 election.

Pre-election polls put New Zealand First ahead of the other minor parties. Some thought it likely that in the event of a National minority or plurality, unless ACT's fortunes dramatically improved, Don Brash would have to form a second coalition or seek a support agreement with New Zealand First to be able to form a government. Peters promised to support the party that won the most seats, or at least abstain in no-confidence motions against it. However, he also said he would not support any government that included the Greens within Cabinet.

Confidence and supply with Labour: 2005–2008

In the 2005 election, however, the smaller political parties (including New Zealand First) suffered a severe mauling. Though it remained the third-largest party in the House, New Zealand First took only 5.72% of the vote, a considerable loss from 2002, and just enough to cross the MMP proportionality quota of 5%. In addition, Peters narrowly lost his previously safe constituency seat of Tauranga by 730 votes to National's Bob Clarkson, and became a list MP.

New Zealand First lost six seats in Parliament, earning 7 MPs, all elected on the party list: Winston Peters, Peter Brown, Dail Jones, Ron Mark, Doug Woolerton, Barbara Stewart and Pita Paraone.

Following the 2005 election, New Zealand First agreed to a supply-and-confidence agreement with the New Zealand Labour Party (along with United Future) in return for policy concessions including the SuperGold card and the portfolio of Foreign Affairs outside Cabinet for Winston Peters. Peters becoming Minister of Foreign Affairs detected a change in his attitude since Peters' "Rotorua speech" on 7 September 2005 at a public address at the Rotorua Convention Centre had spoken of New Zealand First sitting on the cross-benches (and thus staying out of government) and eschewing "the baubles of office".[43]

Soon after the 2005 New Zealand general election, Winston Peters launched a legal challenge against Bob Clarkson, alleging that he had spent more than the legal limit allowed for campaign budgets during elections in New Zealand. This legal bid failed, with a majority of the judges in the case declaring that Bob Clarkson had not overspent during the campaign for the Tauranga electorate. In the 2005 election funding controversy, the Auditor-General found that all the parties in parliament except the Progressive Party had misspent parliamentary funding. New Zealand First was the only party that did not repay the misspent funding.[44]

New Zealand First achieved many policy initiatives during this term, most notably the introduction of the SuperGold card, a policy which was unpopular among many political leaders due to its high cost. The SuperGold card was targeted towards seniors, and included free off-peak travel, and discounts from thousands of New Zealand businesses. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister for Racing and Associate Minister for Senior Citizens, Peters secured additional funding for "New Zealand to expand its international presence" in the 2007 budget,[45] as well as in the 2008 budget additional benefits for SuperGold card holders including funding for hearing aids, investments into the Pacific Cooperation Foundation and Asia-New Zealand Foundation, additional funding for prize money in the racing industry totalling $9m, and a large funding increase for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade once again.[46]

As Minister of Foreign Affairs, Winston Peters' most notable actions included a diplomatic mission to Papua New Guinea and meeting with United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.[47][48]

2008 general election

In the months before the 2008 general election, New Zealand First became embroiled in a dispute over donations to the party from billionaire Owen Glenn, the Vela family and Bob Jones. This resulted in an investigation into party finances by the Serious Fraud Office on the 28th of August 2008 and an investigation into Peters by the Privileges Committee.[49] On 29 August 2008 Peters stood down from his ministerial roles after significant pressure, while the investigations by the Serious Fraud Office and Privileges Committee proceeded.[50] Although the Serious Fraud Office and the police found that Peters was not guilty of any wrongdoing, the Privileges Committee decided that Peters knowingly misled Parliament by not declaring the donation,[51] and censured Peters, which he called a "useless facade."[51] The whole scandal harmed New Zealand First's polling in the lead-up to the election, and is widely attributed to its defeat.[52]

During the scandal, then Leader of the Opposition John Key took the opportunity to rule out working with Peters and New Zealand First, which likely contributed further to the party's defeat. As expected, Prime Minister Helen Clark did not rule out working with New Zealand First.

On election night it was clear that Peters had not regained Tauranga after his last loss of the electorate in the 2005 election, and that the party had not met the 5% threshold needed for parties to be elected without an electorate seat. In what some journalists described as a 'gracious' concession speech, Peters said that 'it's not over yet. We'll reorganise ourselves in the next few months. And we'll see what 2011 might hold for all us.''[53]

At a post-election meeting held to discuss the party's future in February 2009, long-serving Deputy Leader Peter Brown stepped down.[54]

2011 general election

At the beginning of the election campaign New Zealand First was polling at around 2% in most major polls and was effectively written off by most political commentators. Prime Minister John Key had once again ruled out working with Peters and New Zealand First, however then Leader of the Opposition Phil Goff had stated he was open to working with New Zealand First post-election provided they made it back into Parliament[citation needed].

Peters received a significant amount of media attention towards the end of the campaign at the height of the Tea Tape scandal which arose during the campaign. Peters had criticised the arrangement in the seat of Epsom between National and ACT in which National encouraged its supporters to vote for the ACT candidate for their electorate MP. He railed against National for alleged negative remarks made about the then ACT leader Don Brash and New Zealand First's elderly supporters[citation needed].

Peters appeared on a TVNZ minor parties leaders debate and won the debate convincingly in the subsequent text poll, with a plurality of 36% of the respondents saying Peters had won.[55]

New Zealand First won 6.6% of the party vote on election night.[56] Many political experts credit the Tea Tape Scandal for the re-entry of New Zealand First into Parliament; however, Peters himself credits the return to Parliament to the hard work undertaken by the Party over the three years it was not represented in Parliament.

In 2012 the party sacked MP Brendan Horan after allegations he stole money from his dying mother to gamble.[57]

2014 general election

New Zealand First 2014 General Election Results by Electorate

In 2012, New Zealand First stated their intent to work in coalition with parties that would buy the privatised state assets back after the 2014 general election.[58]

New Zealand First entered the 2014 general election campaign without providing a clear indication as to their coalition preferences. However, Peters did raise late in the campaign the prospect of a Labour-New Zealand First coalition or confidence and supply arrangement, and express some respect for the National Party, in particular the Finance Minister Bill English.[59]

New Zealand First increased its party vote to 8.66% at the election, which took the party's representation in Parliament to 11 seats. Peters was highly critical of the conduct of the Labour and Green parties, who he blamed for the Opposition's loss.[60]

In 2015 Peters contested the Northland by-election, which was held as a result of the resignation of the incumbent Mike Sabin on 30 January 2015 amid allegations of assault. Peters won the traditionally safe National seat with a majority of 4,441 over the National candidate Mark Osborne. It was the first time a New Zealand First MP held an electorate seat since Peters lost Tauranga in 2005. The win also resulted in New Zealand First acquiring a new List MP, Ria Bond, which increased the party's parliamentary representation to 12 seats.

