Namibian Black German
Küchendeutsch
Native toNamibia
Native speakers
69
German-based pidgin
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
GlottologNone

Namibian Black German, also NBG, (German: Küchendeutsch, "kitchen German") is a pidgin language of Namibia that derives from standard German.[1] It is nearly extinct.[2] It was spoken mostly by Namibians who did not learn standard German during the period of German rule. It was never a first language. It is currently spoken as a second language by people over 50 years old, who today usually also speak German, Afrikaans, or English.[3]

History

Colonial acquisition of German in Namibia often took place outside of formal education and was primarily self-taught. Like many pidgin languages, Namibian Black German developed through limited access to the standard language and was restricted to the work environment.

Currently several hundred thousand Namibians speak German as a second language, and while Namibian German often does not adhere to standard German, it is not pidgin.[4]

Prepositions

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English and Afrikaans have left an influence on the development of NBG, leading to three primary prepositional patterns:[5]

Examples

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Examples of phrases with Standard German equivalents:

References

  1. ^ Deumert, Ama (2003). Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: evidence from a non-canonical contact language. Language Sciences. 25. Elsevier Ltd. pp. 561–613. doi:10.1016/S0388-0001(03)00033-0.
  2. ^ Maitz, Péter; Volker, Craig Alan (2017-12-04). "Documenting Unserdeutsch". Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. 32 (2): 365–397. doi:10.1075/jpcl.32.2.06mai. ISSN 0920-9034.
  3. ^ Deumert, Ana (2018-11-09). "Settler colonialism speaks". Language Ecology. 2 (1–2): 91–111. doi:10.1075/le.18006.deu. ISSN 2452-1949.
  4. ^ Maitz, Péter; Németh, Attila (March 2014). "Language Contact and Morphosyntactic Complexity: Evidence from German". Journal of Germanic Linguistics. 26 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1017/S1470542713000184. ISSN 1470-5427.
  5. ^ Shah, Sheena (2007). "German in a contact situation: The case of Namibian German". EDUSA. 2 (2): 20–44.

Further reading