Angus
Aonghas
Flag of Angus
Coat of arms of Angus
Official logo of Angus
Coordinates: 56°40′N 2°55′W / 56.667°N 2.917°W / 56.667; -2.917
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
CountryScotland
Lieutenancy areaAngus
Admin HQForfar
Government
 • BodyAngus Council
 • MPs
 • MSPs
Area
 • Total842 sq mi (2,181 km2)
 • RankRanked 10th
Population
 (2021)
 • Total116,120
 • RankRanked 17th
 • Density140/sq mi (53/km2)
GSS codeS12000041
ISO 3166 codeGB-ANS

Angus (Scots: Angus; Scottish Gaelic: Aonghas) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee City and Perth and Kinross. Main industries include agriculture and fishing. Global pharmaceuticals company GSK has a significant presence in Montrose in the east of the county.

Angus was historically a province, and later a sheriffdom and county (known officially as Forfarshire from the 18th century until 1928), bordering Kincardineshire to the north-east, Aberdeenshire to the north and Perthshire to the west; southwards it faced Fife across the Firth of Tay; these remain the borders of Angus, minus Dundee which now forms its own small separate council area. Angus remains a registration county and a lieutenancy area. In 1975 some of its administrative functions were transferred to the council district of the Tayside Region, and in 1995 further reform resulted in the establishment of the unitary Angus Council.

History

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Etymology

The name "Angus" indicates the territory of the eighth-century Pictish king of that name.[1]

Prehistory

The area that now comprises Angus has been occupied since at least the Neolithic period. Material taken from postholes from an enclosure at Douglasmuir, near Friockheim, about five miles north of Arbroath has been radiocarbon dated to around 3500 BC. The function of the enclosure is unknown, but may have been for agriculture or for ceremonial purposes.[2]

Bronze Age archaeology is to be found in abundance in the area. Examples include the short-cist burials found near West Newbigging, about a mile to the North of the town. These burials included pottery urns, a pair of silver discs and a gold armlet.[3] Iron Age archaeology is also well represented, for example in the souterrain nearby Warddykes cemetery[4] and at West Grange of Conan,[5] as well as the better-known examples at Carlungie and Ardestie.

Medieval and later history

The county is traditionally associated with the Pictish territory of Circin, which is thought to have encompassed Angus and the Mearns. Bordering it were the kingdoms of (Mar and Buchan) to the North, Fotla (Atholl) to the West, and Fib (Fife) to the South. The most visible remnants of the Pictish age are the numerous sculptured stones that can be found throughout Angus. Of particular note are the collections found at Aberlemno, St Vigeans, Kirriemuir and Monifieth.

Angus is first recorded as one of the provinces of Scotland in 937, when Dubacan, the Mormaer of Angus, is recorded in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba as having died at the Battle of Brunanburh.[6]

The signing of the Declaration of Arbroath at Arbroath Abbey in 1320 marked Scotland's establishment as an independent nation. Partly on this basis, Angus is marketed as the birthplace of Scotland.[7] It is an area of rich history from Pictish times onwards. Notable historic sites in addition to Arbroath Abbey include Glamis Castle, Arbroath Signal Tower museum and the Bell Rock Lighthouse, described as one of the Seven Wonders of the Industrial World.[8]

Geography

Craigowl Hill, highest of the Sidlaws, in southern Angus

Angus can be split into three geographic areas. To the north and west, the topography is mountainous. This is the area of the Grampian Mountains, Mounth hills and Five Glens of Angus, which is sparsely populated and where the main industry is hill farming. Glas Maol – the highest point in Angus at 1,068 m (3,504 ft) – can be found here, on the tripoint boundary with Perthshire and Aberdeenshire. To the south and east the topography consists of rolling hills (such as the Sidlaws) bordering the sea; this area is well populated, with the larger towns. In between lies Strathmore (the Great Valley), which is a fertile agricultural area noted for the growing of potatoes, soft fruit and the raising of Aberdeen Angus cattle.