On 3 July 2015 Ron Mark was elected Deputy Leader of New Zealand First, replacing Tracey Martin who had held the post since 2013.[61]

2017 general election

A Fresh Face, logo introduced in 2017

Peters has said that he will continue on as the Leader of New Zealand First. New Zealand First launched its campaign in Palmerston North on 25 June 2017. Policies include ring-fencing GST to the regions it is collected from and writing off student loans of people willing to work outside major centres, and recruiting 1,800 extra police officers.[62] New Zealand First is also campaigning on increasing the minimum wage to $17.[63] They would later increase it to $20.[64] On 28 June 2017, New Zealand First changed their logo that they have used since its formation in 1993, giving the new design the name "A Fresh Face".[65]

In early July 2017, the Green Party co-leader Metiria Turei criticised New Zealand First for its alleged racist attitude towards immigration.[66] Her criticism was echoed by fellow Green MP Barry Coates, who claimed that the Greens would call for a snap election in response to a Labour–New Zealand First coalition government.[67] In response, Peters and Deputy Leader Tracey Martin warned that Turei and Coates' comments could affect post-election negotiations between the two parties. Though Turei did not apologise for her remarks, Greens co-leader James Shaw later clarified that Coates' statement did not represent official Green Party policy.[66][68]

During the party's convention in South Auckland on 16 July, Peters vowed that a New Zealand First government would hold two binding referendums on whether Maori electorates should be abolished and whether the number of MPs should be reduced to 100. Other New Zealand First policies included reducing immigration to 10,000 a year (from 72,300 in the June 2017 year),[69] and bringing the country's banks back into Kiwi ownership, starting with making Kiwibank the New Zealand government's official trading bank.[70][71]

During the 2017 general election, New Zealand First's share of the vote dropped to 7.2% with the party's representation in Parliament being reduced to 9 MPs.[17] Under Peters' leadership, New Zealand First entered into talks to form coalitions with the National Party and the Labour Party. National Party leader and caretaker Prime Minister Bill English signalled an interest in forming a coalition with New Zealand First, while Labour leader Jacinda Ardern considered a three-way coalition with New Zealand First and the Greens. Peters stated that he would not make his final decision until the special votes results were released on 7 October 2017.[72][73] During negotiations with Ardern, Peters indicated that he would be willing to consider dropping his call for a referendum on abolishing the Māori electorates in return for forming a coalition with Labour; a bone of contention in New Zealand race relations.[74]

Coalition with Labour: 2017–2020

Main article: Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand

On 19 October, Labour and New Zealand First decided to form a coalition government and a confidence and supply agreement with the Green Party.[18][75] On 26 October, Peters was appointed Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister for State-owned enterprises, and Minister for Racing. Deputy Leader Ron Mark was given the Minister of Defence and Veterans portfolios. Tracey Martin was given the Children, Internal Affairs, and Senior Citizens portfolios as well as being made Associate Minister of Education. Shane Jones was made Minister of Forestry, Infrastructure, Regional Economic Development, and Associate Minister of Finance and Transport.[76]

During the post-election negotiations, New Zealand First managed to secure several policies and concessions including a Regional Development Fund, the re-establishment of the New Zealand Forest Service, increasing the minimum wage to $20 per hour by 2020, a comprehensive register of foreign-owned land and housing, free doctors' visits for all under-14-year-olds, free driver training for all secondary students, a new generation SuperGold smartcard containing entitlements and concessions, a royalty on the exports of bottled water, a commitment to re-entry of the Pike River Mine, and Members of Parliament being allowed to vote in a potential referendum on euthanasia.[77] In return, New Zealand First agreed to drop its demand for referendums on overturning New Zealand's anti-smacking ban and abolishing the Māori electorates.[78][79]

In 2019, New Zealand First's Internal Affairs minister, Tracey Martin participated in negotiations with the Labour Party to pass the Abortion Legislation Bill to reform the country's abortion laws. While Martin had ruled out supporting a referendum, she was overruled by the party leader Peters who demanded a binding referendum on the proposed legislation. He also ruled out giving New Zealand First MPs a conscience vote on the issue. While the party would support the bill at first reading, Peters warned that they would withdraw support if the proposed law was not put to a public referendum.[80][81][82] In response, Justice Minister Andrew Little rebuffed Peters' demands for a referendum on the grounds that Parliament would decide the legislation.[81][83] In March 2020, the two female NZ First MPs voted in favour of the Bill at its final reading—Tracey Martin and Jenny Marcroft.[84][85]

In late 2019, New Zealand First won a parliamentary vote to hold a euthanasia referendum, as the party threatened to vote down the legislation if it did not go to a referendum.[86] The decision to go to a referendum passed 63–57.[87]

2020 general election

During the 2020 New Zealand general election, New Zealand First's party vote dropped to 75,021 (2.6%), causing the party to lose all of its seats in Parliament since it fell below the five percent threshold needed to enter Parliament through the party list alone. All NZ First MPs also lost the seats they were contesting.[19][88][89][90] Two months after the election, both its president and secretary resigned. Former MP Darroch Ball became interim president; he claimed that the resignations were "always a planned retirement after the election for both roles".[91]

Out of Parliament: 2020–2023

On 20 June 2021, Winston Peters confirmed that he would continue leading the party for the 2023 general election. Peters also made a speech attacking the Labour, National and Green parties that touched upon various issues including transportation infrastructure in Auckland, the increasing use of the Māori language in official reports and public life, the Government's COVID-19 vaccination rollout, purchase of Ihumātao land, elimination of referendums on Māori wards and constituencies, and so-called wokeness in New Zealand society. This speech marked his first major public appearance since the 2020 general election.[92][93]

New Zealand First Foundation fraud case, 2020–2022

In mid-February 2020, the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) announced that it was investigating the NZ First Foundation in response to allegations that the party had created a slush fund. Between 2017 and 2019, New Zealand First officials had allegedly channelled half a million dollars of donations into the NZ First Foundation's bank account to cover various party-related expenses such as the party's headquarters, graphic design, an MP's legal advice, and even a $5000 day at the Wellington races. The amount of donations deposited into the foundation and used by the party was at odds with its official annual returns.[94][95] Peters has denied any wrongdoing, while fellow MP Shane Jones, the Minister for Infrastructure, has denounced allegations that the party was offering policy for cash as "conspiracy theories."[95][96]

In late September 2020, the Serious Fraud Office announced that they would be laying charges against two persons as a result of their investigation into the NZ First Foundation. Both the SFO and Peters confirmed that the accused were not ministers, candidates or current members of the party. Peters criticised the timing of the SFO's decision to lay charges against the defendants as "politically motivated," describing it as a "James Comey level error of judgment".[97][98] According to Stuff, Peters had tried unsuccessfully to stop the Serious Fraud Office from releasing its press release until after the formation of a new government following the 2020 New Zealand general election on 17 October 2020.[99]

