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Celtiberian
Northeastern Hispano-Celtic
Native toIberian Peninsula
EthnicityCeltiberians
Extinctattested 2nd to 1st century BC[1]
Celtiberian script
Language codes
ISO 639-3xce
xce
Glottologcelt1247
Mapa llengües paleohispàniques-ang.jpg
  Celtiberian in the context of the Paleohispanic languages

Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river. This language is directly attested in nearly 200 inscriptions dated to the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, mainly in Celtiberian script, a direct adaptation of the northeastern Iberian script, but also in the Latin alphabet. The longest extant Celtiberian inscriptions are those on three Botorrita plaques, bronze plaques from Botorrita near Zaragoza, dating to the early 1st century BC, labeled Botorrita I, III and IV (Botorrita II is in Latin). In the northwest was another Celtic language, Gallaecian (also known as Northwestern Hispano-Celtic), that was closely related to Celtiberian.

Overview

Enough is preserved to show that the Celtiberian language could be Q-Celtic (like Goidelic), and not P-Celtic like Gaulish or Brittonic.[2]

Celtiberian and Gaulish are grouped together as Continental Celtic languages, but this grouping is paraphyletic: no evidence suggests the two shared any common innovation separately from Insular Celtic.

Celtiberian has a fully inflected relative pronoun ios (as does, for instance, Ancient Greek), not preserved in other Celtic languages, and the particles -kue 'and' < *kʷe (cf. Latin -que, Attic Greek τε te), nekue 'nor' < *ne-kʷe (cf. Latin neque), ekue 'also, as well' < *h₂et(i)-kʷe (cf. Lat. atque, Gaulish ate, OIr. aith 'again'), ve "or" (cf. Latin enclitic -ve and Attic Greek ē < Proto-Greek *ē-we). As in Welsh, there is an s-subjunctive, gabiseti "he shall take" (Old Irish gabid), robiseti, auseti. Compare Umbrian ferest "he/she/it shall make" or Ancient Greek δείξῃ deiksēi (aorist subj.) / δείξει deiksei (future ind.) "(that) he/she/it shall show".

Phonology

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Celtiberian was a Celtic language that shows the characteristic sound changes of Celtic languages such as:[3]

PIE Consonants

Consonant clusters

Vowels

Syllabic resonants and laryngeals

Exclusive developments

Morphology

Noun cases

Case Singular   Plural
ā-stem o-stem i-stem u-stem r-stem ā-stem o-stem i-stem u-stem r-stem
Nominative *arznā *veizos / *vamos (n. *-om) *gentis *loutus *duater *arznās / *arznī *veizoi (n *-a) *gentis *loutoves *duateres
Accusative *arznām *veizom *gentim *loutum *duaterem *arznās < -*ams *veizus < *-ōs < -*oms *gentīs < -*ims *loutūs < -*ums *duaterēs < -*ems
Genitive *arznās *veizo *gentes[8] ? *duateros *arznaum *veizum < *weidʰ-y-ōm *gentizum < *isōm *loutoum < *ewōm ?
Dative *arznāi *veizūi < *weidʰ-y-ōi *gentei *loutuei[9] ? ? *veizubos ? ? ?
Ablative *arznaz[10] *veizuz < *weidʰ-y-ōd / *vamuz < *up-m̥ōd *gentiz *loutuez *duaterez < -*ed ? *veizubos ? ? ?
Locative *arznai *veizei *gentei ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

[11][12]

There is also a potential Vocative case, however this is very poorly attested, with only an ambiguous -e ending for o-stem nouns being cited in literature.

Demonstrative pronouns

Case Singular   Plural
masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter
Nominative *so: so viros 'this man' *sa: sa duater 'this daughter' *soz: soz bezom < *so-d *bʰedʰ-yom 'this mine'. *sos < *so-s ? *sas < *sa-s ? *soizos < so-syos < *so-sy-os ?
Accusative *som: 'to this' *sam: 'to this' *sozom < *so-sy-om? *sus < *sōs < *so-ms *sās < *sa-ms *soizus < so-syōs < *so-sy-oms ??
Genitive ? ? ? soum < *so-ōm 'of these' saum < *sa-ōm 'of these' soizum < *so-sy-ōm 'of these'
Dative somui < *so-sm-ōi 'for this' somai < *so-sm-ai 'for this' ? ? ? ?
Locative somei < *so-sm-ei 'from this' samei < *sa-sm-ei 'from this' ? ? ? ?