Montrose in the north east of the county is notable for its tidal basin and wildlife.[9] Angus's coast is fairly regular, the most prominent features being the headlands of Scurdie Ness and Buddon Ness.[10] The main bodies of water in the county are Loch Lee, Loch Brandy, Carlochy, Loch Wharral, Den of Ogil Reservoir, Loch of Forfar, Loch Fithie, Rescobie Loch, Balgavies Loch, Crombie Reservoir, Monikie Reservoirs, Long Loch, Lundie Loch, Loch of Kinnordy, Loch of Lintrathen, Backwater Reservoir, Auchintaple Loch, Loch Shandra.[11]

Demography

Population structure

Historical Angus population
YearPop.±%
180165,068—    
181169,376+6.6%
182174,436+7.3%
183184,630+13.7%
1841106,890+26.3%
1851119,357+11.7%
1911118,748−0.5%
1921101,767−14.3%
193193,803−7.8%
194195,290+1.6%
195196,777+1.6%
196193,666−3.2%
197190,554−3.3%
198198,685+9.0%
1991107,866+9.3%
2001108,400+0.5%
2011116,000+7.0%
Source:
[12][13]

In the 2001 census, the population of Angus was recorded as 108,400. 20.14% were under the age of 16, 63.15% were between 16 and 65 and 18.05% were aged 65 or above.

Of the 16 to 74 age group, 32.84% had no formal qualifications, 27.08% were educated to 'O' Grade/Standard Grade level, 14.38% to Higher level, 7.64% to HND or equivalent level and 18.06% to degree level.

Language in Angus

The most recent available census results (2001) show that Gaelic is spoken by 0.45% of the Angus population. This, similar to other lowland areas, is lower than the national average of 1.16%.[14] These figures are self-reported and are not broken down into levels of fluency.

Category Number Percentage
All people 108,400 100
Understands spoken Gaelic but cannot speak, read or write it 351 0.32
Speaks reads and writes Gaelic 238 0.22
Speaks but neither reads nor writes Gaelic 188 0.17
Speaks and reads but cannot write Gaelic 59 0.05
Reads but neither speaks not writes Gaelic 61 0.06
Writes but neither speaks nor reads Gaelic 13 0.01
Reads and writes but does not speak Gaelic 22 0.02
Other combination of skills in Gaelic 7 0.01
No knowledge of Gaelic 107,461 99.13

Meanwhile, the 2011 census found that 38.4% of the population in Angus can speak Scots, above the Scottish average of 30.1%. This puts Angus as the council area with the sixth highest proficiency in Scots, behind only Shetland, Orkney, Moray, Aberdeenshire, and East Ayrshire.

Historically, the dominant language in Angus was Pictish until the sixth to seventh centuries AD when the area became progressively gaelicised, with Pictish extinct by the mid-ninth century.[15] Gaelic/Middle Irish began to retreat from lowland areas in the late-eleventh century and was absent from the Eastern lowlands by the fourteenth century. It was replaced there by Middle Scots, the contemporary local South Northern dialect of Modern Scots, while Gaelic persisted as a majority language in the Highlands and Hebrides until the 19th century.[16][17]

Angus Council are planning to raise the status of Gaelic in the county by adopting a series of measures, including bilingual road signage, communications, vehicle livery and staffing.[18]

Government

Local government

Angus Council

Comhairle Aonghais
Logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Brian Boyd,
Independent
since 26 May 2022[20]
Beth Whiteside,
SNP
since 26 May 2022[21]
Margo Williamson[19]
since 1 June 2017[22]
Structure
Seats28 councillors
Political groups
Administration[23]
  SNP (13)
  Independent (2)
Other parties
  Conservative (7)
  Independent (5)
  Labour (1)
Length of term
Full council elected every 4 years
Elections
Single transferable vote
Last election
5 May 2022
Next election
6 May 2027
Meeting place
Town and County Hall, Forfar
Website
www.angus.gov.uk
Map of the area's wards (2017 configuration)

The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland's counties. Subsequently, Angus County Council was created in 1890. In May 1975 the county council was abolished and its functions were transferred to Tayside Regional Council: the local area was served by Angus District Council. The county council was based at the County Buildings in Market Street in Forfar.[24]

Angus Council is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland after the two-tier local government council was abolished and Angus was established as one of the replacement single-tier Council Areas in 1996. As of May 2017 there are 28 seats on the council. From the May 2022 elections the seats are held as follows – SNP 13, Independent 7, Conservative 7, Labour 2.