On 7 June 2022, the trial of two men charged with stealing NZ$746,881 worth of donations from New Zealand First between September 2015 and February 2020 began at the Auckland High Court. At the time, the defendants had been granted name suppression. Prosecutor Paul Wicks QC argued that the defendants had deceived about 40 donors, the NZ First party secretary and the Electoral Commission into believing that their donations were going to the party. In fact, the money had gone into one of the defendants' bank accounts and the NZ First Foundation's bank account. Under the Electoral Act, funds donated to the NZ First Foundation between 2017 and 2020 should have been treated as party donations. According to the prosecution, the NZ First Foundation's funds were being used as a "slush fund" to cover party expenses including leasing and furnishing office space for the party's Wellington headquarters, election campaigning, and fundraisers. Wicks claimed that the defendants rather than the party's leadership controlled these funds.[100]

On 8 June, the party's former director of operations Apirana Dawson testified that the party had established the NZ First Foundation in response to a shortfall in donations. Unlike other political parties, NZ First did not require its MPs to tithe part of their salary to the party.[101] On 9 June, several former NZ First donors testified at the trial. The defendants' lawyers denied that any criminal offending occurred and claimed that the NZ First Foundation had used the funds as the party leadership expected. The party's former South Island vice-president John Thorn disputed the Serious Fraud Office's charge that the party leadership including Winston Peters were ignorant about the workings of the NZ First Foundation.[102]

On 10 June, former NZ First secretary Anne Martin testified that the secrecy around the NZ First Foundation's financial operations could expose the party to prosecution. In addition, the Court heard evidence that the Foundation had loaned the party NZ$73,000 after it incurred election expenses during the 2017 New Zealand general election. The Electoral Commission later determined the loan to be illegal.[103] On 20 June, the Serious Fraud Office testified that the defendants had transferred money into a second account outside of the control of elected party officials.[104] The following day, the Court heard testimony from former NZ First President Lester Grey, who had resigned in August 2019 after Peters and the party leadership had refused to provide him with information about certain party donations and bank accounts connected to the NZ First Foundation. Gray also testified that money raised by NZ First MP Clayton Mitchell was unaccounted for.[105] On 23 June, the Crown concluded its closing arguments against the defendants. The defence concluded its closing arguments on 27 June.[106]

On 20 July, High Court Justice Pheroze Jagose permanently suppressed the names of the two defendants in the NZ First Foundation fraud case.[107] On 22 July, the two defendants were acquitted by Justice Jagose. She accepted the defence's argument that the Crown had failed to prove its fraud case beyond a reasonable doubt. The defence had highlighted the Crown's failure to prove that party leader Peters had been deceived by the defendants. Following the trial, Peters welcomed Jagose's ruling as a vindication and claimed that the fraud allegations were "politically-motivated and spurious." He also accused the New Zealand media of using the NZ First Foundation case to discredit the party and stated that he would hold several unidentified journalists and media outlets accountable for alleged "abuse of power."[108]

In response to the NZ First Foundation trial verdict, Justice Minister Kiri Allan announced that the Government would be introducing new electoral donation amendment bill to widen the definition of political donations to include those donated to third-party entities and making it an offence not to pass political donations to a party's secretary. Other proposed measures include lowering the donation disclosure threshold from NZ$15,000 to NZ$5,000.[109]

2023 general election

Before the 2023 New Zealand general election, Winston Peters said that NZ First would not join a coalition Government with Labour.[110][111][112][113] In late March 2023, Peters announced that if elected into government, NZ First would remove Māori names from government departments and bring back English names.[114][115][116][117] The party opposed raising the superannuation eligibility age from 65 to 67 years.[118] It opposed vaccine mandates and proposed that gang affiliation should automatically serve as an aggravating factor in crime sentencing.[119]

On 23 July, NZ First launched its election campaign with the slogan "Take our country back." Peters announced that the party would campaign on five key issues: combating "racist separatism," fighting Australian-owned banks and the "supermarket duopoly," investing in health, social services, and elderly care, and adopting "tough on crime" policies including designating all gangs as terrorist organisations.[120] On 30 July, NZ First campaigned on moving the Ports of Auckland and the Royal New Zealand Navy's Devonport base to Northport, extending the North Island Main Trunk Line to Marsden Point, a new four-lane alternative highway through the Brynderwyn Range, and establishing a full inquiry into the Government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in New Zealand.[121][122]

On 13 August, Stuff reported that several NZ First candidates including property and commercial lawyer Kirsten Murfitt, Auckland consultant Janina Massee, Matamata-Piako district councillor Caleb Ansell, and Kevin Stone had expoused various controversial views including COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and "plandemic" conspiracy theories, New World Order conspiracy theories, climate skepticism, Qanon, and support for Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act, 2023. In response, Peters stated that NZ First's candidate list was provisional and defended the party's candidate selection process.[123]

On 16 August, NZ First released its policies on transgender people on bathrooms and sports; which included introducing legislation requiring public bodies to have "clearly demarcated" unisex and single-sex toilets, restricting toilet access to individuals from the opposite sex, and requiring sporting bodies to have an "exclusive biological female category."[124] On 20 August, NZ First released a policy of promoting English to the status of an official language of New Zealand and withdrawing from the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People.[125]

During the 2023 election, New Zealand First was returned to Parliament with 6.08% of the total party vote and eight list seats.[20]

Coalition with National: 2023–present

Main article: Sixth National Government of New Zealand

Following coalition talks, NZ First entered into a coalition agreement with the National and ACT parties.[126][127] As part of the NZ First-National coalition agreement, National would no longer proceed with its proposed foreign buyer tax but would instead fund tax cuts via reprioritisation and other forms of revenue gathering. The new Government would also scrap the previous Labour Government's fair pay agreements, proposed hate speech legislation, co-governance policies, Auckland light rail, Three Waters reform programme, and Māori Health Authority. In addition, fees-free tertiary education would be shifted from the first to last year of tertiary study.[127][128][129][130]

The Government also agreed to adopt NZ First's policy of establishing a NZ$1.2 billon Regional Infrastructure Fund, establishing English as an official language, and requiring government departments to use English for their primary names and communications, except for those dealing with Māori people. The Government also adopted NZ First's policy of halting all work related to the He Puapua report and confirming that the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples has no legal basis in New Zealand law. The Government also agreed to restore the right to local referendum on the establishment or ongoing use of Māori wards.[129][131][132]

As part of the NZ First-National coalition agreement the Government also agreed to end all remaining COVID-19 vaccine mandates and to hold an independent inquiry into how the COVID-19 pandemic was handled in New Zealand. This proposed independent inquiry is expected to examine the use of multiple lockdowns, vaccine procurement and efficacy, social and economic impacts on both national and regional levels, and whether decisions and actions taken by the Government were justified.[133][134] While the outgoing Labour Government had commissioned a Royal Commission of Inquiry into COVID-19 Lessons Learned, Peters claimed the inquiry's terms of reference were "too limited" during election campaigning.[134]

