This is a list of languages and groups of languages that developed within Jewish diaspora communities through contact with surrounding languages.[1]

Afro-Asiatic languages

Cushitic languages

Semitic languages

Arabic languages

Aramaic languages

Other Afro-Asiatic languages

Austronesian languages

Dravidian languages

(both written in local alphabets)

Indo-European languages

Germanic languages

Indo-Aryan languages

Iranian languages

Romance languages


Judeo-Spanish (Judezmo, Ladino)


Other Indo-European languages

Kartvelian languages

Turkic languages

Creole languages

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rubin, Aaron D.; Kahn, Lily (30 October 2015). Handbook of Jewish Languages. BRILL. ISBN 9789004297357.
  2. ^ Hudson, Grover (2013). "A Comparative Dictionary of the Agaw Languages by David Appleyard (review)". Northeast African Studies. New series. 13 (2). doi:10.1353/nas.2013.0021. S2CID 143577497.
  3. ^ "Judeo-Arabic". Jewish Languages. Retrieved 2024-01-25.
  4. ^ Khan, Geoffrey (1997). "The Arabic Dialect of the Karaite Jews of Hit". Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik (34): 53–102. ISSN 0170-026X. JSTOR 43525685.
  5. ^ Khan, Geoffrey (8 June 1999). A Grammar of Neo-Aramaic: The Dialect of the Jews of Arbel. BRILL. ISBN 9789004305045.
  6. ^ a b c Weninger, Stefan (23 December 2011). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. p. 709. ISBN 9783110251586.
  7. ^ "Language Contact Manchester". Retrieved 2022-11-12.
  8. ^ "Asian and African studies blog: Judeo-Persian".
  9. ^ "A Unique Hebrew Glossary from India". Gorgias Press LLC.
  10. ^ a b "Liturgical miscellany; Or 14014 : 1800–1899 era". British Library. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e Spolsky, Bernard (27 March 2014). The Languages of the Jews: A Sociolinguistic History. Cambridge University Press. p. 241. ISBN 9781139917148.
  12. ^ Borjian, Habib (2015). "Judeo-Iranian Languages". In Kahn, Lily; Rubin, Aaron D. (eds.). A Handbook of Jewish Languages. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. pp. 234–295.
  13. ^ Habib Borjian and Daniel Kaufman, “Juhuri: from the Caucasus to New York City”, Special Issue: Middle Eastern Languages in Diasporic USA communities, in International Journal of Sociology of Language, issue edited by Maryam Borjian and Charles Häberl, issue 237, 2016, pp. 51–74. [1].
  14. ^ Hary, Benjamin; Benor, Sarah Bunin (5 November 2018). Languages in Jewish Communities, Past and Present. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 9781501504631 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ a b c d e "Judeo-Italian". Jewish Languages. Retrieved 2024-01-19.
  16. ^ Ryzhik, Michael (2016-08-16). "Grammatica storica delle parlate giudeo-italiane, written by M. Aprile. 2012". Journal of Jewish Languages. 4 (2): 261–266. doi:10.1163/22134638-12340074. ISSN 2213-4387.
  17. ^ a b c d Minervini, Laura (2021-06-28), "Judeo-Romance in Italy and France (Judeo-Italian, Judeo-French, Judeo-Occitan)", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford University Press, retrieved 2024-01-19
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Colasuonno, Maria Maddalena (2018-06-28), "Modern Judeo-Italian in the Light of Italian Dialectology and Jewish Interlinguistics through Three Case Studies: Judeo-Mantuan, Judeo-Venetian, and Judeo-Livornese", Jewish Languages in Historical Perspective, BRILL, pp. 122–156, ISBN 978-90-04-37658-8, retrieved 2024-01-19
  19. ^ International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. 1 January 2003. p. 83. ISBN 9780195139778.
  20. ^ Katz, Dovid (October 2012). Bláha, Ondřej; Dittman, Robert; Uličná, Lenka (eds.). "Knaanic in the Medieval and Modern Scholarly Imagination" (PDF). Knaanic Language: Structure and Historical Background: 164, 173. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  21. ^ a b Lomtadze, Tamari; Enoch, Reuven (2019). "Judeo-Georgian Language as an Identity Marker of Georgian Jews (The Jews Living in Georgia)". Journal of Jewish Languages. 7: 1–26. doi:10.1163/22134638-07011146. S2CID 166295234.
  22. ^ THE GEORGIAN JEWS (from antiquity to 1921) (PDF) (in Russian, Georgian, English, and German). D. Baazov Museum of History of Jews of Georgia. p. 55.
  23. ^ "YIVO | Krymchaks". Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  24. ^ Handbook of Jewish Languages: Revised and Updated Edition. BRILL. 1 September 2017. ISBN 9789004359543.
  25. ^ Jacobs, Neil G. "Jewish Papiamentu". Jewish Language Project. Retrieved 2023-05-29.