The boundaries of the present council area are the same as those of the historic county minus the Dundee City. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee City and Perth and Kinross.

Structure

The council's civic head is the Provost of Angus. There have been seven Provosts since its establishment in 1996 – Frances Duncan, Bill Middleton, Ruth Leslie-Melville, Helen Oswald, Alex King, Ronnie Proctor and Brian Boyd. Angus is also a lieutenancy area; the Lord Lieutenant of Angus is appointed by the monarch and is unconnected to the council.

The council has had four Chief Executives since its formation – Sandy Watson 1996–2006, David Sawers 2006–2011, Richard Stiff 2011–2017 and Margo Williamson 2017 to date. Margo Williamson is the first female Chief Executive since the council was formed.

Leadership

The role of provost is largely ceremonial in Angus. Political leadership is instead provided by the leader of the council. The leaders since 1996 have been:[25]

Councillor Party From To
Ian Hudghton SNP 1 Apr 1996 1998
Rob Murray SNP 1998 May 2007
Bob Myles Independent May 2007 May 2012
Ian Gaul SNP May 2012 May 2017
Bob Myles Independent 16 May 2017 May 2018
David Fairweather Independent 14 Jun 2018 24 May 2022
Beth Whiteside SNP 24 May 2022

Premises

Angus House: Angus Council's main offices since 2007.

Council meetings are generally held at Forfar Town and County Hall at The Cross in the centre of Forfar.[26] In 2007 the council moved its main offices to a new building called Angus House on Silvie Way in the Orchardbank Business Park on the outskirts of Forfar.[27]

Wards

Community council areas

As of 2018 Angus is divided into 25 community council areas and all apart from Friockheim district have an active council.[28] The areas are: Aberlemno; Auchterhouse; Carnoustie; City of Brechin & District; Ferryden & Craig; Friockheim & District; Glamis; Hillside, Dun, & Logie Pert; Inverarity; Inveresk; Kirriemuir; Kirriemuir Landward East; Kirriemuir Landward West; Letham & District; Lunanhead & District; Monifieth; Monikie & Newbigging; Montrose; Muirhead, Birkhill and Liff; Murroes & Wellbank; Newtyle & Eassie; Royal Burgh of Arbroath; Royal Burgh of Forfar; Strathmartine; and Tealing.

Parliamentary representation

UK Parliament

Angus is represented by three MPs for the UK Parliament.

Scottish Parliament

Angus is represented by two constituency MSPs for the Scottish Parliament.

In addition to the two constituency MSPs, Angus is also represented by seven MSPs for the North East Scotland electoral region.

Transport

The Edinburgh-Aberdeen railway line runs along the coast, through Dundee and the towns of Monifieth, Carnoustie, Arbroath and Montrose.

There is a small airport at Dundee, which at present operates flights to London and Belfast.[29]

Settlements

c.1854 Angusshire (Forfarshire) Civil Parish map.[30]
Montrose

Largest settlements by population:

Settlement Population (mid-2020 est.)[29]
Arbroath

23,500

Forfar

14,120

Montrose

11,730

Carnoustie

11,310

Monifieth

8,860

Brechin

7,230

Kirriemuir

6,060

Birkhill

2,010

Letham

1,640

Ferryden

1,220

Towns

Villages

Places of interest

Main articles: Scheduled monuments in Angus and List of Category A listed buildings in Angus