Within the National-led coalition government, Peters assumed the positions of Deputy Prime Minister (until 31 May 2025), Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Racing. Shane Jones became Minister for Oceans and Fisheries, Regional Development, and Resources. Casey Costello became Minister of Customs and Minister for Seniors. In addition, Mark Patterson became Minister for Rural Communities and Associate Minister of Agriculture while Jenny Marcroft became Under-Secretary to the Minister for Media and Communications.[135]

Ideology and policies

See also: Populism in New Zealand

Rather than defining the party's precise position on the left–right political spectrum, many political commentators simply label New Zealand First as populist,[4][5][6] although the party has also variously been described as centrist,[136][137][138] conservative,[15] socially conservative,[139] centre-right,[140][141] right-wing,[142][143][144][145] and right-wing populist.[146][147] Conversely, academic Professor Todd Donovan argues that "radical right / right-wing populist" is a misclassification of New Zealand First because it's neither radical nor right-wing.[148]

The party has long advocated direct democracy in the form of "binding citizen initiated referenda", to create "a democracy that is of the people and for the people", while forcing government "to accept the will of the people".[149] Peters has also used anti-establishment and anti-elite rhetoric,[150][151] such as criticising what he regards as the "intellectually arrogant elite in government and bureaucratic circles".[149]

At the core of New Zealand First's policies are its "Fifteen Fundamental Principles"; the first being "To put New Zealand and New Zealanders First".[152] They largely echo the policies that Winston Peters, the party's founder, has advocated during his career.[153] NZ First seeks to "promote and protect the customs, traditions and values of all New Zealanders".[154] Commentators have described the party, and Peters himself, as nationalist.[7][155] Former party official and parliamentary researcher Josh Van Veen has characterised the party as culturally conservative due to its emphasis on preserving heritage and respect for national symbols. Van Veen opines that New Zealand First's emphasis on an inclusive national identity has led to a marriage between liberal values and progressive nationalism.[89]

Social and economic policies

New Zealand First has been closely associated with its policies regarding the welfare of senior citizens[15] and its anti-immigration stance.[153][156] The party has frequently criticised immigration on economic, social and cultural grounds. It proposes an annual immigration cap of between 7,000 and 15,000 "seriously qualified" migrants, who would be expected to assimilate into New Zealand culture.[157]

Peters has on several occasions characterised the rate of Asian immigration into New Zealand as too high; in 2004, he stated: "We are being dragged into the status of an Asian colony and it is time that New Zealanders were placed first in their own country".[158] On 26 April 2005, he said: "Māori will be disturbed to know that in 17 years' time they will be outnumbered by Asians in New Zealand", an estimate disputed by Statistics New Zealand, the government's statistics bureau, which stated that with a 145% increase from 270,000 to 670,000, the Asian community would still be smaller in 2021 than the Māori, who would increase by 5% to 760,000 over the same timeframe. Peters quickly rebutted that Statistics New Zealand has underestimated the growth rate of the Asian community in the past, as the Bureau had corrected its estimation by a 66,000 increase between 2003 and 2005.[159] In April 2008, Deputy Leader Peter Brown drew widespread attention after voicing similar views and expressing concern at the growth of New Zealand's ethnic Asian population: "If we continue this open door policy there is real danger we will be inundated with people who have no intention of integrating into our society … They will form their own mini-societies to the detriment of integration and that will lead to division, friction and resentment".[160]

New Zealand First also espouses a mixture of economic policies. Peters has called for economic nationalism.[161] The party supports raising the minimum wage to a living wage,[162] opposes the privatisation of state assets (particularly to overseas buyers) and advocates buying back former state-owned enterprises.[58] These policies align it with views generally found on the left of New Zealand politics.[163][25] On the other hand, it favours reducing taxation and reducing the size of government (policies typical of the New Zealand right) and espouses both social conservatism[15] and welfare chauvinism.[12] New Zealand First provided for its strong support among elderly voters[136] by its repeal of the surtax on superannuation, institution of a superannuation level of 66% of the net average wage,[164] and introduction of the SuperGold Card (see § SuperGold Card).[165] The party opposes any raising of the retirement age.[166]

"Law and order" issues feature heavily in the party's policy platform.[25][167] New Zealand First advocates a stricter criminal code, longer judicial sentences, and the lowering of the age of criminal responsibility.[168] In 2011, at its annual convention, New Zealand First vowed to repeal the controversial Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007 (which it characterised as the "anti-smacking law"), which a vast majority of voters rejected in a non-binding 2009 citizen-initiated referendum.[169] In the 2017 general election campaign, the party again vowed to repeal the Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act; it also ruled out a confidence and supply arrangement or coalition with any party which opposed the policy.[170]

In 2013, all seven NZ First MPs voted against the third reading of the Marriage Amendment Bill, which permitted same sex marriage in New Zealand.[171][172] Peters had called for a referendum on the issue.[173][172]

SuperGold Card

SuperGold Card, a flagship policy

The SuperGold Card, a discounts and concessions card for senior citizens and veterans,[174] has been a major initiative of the party.[175]

New Zealand First established a research team to design the SuperGold Card,[176] which included public transport benefits like free off-peak travel (funded by the government) and discounts from businesses and companies across thousands of outlets.[177][178] Peters negotiated with then-Prime Minister Helen Clark, despite widespread opposition to the card on the grounds of high cost.[179] As a condition of the 2005 confidence and supply agreement[180] between New Zealand First and the Labour Government, Peters launched the SuperGold Card in August 2007.[181]

The card is available to all eligible New Zealanders over the age of 65. A Veterans' SuperGold Card also exists for those who have served in the New Zealand Defence Force in a recognised war or emergency.[182] The card provides over 600,000[183] New Zealanders with access to a wide range of government and local authority services, business discounts, entitlements and concessions, such as hearing aid subsidies.[184] However, it was argued much of the extra costs were 'book entries'. For example, the Government subsidises much of public transport anyway, where buses and trains travel with empty seats during off-peak hours; SuperGold Card commuters are simply using buses and trains during off-peak times.[185]

SuperGold Card came under threat in 2010[186] when National Minister Steven Joyce tried to terminate free SuperGold transport on some more expensive public transport services, including the Waiheke Island ferry and the Wairarapa Connection train.[187] The Minister retreated when he came under fire from senior citizens.[citation needed]

In October 2019, Peters announced a $7.7 million investment into the SuperGold Card scheme. The "upgrade" includes a new website, a mobile app, and 500 new partner businesses.[188]

Relations with Māori

Winston Peters is half-Māori. At its high-water mark after the 1996 election, the party won all Māori electorates (the five MPs were nicknamed the "Tight Five"). It continued to receive significant support from voters registered in Māori electorates for some years afterward.[189] New Zealand First no longer supports the retention of the Māori electorates and has declared that it will not stand candidates in the Māori electorates in the future. It did not stand candidates in the Māori electorates in the 2002, 2005, or 2008 general elections.[190]

