This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (May 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Baden (Land)]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|de|Baden (Land))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Grand Duchy of Baden with the Margraviate (red) and gains after 1803
Grand Duchy of Baden with the Margraviate (red) and gains after 1803
Hohenbaden Castle [de] on the Battert above Baden-Baden
Hohenbaden Castle [de] on the Battert above Baden-Baden
Monument to Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden in front of Karlsruhe Palace

Baden (/ˈbɑːdən/; German: [ˈbaːdn̩]) is a historical territory in South Germany and North Switzerland, on both sides of the Upper Rhine.

History

The margraves of Baden originated from the House of Zähringen.[1] Baden is named after the margraves' residence, Hohenbaden Castle [de] in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a devastating fire in Baden-Baden in 1689, the capital was moved to Rastatt.

The two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate with its capital Karlsruhe was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden.

The Grand Duchy of Baden was a state within the German Confederation until 1866 and the German Empire until 1918, succeeded by the Republic of Baden within the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. From 1945 to 1952, South Baden and Württemberg-Baden were territories under French and American occupation, respectively. They were united with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the modern Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in 1952.

Geography

Baden lies in the southwest of Germany, with most of its major cities on the Upper Rhine Plain. Bounded by Lake Constance on the south and by the river Rhine on the south and west, the region of Baden stretches from the Linzgau, Lörrach and Freiburg im Breisgau to Karlsruhe and then on to Mannheim, leading to the Main and Tauber rivers.

To its west lies the French historical region of Alsace, to its south Switzerland, the Palatinate to its northwest, Hesse to the north, and parts of Bavaria to the northeast. Its eastern border with the region of Württemberg runs from the Kraichgau through the Black Forest, and from some parts of the forest to the Rhine the distances become as low as 18 kilometres (11 mi) in the so-called "Wespentaille" near Gaggenau.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Baden, historical state, Germany". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2018-05-09.