Sister areas

Surnames

Most common surnames in Angus (Forfarshire) at the time of the United Kingdom Census of 1881:[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ Field, John (1980). Place-names of Great Britain and Ireland. Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles. p. 24. ISBN 0389201545. OCLC 6964610.
  2. ^ Kendrick, Jill (1995). contributions by Barclay, Gordon J.; Cowie, Trevor G.; Saville, Alan; illustrations by Townshend, Angela; Braby, Alan. "Excavation of a Neolithic enclosure and an Iron Age settlement at Douglasmuir, Angus" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 125: 29–67. doi:10.9750/PSAS.125.29.67. S2CID 53586923. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007.
  3. ^ Jervise, Andrew (1863). "Notice of stone cists and an urn, found near Arbroath, Forfarshire" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 5: 100–102. doi:10.9750/PSAS.005.100.102. S2CID 253299093. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2007.
  4. ^ Watkins, Trevor (1978). contributions by Barclay, G. "Excavation of a settlement and souterrain at Newmill, near Bankfoot, Perthshire" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 110: 165–208. doi:10.9750/PSAS.110.165.208. S2CID 210268478. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2007.
  5. ^ Jervise, Andrew (1863). "An account of the excavation of the round or "bee-hive" shaped house, and other underground chambers, at West Grange of Conan, Forfarshire". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 4: 429–499. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2007.
  6. ^ Woolf, Alex (2007). From Pictland to Alba 789–1070. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780748612345.
  7. ^ The Herald, First kingdom: is Angus really the birthplace of Scotland? Councillors say claim is historically valid, published 11 March 2005, accessed 21 June 2023
  8. ^ Wikipedia Foundation, Bell Rock Lighthouse, accessed 21 June 2023
  9. ^ "Saltmarshes and estuaries | The Wildlife Trusts". www.wildlifetrusts.org. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  10. ^ Ritchie, Gayle (2 April 2021). "Scurdie Ness lighthouse: Saviour of seafarers". The Courier. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  11. ^ "Angus Post Codes & Zip Codes List". UK Post Code. Retrieved 23 December 2023.
  12. ^ "Angus District through time | Population Statistics | Total Population". www.visionofbritain.org.uk.
  13. ^ "Vision of Britain; 1911 Census: County Report". www.visionofbritain.org.uk.
  14. ^ "Scotlands Census Results Online (SCROL)". Comparative Population Profile: Angus Council Area Scotland. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  15. ^ Forsyth, 1997; Forsyth, 2006[full citation needed]
  16. ^ Smout, T.C. (2001). A history of the Scottish people: 1650–1830. Fontana Press. ISBN 978-0-00-686027-3.[page needed]
  17. ^ Withers, Charles W. J. (1984). Gaelic in Scotland, 1698-1981: The Geographical History of a Language. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers. ISBN 978-0-85976-097-3.[page needed]
  18. ^ Gaelic Language Plan 2014–2019 (PDF) (Report). Angus Council. 17 September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Chief Executive". Angus Council. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Council minutes, 26 May 2022" (PDF). Angus Council. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  21. ^ Brown, Graham (26 May 2022). ""Let's end the petty politics that have blighted Angus": New Provost's plea as council meets for first time". The Courier. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  22. ^ "Angus Council appoints new chief executive". Scottish Housing News. 2 February 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  23. ^ "Political make up of the council". Angus Council. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  24. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "County Offices, Market Street, Forfar (LB31610)". Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  25. ^ "Council minutes". Aberdeen Council. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  26. ^ "Council Meeting" (PDF). Angus Council. 5 December 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  27. ^ "Angus House open for business". Angus Council. 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  28. ^ "Find your community council". Angus Council. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  29. ^ a b Morkis, Stefan (20 December 2019). "Dundee Airport to introduce new routes to London City and Belfast".
  30. ^ Wilson, John Marius, Rev. (1854). Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland. Vol. I. A. Fullarton & Co. p. colour image preceding page 671.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  31. ^ "Angus Council: Arbroath Abbey". Archived from the original on 20 February 2014.
  32. ^ "Eassie Stone". The Megalithic Portal.
  33. ^ "Welcome to Glamis Castle". Glamis-Castle.co.uk.
  34. ^ A Review of Angus Council's "Angus in China" Initiative and "Sister Area" Agreement with Yantai (PDF) (Report). Angus Council. 15 November 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  35. ^ "Most Common Surnames in Angus". Forebears.co.uk. 1881.