New Zealand First is further characterised by its strong stance on the Treaty of Waitangi.[25] The party refers to the Treaty as a "source of national pride" but does not support it becoming a part of constitutional law.[191] Peters has criticised what he refers to as a Treaty "Grievance Industry"—which profits from making frivolous claims of violations of the Treaty—and the cost of Treaty negotiations and settlement payments.[192][193] The party has called for an end to "special treatment" of Māori.[194]

On 19 July 2017, Peters promised that a New Zealand First government would hold two binding referendums on whether Maori electorates should be abolished and whether the number of MPs should be reduced to 100.[70] Following the 2017 general election, Peters indicated that he would be willing to consider dropping his call for a referendum on abolishing the Māori electorates during coalition-forming negotiations with Labour leader Jacinda Ardern.[74]

In 2023, Peters expressed disapproval of the utilisation of te reo Māori names for government departments, describing them as "incomprehensible" to the majority of New Zealanders and criticising "tokenism". The coalition government, which New Zealand First has joined, has agreed to rename departments to "have their primary name in English, except for those specifically related to Māori".[195]

Electoral history

Parliament

Election Leader # of candidates nominated
(electorate/list)
# of seats won # of party votes[a] % of party vote Government or opposition
1993 Winston Peters 84/0
2 / 99
161,481 8.40% Opposition
1996 65/62
17 / 120
276,603 13.35% Coalition with National
1999 67/40
5 / 120
87,926[40] 4.26% Opposition
2002 24/22
13 / 120
210,912 10.38%
2005 40/40
7 / 121
130,115 5.72% Confidence and supply
2008 22/22
0 / 122
95,356 4.07% Extra-parliamentary
2011 32/33
8 / 121
147,544 6.59% Opposition
2014 31/31
11 / 121
208,300 8.66%
2017 56/57
9 / 120
186,706 7.20% Coalition with Labour
2020 27/28[196]
0 / 120
75,021 2.60% Extra-parliamentary
2023 34/35[197]
8 / 123
173,425 6.08% Coalition with National and ACT

Māori electorates

Election # of seats won Change
1993
1 / 4
Increase new
1996
5 / 5
Increase 4
1999
0 / 6
Decrease 5
2002–onward Did not contest

Office-holders

Leader Deputy Leader President
Winston Peters
18 July 1993 – present
Tau Henare
18 July 1993 – 19 December 1998
Doug Woolerton
1993–2005
Peter Brown
19 December 1998 – 14 February 2009
Dail Jones
2005–2008
George Groombridge
2008–2010
Vacant
2009–2013
Kevin Gardiner
2010–2013
Tracey Martin
23 October 2013 – 3 July 2015
Anne Martin
2013–2015
Ron Mark
3 July 2015 – 27 February 2018
Brent Catchpole
2015–2018
Fletcher Tabuteau
27 February 2018 – 2020
Lester Gray
2018–2019
Kristin Campbell Smith
2019–2020
Shane Jones