[13]

Sample texts

trikantam : bergunetakam : togoitos-kue : sarnikio (:) kue : sua : kombalkez : nelitom
nekue [: to-ver-daunei : litom : nekue : daunei : litom : nekue : masnai : dizaunei : litom : soz : augu
aresta[lo] : damai : uta : oskues : stena : verzoniti : silabur : sleitom : konsklitom : gabizeti
kantom [:] sanklistara : otanaum : togoitei : eni : uta : oskuez : boustom-ve : korvinom-ve
makasiam-ve : ailam-ve : ambidiseti : kamanom : usabituz : ozas : sues : sailo : kusta : bizetuz : iom
asekati : [a]mbidingounei : stena : es : vertai : entara : tiris : matus : dinbituz : neito : trikantam
eni : oisatuz : iomui : listas : titas : zizonti : somui : iom : arznas : bionti : iom : kustaikos
arznas : kuati : ias : ozias : vertatosue : temeiue : robiseti : saum : dekametinas : datuz : somei
eni touzei : iste : ankios : iste : esankios : uze : areitena : sarnikiei : akainakubos
nebintor : togoitei : ios : vramtiom-ve : auzeti : aratim-ve : dekametam : datuz : iom : togoitos-kue
sarnikio-kue : aiuizas : kombalkores : aleites : iste : ires : ruzimuz : Ablu : ubokum
soz augu arestalo damai [14]
all this (is) valid by order of the competent authority
'all this' soz (< *sod) 'final, valid' augo (< *h₂eug-os 'strong, valid', cf. Latin augustus 'solemn').
'of the competent authority' arestalos (< *pr̥Hi-steh₂-lo 'competent authority' < *pr̥Hi-sto 'what is first, authority', gen. sing.)
'by order' damai (< *dʰoh₁m-eh₂ 'stablishing, dispose', instrumental fem. sing.).
(Translation: Prosper 2006)
saum dekametinas datuz somei eni touzei iste ankios iste es-ankios
of these, he will give the tax inside of this territory, so be fenced as be unfenced
'of these' (saum < *sa-ōm) 'the tithes, the tax' (dekametinas)
'he will pay, will give' (datuz) 'inside, in' (eni < *h₁en-i)
'of this' (somei loc. sing. < *so-sm-ei 'from this')
'territory' (touzei loc. sing. < *touzom 'territory' < *tewt-yo)
'so (be) fenced' iste ankios 'as (be) unfenced' iste es-ankios
(Transcription Jordán 2004)
togoitei ios vramtiom-ve auzeti aratim-ve dekametam datuz
In Togotis, he who draws water either for the green or for the farmland, the tithe (of their yield) he shall give
(Translation: De Bernardo 2007)
eni Orosei
uta Tigino tiatunei
erecaias to Luguei
araianom komeimu
eni Orosei Ekuoisui-kue
okris olokas togias sistat Luguei tiaso
togias
eni Orosei uta Tigino tiatunei erecaias to Luguei araianom comeimu eni Orosei Ekuoisui-kue okris olokas togias sistat Luguei
in Orosis and the surroundings of Tigino river, we dedicate the fields to Lugus. In Orosis and Equeiso the hills, the vegetable gardens and the houses are dedicated to Lugus
'in' eni (< *h₁en-i) 'Orosis' Orosei (loc. sing. *oros-ei)
'and' uta(conj. cop.) 'of Tigino (river)' (gen. sing. *tigin-o) 'in the surroundings' (loc. sing. *tiatoun-ei < *to-yh₂eto-mn-ei)
'the furrows > the land cultivated' erekaiās < *perka-i-ans acc. pl. fem.) 'to Lugus' to Luguei
araianom (may be a verbal complement: properly, totally, *pare-yanom, cfr. welsh iawn) 'we dedicate' komeimu (< *komeimuz < *kom-ei-mos-i, present 3 p.pl.)
'in' eni 'Orosis' (Orosei loc. sing.) 'in Ekuoisu' (Ekuoisui loc. sing.) '-and' (-kue <*-kʷe)
'the hills' (okris < *h₂ok-r-eyes. nom. pl.) 'the vegetable gardens' (olokas < *olkās < *polk-eh₂-s, nom. pl.) '(and) the roofs > houses' (togias < tog-ya-s, nom. pl.)
'are they (dedicated)' sistat (< *sistant < *si-sth₂-nti, 3 p.pl.) 'to Lug' (Lugue-i dat.)
(Transcription: Meid 1994, Translation: Prosper 2002[15])
kelaunikui
derkininei : es
kenim : dures : lau
ni : olzui : obakai
eskenim : dures
useizunos : gorzo
nei : lutorikum : ei
subos : adizai : ekue : kar
tinokum : ekue : lankikum
ekue : tirtokum : silabur
sazom : ibos : esatui
Lutorikum eisubos adizai ekue Kartinokum ekue Lankikum ekue Tirtokum silabur sazom ibos esatui (datuz)
for those of the Lutorici included in the duty, and also of the Cartinoci, of the Lancici and of the Tritoci, must give enough money to settle the debt with them.
'for those included ' (eisubos < *h1epi-s-o-bʰos)
'of the Lutorici' (lutorikum gen. masc. pl.)
'and also' (ekue <*h₂et(i)kʷe) 'of the Cartinoci' (kartinokum)
'and also' (ekue) 'of the Lancici' (lankikum) 'and also' (ekue) 'of the Tritoci' (tirtokum)
'in the assignment, in the duty' (adizai loc. fem. sing. < *adittia < *ad-dik-tia. Cfr. Latin addictio 'assignment'),
'money' (silabur) 'enough' (sazom < *sātio < *seh₂t-yo)
'to settle the debt' (esatui < *essato < *eks-h₂eg-to. Cfr. Latin ex-igo 'demand, require' and exactum 'identical, equivalent')
'for them' (ibus < *i-bʰos, dat.3 p.pl.)
'must give' (datuz < *dh₃-tōd).
(Transcription and Translation: Prosper 2015)

