|Originally England, Scottish Lowlands and the North Sea coast from Friesland to Jutland; today worldwide|
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (English and Scots) and Frisian varieties. The Northumbrian Language Society also considers Northumbrian an Anglic language.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are distinct from other West Germanic languages due to several sound changes: besides the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, which is present in Low German as well, Anglo-Frisian brightening and palatalization of /k/ are for the most part unique to the modern Anglo-Frisian languages:
The grouping is usually implied as a separate branch in regards to the tree model. According to this reading, English and Frisian would have had a proximal ancestral form in common that no other attested group shares. The early Anglo-Frisian varieties, like Old English and Old Frisian, and the third Ingvaeonic group at the time, the ancestor of Low German Old Saxon, were spoken by intercommunicating populations. While this has been cited as a reason for a few traits exclusively shared by Old Saxon and either Old English or Old Frisian, a genetic unity of the Anglo-Frisian languages beyond that of an Ingvaeonic subfamily can not be considered a majority opinion. In fact, the groupings of Ingvaeonic and West Germanic languages are highly debated, even though they rely on a lot more innovations and evidence. Some scholars consider a Proto-Anglo-Frisian language as disproven, as far as such postulates are falsifiable. Nevertheless, the close ties and strong similarities between the Anglic and the Frisian grouping are part of the scientific consensus. Therefore, the concept of Anglo-Frisian languages can be useful and is today employed without these implications.
Geography isolated the settlers of Great Britain from Continental Europe, except from contact with communities capable of open water navigation. This resulted in more Old Norse and Norman language influences during the development of Modern English, whereas the modern Frisian languages developed under contact with the southernly Germanic populations, restricted to the continent.
The proposed Anglo-Frisian family tree is:
Anglic, Insular Germanic, or English languages encompass Old English and all the linguistic varieties descended from it. These include Middle English, Early Modern English, and Modern English; Early Scots, Middle Scots, and Modern Scots; and the now extinct Yola and Fingallian in Ireland.
English-based creole languages are not generally included, as mainly only their lexicon and not necessarily their grammar, phonology, etc. comes from Modern and Early Modern English.
|Northumbrian||Mercian and Kentish||West Saxon|
|Early Midland and Southeastern
|Early Southern and Southwestern|
|Middle Scots||Northern Early Modern English||Midland Early Modern English||Metropolitan Early Modern English||Southern Early Modern English||Southwestern Early Modern English, Yola, Fingallian|
|Modern Scots||Northern Modern English||East and West Midlands Modern English||Standard Modern English||Southern Modern English||West Country Modern English|
Main article: Frisian languages
The Frisian languages are a group of languages spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. West Frisian, by far the most spoken of the three, is an official language in the Dutch province of Friesland and on two of the West Frisian Islands. North Frisian is spoken in the northernmost German district of Nordfriesland, in North Frisia, and on some North Frisian Islands. The East Frisian language is spoken in Saterland in Germany.
The following is a summary of the major sound changes affecting vowels in chronological order. For additional detail, see Phonological history of Old English. That these were simultaneous and in that order for all Anglo-Frisian languages is considered disproved by some scholars.
These are the words for the numbers one to 12 in the Anglo-Frisian languages, with Dutch and German included for comparison:
|North Frisian (Mooring dialect)||iinj
* Ae [eː], [jeː] is an adjectival form used before nouns.
|until, till||until, till||oant||tot||bis|
|have been (was)||wis||ha west||ben geweest||bin gewesen|
|two sheep||twa sheep||twa skiep||twee schapen||zwei Schafe|
|ear||ear, lug (colloquial)||ear||oor||Ohr|
|it goes on||it gaes/gangs on||it giet oan||het gaat door||es geht weiter/los|
|good day||guid day||goeie (dei)||goedendag||guten Tag|
Main article: Ingvaeonic languages
Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the West Germanic languages that encompasses Old Frisian, Old English,[note 4] and Old Saxon.
It is not thought of as a monolithic proto-language, but rather as a group of closely related dialects that underwent several areal changes in relative unison.
The grouping was first proposed in Nordgermanen und Alemannen (1942) by the German linguist and philologist Friedrich Maurer (1898–1984), as an alternative to the strict tree diagrams which had become popular following the work of the 19th-century linguist August Schleicher and which assumed the existence of an Anglo-Frisian group.