2020–present

Julian Paul
2021–present

See also

References

  1. ^ For the 1993 election this is the national popular vote. For subsequent elections this is the party list vote.
  1. ^ Cheng, Derek (20 June 2021). "Winston Peters announces New Zealand First will be back in 2023". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  2. ^ Wade, Amelia (20 December 2020). "NZ First president and secretary resign while party reviews election campaign". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 20 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  3. ^ "New Zealand First Party". New Zealand Parliament Pāremata Aotearoa. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  4. ^ a b Boston, Jonathan (2003). New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002. Victoria University Press. p. 240. ISBN 9780864734686.
  5. ^ a b Bale, Tim; Blomgren, Magnus (2008). "Close but no cigar?: Newly governing and nearly governing parties in Sweden and New Zealand". New Parties in Government: In Power for the First Time. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 9780415404990.
  6. ^ a b Betz, Hans-Georg; Immerfall, Stefan, eds. (1998). "New Zealand First". The New Politics of the Right: Neo-populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. St Martin's Press / Macmillan. ISBN 9780312213381.
  7. ^ a b Webb, Paul (2002). Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford University Press. p. 409. ISBN 9780199240555. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  8. ^ Mona Krook; Joni Lovenduski; Judith Squires (2006). "Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand: gender quotes in the context of citizenship models". In Drude Dahlerup (ed.). Women, Quotas and Politics. Routledge. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-134-18651-8.
  9. ^ a b David Hall (2021). "Rhetoric and reality in New Zeland's climate leadership". In Rüdiger K.W. Wurzel; Mikael Skou Andersen; Paul Tobin (eds.). Climate Governance across the Globe: Pioneers, Leaders and Followers. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-000-320381. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  10. ^ Tony Ballantyne (2012). Webs of Empire: Locating New Zealand's Colonial Past. UBC Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7748-2771-3.
  11. ^ Stephen White; Antoine Bilodeau (2014). "Canadian Immigrant Electoral Support in Comparative Perspective". In Martin Papillon; Luc Turgeon; Jennifer Wallner; Stephen White (eds.). Comparing Canada: Methods and Perspectives on Canadian Politics. UBC Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7748-2786-7.
  12. ^ a b Benjamin Moffitt (2017). "Populism in Australia and New Zealand". In Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser; Paul A. Taggart; Paulina Ochoa Espej; Pierre Ostiguy (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-198-803560. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  13. ^ Bavas, Josh (24 September 2017). "New Zealand election: Winston Peters 'kingmaker' in hung parliament as nation awaits result". ABC News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  14. ^ Goldblatt, David (2005). Governance in the Asia-Pacific. Routledge. p. 121.
  15. ^ a b c d Karl R. DeRouen; Paul Bellamy (2008). International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 528. ISBN 978-0-275-99255-2. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  16. ^ Richard Mulgan, ed. (2013). Politics in New Zealand: Third Edition. Auckland University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-869-406776. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  17. ^ a b "2017 General Election – Official Result". New Zealand Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Coalition agreement NZ First and Labour". New Zealand Labour Party. Scoop. 24 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  19. ^ a b "2020 General Election and Referendums – Official Result". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 6 November 2020.[permanent dead link]
  20. ^ a b "Official count – Overall Results". Electoral Commission. 3 November 2023. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  21. ^ a b c d Gulliver, Aimee. "Timeline: Winston Peters and Northland". Stuff. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  22. ^ a b Barber, David (12 June 1992). "NZ Party Moves To Expel Peters". The Sydney Morning Herald. p. 13.
  23. ^ Barber, David (15 September 1993). "NZ set for November poll. Economic recovery under way, says Bolger". The Age. p. 6.
  24. ^ "Rt Hon Winston Peters". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  25. ^ a b c d e Hayward, Janine; Shaw, Richard (2016). Historical Dictionary of New Zealand. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 221. ISBN 9781442274396.
  26. ^ Barber, David (15 September 1993). "NZ set for November poll. Economic recovery under way, says Bolger". The Age. p. 9.
  27. ^ "GENERAL ELECTIONS 1890–1993". Electoral Commission. 30 August 2016. Archived from the original on 30 December 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  28. ^ "NZ Polled". www.polled.co.nz. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  29. ^ Sullivan, Ann (18 July 2016). "Tōrangapū – Māori and political parties – National, New Zealand First, Māori and Mana parties". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  30. ^ Sachdeva, Sam (30 July 2017). "Reading the tea leaves from 1996". Newsroom. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  31. ^ Easton, Brian (1 October 2013). The Whimpering of the State: Policy After MMP. Auckland University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-86940-796-4.
  32. ^ Hazan, Reuven Y.; Longley, Lawrence D. (4 April 2014). The Uneasy Relationships Between Parliamentary Members and Leaders. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-135-26838-1. Archived from the original on 13 May 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  33. ^ "Mallard tries to stay afloat". Stuff. 31 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  34. ^ "'Close eye' on TV grant to Tuku Morgan". NZ Herald. 1 October 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  35. ^ "The Challenger – Jenny Shipley". RNZ. 27 April 2017. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  36. ^ "Once, twice, three times a break-up". The New Zealand Herald. 29 August 2007. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  37. ^ "NZ's greatest waka-jumpers of all time". Otago Daily Times. 2 March 2018. Archived from the original on 8 August 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  38. ^ "Summary of Overall Results". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  39. ^ "Winning Electorate Candidate Votes". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  40. ^ a b "Official Count Results – Overall Status". Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  41. ^ Cooke, Henry (21 June 2018). "A brief history of Winston Raymond Peters". Stuff. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  42. ^ Masters, Catherine (19 July 2002). "Peters looks on winning treble". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 8 June 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  43. ^ "Peters' baubles get a parliamentary bashing". NZ Herald. 1 October 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  44. ^ "Charity turns down NZ First's donation". The New Zealand Herald. 18 June 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  45. ^ "Budget 2007". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  46. ^ "Budget 2008". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  47. ^ "Peters concludes successful PNG visit". The Beehive. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  48. ^ "When Condoleezza met Winston – New Zealand News". NZ Herald. 1 October 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  49. ^ "Winston Peters – Going, going ..." The New Zealand Herald. 29 August 2008.[permanent dead link]
  50. ^ "Peters 'hurt but calm' in stepping down". The New Zealand Herald. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  51. ^ a b "Peters describes censuring as 'useless facade'". NZ Herald. 1 October 2023. Archived from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  52. ^ Claire Trevett and Patrick Gower (5 November 2008). "Police inquiry clears NZ First". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  53. ^ Gower, Patrick (9 November 2008). "Winston Peters: Gone but never forgotten". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  54. ^ "NZ First deputy leader resigns". Stuff. NZPA. 14 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  55. ^ Vance, Andrea (16 November 2011). "Winston Peters winner in minor party debate". Stuff. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  56. ^ Commission, New Zealand Electoral. "NEW ZEALAND ELECTION RESULTS". electionresults.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 29 February 2000. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  57. ^ "Horan admits 144 TAB calls". 3 News NZ. 10 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  58. ^ a b "NZ First Committed To Buying Back State-Owned Assets | Scoop News". scoop.co.nz. 20 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  59. ^ [1] 7[dead link]
  60. ^ "Election results 2014: Winston Peters blames Labour and Greens for ro…". Archived from the original on 20 September 2014.
  61. ^ Jones, Nicholas (3 July 2015). "Ron Mark new NZ First deputy leader". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  62. ^ "NZ First launches on loans and regional returns". Radio New Zealand. 25 June 2017. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  63. ^ Burr, Lloyd (19 June 2016). "State of the Parties: New Zealand First report card". Newshub. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  64. ^ Thompson, Sam (16 September 2017). "NZ First pledge to lift minimum wage, lower company tax". Newstalk ZB. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  65. ^ "New Logo Being Rolled Out". Scoop. 28 June 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  66. ^ a b Trevett, Claire (9 July 2017). "Green Party's Metiria Tūrei 'racist' call riles NZ First's Winston Peters". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  67. ^ Coates, Barry. "Great Together". The Daily Blog. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  68. ^ Davison, Isac (13 July 2017). "Green MP's comments on NZ First the 'height of stupidity' – Winston Peters". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  69. ^ "International Travel and Migration: June 2017". stats.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  70. ^ a b Moir, Jo (16 July 2017). "Winston Peters delivers bottom-line binding referendum on abolishing Maori seats". Stuff. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  71. ^ "NZ First leader Winston Peters confirms Maori seat referendum for all voters". The New Zealand Herald. 19 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  72. ^ "New Zealand election stalemate leaves maverick populist Winston Peters as kingmakeR". South China Morning Post. 23 September 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  73. ^ Kirk, Stacey; Walters, Laura (28 September 2017). "Recommended by Winston Peters launches tirade on media, stays mum on coalition talks". Stuff. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  74. ^ a b Burrows, Matt (28 September 2017). "Winston Peters hints at U-turn on Māori seat referendum". Newshub. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  75. ^ Barraclough, Breanna (19 October 2017). "NZ's new Government: NZ First chooses Labour". Newshub. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  76. ^ "Ministerial List". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  77. ^ "NZ First, Green Party, Labour coalition deals revealed". Stuff. 24 October 2017. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  78. ^ Cheng, Derek (30 October 2017). "Anti-smacking referendum dropped during coalition negotiations". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 2 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  79. ^ Guy, Alice (21 October 2017). "Local kaumatua not surprised Maori seats will be retained". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  80. ^ Jancic, Boris (6 August 2019). "NZ First blindsides Andrew Little with talk of abortion referendum". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  81. ^ a b Patterson, Jane (8 August 2019). "Abortion legislation: 'It wasn't part of our coalition agreement so why is it there' – Winston Peters". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  82. ^ Thomas, Ben (9 August 2019). "Is Winston Peters's abortion referendum call a ploy to get Labour to break up with him?". Metro. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  83. ^ Moir, Jo (7 August 2019). "Abortion reform: Andrew Little says no deal as Winston Peters springs referendum call". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  84. ^ "Abortion Legislation Bill passes third and final reading in Parliament". RNZ. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  85. ^ "Abortion Legislation Bill – Third Reading (resumed)". New Zealand Parliament. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.[permanent dead link]
  86. ^ "Euthanasia bill passes final vote, goes to referendum". The New Zealand Herald. 13 November 2019. Archived from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  87. ^ Cooke, Henry (13 November 2019). "Euthanasia bill passes 69–51, sending the final decision to a referendum". Stuff. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  88. ^ "Ardern's Labour Party wins New Zealand election". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2020. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  89. ^ a b Van Veen, Josh (18 October 2020). "Where to now for Winston Peters and New Zealand First?". The Spinoff. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  90. ^ Manch, Thomas; Jancic, Boris (18 October 2020). "Election 2020: Shane Jones drowns his sorrows during harrowing night for NZ First". Stuff. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  91. ^ "President and secretary general resign from NZ First". Stuff. 20 December 2020. Archived from the original on 20 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  92. ^ Cheng, Derek (20 June 2021). "Winston Peters announces New Zealand First will be back in 2023". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  93. ^ Cooke, Henry (20 June 2021). "Winston Peters attacks Labour, 'cancel culture', and te reo usage in comeback speech". Stuff. Archived from the original on 20 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  94. ^ Cooke, Henry (18 February 2020). "Serious Fraud Office will investigate New Zealand First Foundation". Stuff. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  95. ^ a b Patterson, Jane (18 February 2020). "New Zealand First Foundation: Serious Fraud Office confirms investigation". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Attempts to 'destroy New Zealand First and drive Winston Peters out of politics' will fail, Shane Jones claims". Newshub. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  97. ^ Cheng, Derek (29 September 2020). "Findings of Serious Fraud Office probe into NZ First Foundation released". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  98. ^ "Winston Peters claims Serious Fraud Office biased: 'It's just unfair'". Radio New Zealand. 30 September 2020. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  99. ^ Manch, Thomas (30 September 2020). "Election 2020: Winston Peters tried to suppress NZ First Foundation charges until after election". Stuff. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  100. ^ Hurley, Sam (7 June 2022). "NZ First Foundation case: Trial begins for duo accused of scheme to hide and divert party donations". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 11 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  101. ^ Hurley, Sam (8 June 2022). "NZ First Foundation trial: Former staffer lifts curtain on party's funding issues". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 11 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  102. ^ Smith, Anneke (9 June 2022). "Donors confused by NZ First Foundation, trial told". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 9 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  103. ^ Smith, Anneke (10 June 2022). "New Zealand First's secretary warned foundation could compromise party, court told". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 11 June 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  104. ^ "SFO details not one, but two NZ First-linked funds". Radio New Zealand. 20 June 2022. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  105. ^ Murphy, Tim (21 June 2022). "Why NZ First president quit over party's 'moral and business' failings". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  106. ^ Smith, Anneke (23 June 2022). "Crown calls NZ First Foundation deed 'a sham' as it closes donations case". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  107. ^ Hurley, Sam (20 July 2022). "NZ First Foundation case: High Court permanently suppresses identities of accused pair". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  108. ^ "NZ First Foundation case: Men charged over handling of donations found not guilty". Radio New Zealand. 22 July 2022. Archived from the original on 24 July 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  109. ^ Trevett, Claire (1 August 2022). "Political donations: Justice Minister Kiri Allan – Govt will close NZ First Foundation loophole for election year". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  110. ^ "NZ First leader Winston Peters rules out coalition with Labour". Newshub. Archived from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  111. ^ "Winston Peters won't work with Labour: 'I'm focused on one party's outcome and that's NZ First'". 20 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  112. ^ "'No one gets to lie to me twice' – Winston Peters reveals the party he won't work with". Archived from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  113. ^ "Peters severs ties with NZ Labour, lashes Ardern". 22 November 2022. Archived from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  114. ^ "Winston Peters: NZ First would remove Māori names from Govt depts". Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  115. ^ "NZ First leader Winston Peters wants government departments to have English names again". Radio New Zealand. 27 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  116. ^ Pearse, Adam (23 March 2023). "Peters wants to scrap Govt department Māori names". nzherald.co.nz. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  117. ^ "Winston Peters rails against secret 'woke agenda' in campaign speech". Radio New Zealand. 24 March 2023. Archived from the original on 31 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  118. ^ "New Zealand First 2023 Policy". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 16 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  119. ^ "New Zealand First 2023 Policy". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 16 June 2023. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  120. ^ McConnell, Glenn (23 July 2023). "'Take our country back': Winston Peters fires up as he launches comeback campaign". Stuff. Archived from the original on 23 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  121. ^ "On the campaign trail: ERA reforms, gang talk, moving ports and animal rights". Radio New Zealand. 30 July 2023. Archived from the original on 15 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  122. ^ "On the campaign trail: ERA reforms, gang talk, moving ports and animal rights". Radio New Zealand. 30 July 2023. Archived from the original on 15 August 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  123. ^ Mitchell, Charlie (13 August 2023). "Chemtrails, 9/11 and vaccine nanobots: The digital trail of NZ First's could-be MPs". Stuff. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  124. ^ Desmarais, Felix (17 August 2023). "Luxon says NZ First transgender bathrooms policy 'on another planet'". 1 News. Archived from the original on 19 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  125. ^ McGuire, Casper (20 August 2023). "Winston Peters proposes to make English an official language". 1 News. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  126. ^ Couglan, Thomas (24 November 2023). "Coalition talks live updates: New Government next week, legislation bonfire planned for first 100 days". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  127. ^ a b Quinlivan, Mark (24 November 2023). "Election 2023: National, ACT and NZ First's Coalition agreement". Newshub. Archived from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  128. ^ "Live: Luxon makes call to Gov-General to say he can form a govt". 1 News. TVNZ. 24 November 2023. Archived from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  129. ^ a b Palmer, Russell (24 November 2023). "Coalition details at a glance: What you need to know". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  130. ^ Daalder, Mark (24 November 2023). "Which policies survived the negotiations – and which didn't". Newsroom. Archived from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  131. ^ "What the new government may mean for Māori, Te Tiriti". 1 News. TVNZ. 24 November 2023. Archived from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  132. ^ LaHatte, Deborah (24 November 2023). "Treaty issues among policy compromises for new government". Te Ao Māori News. Māori Television. Archived from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  133. ^ Hill, Ruth (26 November 2023). "Coalition government inquiry into pandemic response could undermine Royal Commission – expert". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 26 November 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  134. ^ a b Martin, Hannah (3 December 2023). "What we know about the Government's Covid-19 inquiry". Stuff. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  135. ^ Palmer, Russell (24 November 2023). "Cabinet lineup for new government unveiled - who gets what?". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  136. ^ a b Roper, Juliet; Holtz-Bacha, Christina; Mazzoleni, Gianpietro (2004). The Politics of Representation: Election Campaigning and Proportional Representation. Peter Lang. p. 40. ISBN 9780820461489.
  137. ^
  138. ^ New Zealand Country Study Guide Strategic Information and Developments. Intl Business Pubns USA. 2012. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4387-7517-3.
  139. ^ Josephine Toop (2017). "International Environmental Law". In Christian Riffel; Róisín Burke (eds.). New Zealand Yearbook of International Law: Volume 15, 2017. BRILL. p. 189. ISBN 9789004387935. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  140. ^ Elizabeth McLeay (2006). "Climbing on: Rule, values and women's representation in New Zealand parliament". In Marian Sawer; Manon Tremblay; Linda Trimble (eds.). Representing Women in Parliament: A Comparative Study. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 9781134162932. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  141. ^ Rob Salmond (2003). "Choosing Candidates: Labour and National in 2002". In Jonathan Boston; Stephen Church; Stephen Levine; Elizabeth McLeay; Nigel S. Roberts (eds.). New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002. Victoria University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780864734686. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  142. ^ "New Zealand PM votes a week before polls close in election". The Independent. Via AP news wire. 10 October 2020. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  143. ^ Menon, Praveen (28 January 2020). "NZ's Ardern starts election year with big infrastructure spending pledge". Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023. Two October opinion polls showed support for her ruling coalition, formed with the right wing New Zealand First Party, at its lowest since 2017.
  144. ^ Luscombe, Belinda (17 October 2020). "New Zealand's Jacinda Ardern Just Won a Landslide Victory. What Will She Do Now?". Time. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  145. ^ Miao, Michelle (2019). "The End of Penal Populism: The Rise of Populist Politics". Academia. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  146. ^ Marcia Macaulay (2018). "Conclusion". In Marcia Macaulay (ed.). Populist Discourse: International Perspectives. Springer. p. 210. ISBN 978-3-319-97388-3.
  147. ^ Scott Brenton (2016). The Politics of Budgetary Surplus. Springer. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-137-58597-4. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  148. ^ Donovan, Todd (3 May 2020). "Misclassifying parties as radical right / right wing populist: a comparative analysis of New Zealand First". Political Science. 72 (1): 58–76. doi:10.1080/00323187.2020.1855992. S2CID 229936248.
  149. ^ a b Peters, Winston (12 November 2003). "Replacing Political Tyranny With Direct Democracy | Scoop News". Scoop. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  150. ^ Duncan, Grant. "Who's NZ's anti-establishment candidate? – Massey University". massey.ac.nz. Massey University. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  151. ^ Rydgren, Jens (2005). Movements of Exclusion: Radical Right-wing Populism in the Western World. Nova Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 9781594540967. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  152. ^ "Our Fifteen Principles". nzfirst.org.nz. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  153. ^ a b Landis, Dan; Albert, Rosita D. (2012). Handbook of Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 52. ISBN 9781461404484. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  154. ^ "New Zealand First Constitution" (PDF). elections.org.nz. 2016. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  155. ^ "NZ gets anti-migrant foreign minister". The Age. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  156. ^ "Policies | Immigration". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  157. ^ Edens, John; Cooke, Henry (7 June 2016). "Winston Peters wants a drastic reduction in NZ immigration: Does he have a point?". Stuff. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  158. ^ "Winston Peters' memorable quotes" Archived 16 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Age, 18 October 2005
  159. ^ Berry, Ruth (27 April 2005). "Peter's Asian warning". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  160. ^ "Asian population growth shows inundation danger – MP". Stuff. 31 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  161. ^ Peters, Winston (10 August 2014). "In Pursuit of Economic Nationalism | Scoop News". Scoop. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  162. ^ Smellie, Pattrick. "NZ First seeks minimum wage at $20 an hour within three years". NBR. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  163. ^ Starke, P. (2007). Radical Welfare State Retrenchment: A Comparative Analysis. Springer. p. 119. ISBN 9780230288577. Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  164. ^ "Calculators". superlife.co.nz. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  165. ^ "Policies | Senior Citizens". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  166. ^ "Winston Peters' coalition hinges on retirement age". Newshub. 5 March 2017. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  167. ^ "Policies | Law and Order". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  168. ^ Peters, Winston (24 March 2017). "We Will Return NZ To: Crime Doesn't Pay". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  169. ^ "'We are not a cling-on party' – Peters slams PM, 'sordid cronyism'". The New Zealand Herald. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  170. ^ "NZ First Repeal of Anti-Smacking Law Welcomed" (Press release). Family First. 26 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  171. ^ Ball, Andy; Singh, Harkanwal (17 April 2013). "Marriage equality bill – How MPs voted". Stuff. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  172. ^ a b David Carter, Winston Peters (17 April 2013). "Volume 689, Week 40 – Wednesday, 17 April 2013". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). New Zealand: House of Representatives. p. 9429. Archived 16 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  173. ^ "Parliament passes same-sex marriage bill". Radio New Zealand. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  174. ^ "SuperGold Card (MSD website)". New Zealand Government (Ministry of Social Development). Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  175. ^ "SuperGold benefits for travel, hearing aids". beehive.govt.nz (Press release). New Zealand Government. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  176. ^ "Update: The SuperGold Card (MSD website)". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  177. ^ "What is the SuperGold card? ('busit' website)". Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  178. ^ "SuperGold Card directory updated (NZ Government website)". Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  179. ^ "Social Security (Entitlement Cards) Amendment Bill – Third Reading (HANSARD)". Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  180. ^ "Confidence and Supply Agreement with NZ First". NZ Government. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  181. ^ "188 businesses add weight to SuperGold Card (NZ Government website)". Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  182. ^ "Veterans SuperGold Card (MSD website)". Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  183. ^ "SuperGold Card Why Join? (MSD website)". Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  184. ^ "Increased hearing aid subsidy for SuperGold Card (Scoop.co.nz)". Archived from the original on 3 January 2024. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  185. ^ "Using your SuperGold Card on public transport". supergold.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  186. ^ "Seniors' Super Gold Card could be clipped (kiwidollar.com blog 1-3-2010)". Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
  187. ^ "Hasty U-Turn Over SuperGold Card (Colin Espiner, The Press 15-3-2010)". 14 March 2010. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  188. ^ Small, Zane (1 October 2019). "Winston Peters hails 'major' SuperGold Card upgrade including app, updated website". Newshub. Archived from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  189. ^ Henderson, John Trolove; Bellamy, Paul (2002). Democracy in New Zealand: International IDEA Country Study. Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Canterbury. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-877175-04-6. Archived from the original on 7 May 2023. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  190. ^ "Tōrangapū – Māori and political parties – National, New Zealand First, Māori and Mana parties". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  191. ^ "Policies | Maori Affairs". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  192. ^ Peters, Winston (4 February 2017). "Treaty of Waitangi as it was and should be". New Zealand First. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  193. ^ Aimee, Gulliver (11 August 2015). "'Colossal, unjustified' payments to Treaty negotiators". Stuff. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  194. ^ "Peters unveils NZ First treaty policy". The New Zealand Herald. 22 June 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  195. ^ Hageman, Mitchell (1 December 2023). "'Speak it more than ever before': Iwi's te reo rallying cry amid deputy PM's attacks". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 1 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  196. ^ "New Zealand First list rankings: Marcroft drops eight places". RNZ. 17 September 2020. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  197. ^ "Election 2023: New Zealand First releases party list". RNZ. 16 September 2023. Archived from the original on 2 November 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.