See also

References

  1. ^ Celtiberian at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Thames & Hudson. p. 106. ISBN 0-500-05052-X.
  3. ^ Koch, John (2005). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABL-CIO. pp. 1465–66. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  4. ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves. "Francisco Villar, M.a Pilar Fernandez Álvarez, ed. Religión, lengua y cultura prerromanas de Hispania, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2001 (Acta Salmanticensia, Estudios Filológicos, 283). = Actas del VIII Coloquio internacional sobre lenguas y culturas prerromanas de la Península Ibérica (11-14 mai 1999, Salamanque)". In: Etudes Celtiques, vol. 35, 2003. p. 393. [www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_2003_num_35_1_2242_t1_0386_0000_2]
  5. ^ De Bernardo, P. "La gramática celtibérica del bronce de Botorrita. Nuevos Resultados". In Palaeohispanica 9 (2009), pp. 683-699.
  6. ^ Schmidt, K. H. "How to define celtiberian archaims?". in Palaeohispanica 10 (2010), pp. 479-487.
  7. ^ De Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia 2009 "El nombre -¿céltico?- de la Pintia vaccea". BSAA Arqueología Nº. 75, (243-256).
  8. ^ Gorrochategui, Joaquín 1991 "Descripción y posición lingiiistica del celtibérico" in "Memoriae L. Mitxelena magistri sacrum vol I (3-32)". Ed. Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea
  9. ^ Beltrán Lloris, F. Jordán Cólera, C. Marco Simón, F. 2005 "Novedades epigráficas en Peñalba de Villastar (Teruel)". Palaeohispánica: Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania antigua Nº. 5, 911-956: ENIOROSEI Dat. sg. de un tema en -i. LVGVEI, Dat. sg. de un tema en -u. ERECAIAS, Gen .sg. de un tema en -a, TIASO, Gen. sg. de un tema en -o
  10. ^ Villar Liébana, F. 1996 "Fonética y Morfología Celtibéricas". La Hispania prerromana : actas del VI Coloquio sobre lenguas y culturas prerromanas de la Península Ibérica (339-378): 1) filiación expresada mediante genitivo y cuya desinencia es -as < (*-ās) y 2) origen que se expresa mediante ablativo, cuya desinencia es -az < (*-ād)
  11. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S. "An outline of Celtiberian grammar" 2003
  12. ^ Václav, Blažek (2013-07-04). "Gaulish language". digilib.phil.muni.cz. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  13. ^ Jordán Cólera, Carlos "La forma verbal cabint del bronce celtibérico de Novallas". En Emerita, Revista de Lingüística y Filología Clásica LXXXII 2, 2014, pp. 327-343
  14. ^ Prósper, Blanca María 2006 "Soz auku arestalo tamai. La segunda línea del bronce de Botorrita y el anafórico celtibérico". Palaeohispánica: Revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania antigua, Nº. 6 (139-150).
  15. ^ Prósper, Blanca M. 2002: «La gran inscripción rupestre celtibérica de Peñalba de Villastar. Una nueva interpretación», Palaeohispanica 2, pp. 213-226.

Sources

  • Alberro, Manuel. The celticisation of the Iberian Peninsula, a process that could have had parallels in other European regions. In: Etudes Celtiques, vol. 35, 2003. pp. 7–24. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.2003.2149]; www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_2003_num_35_1_2149
  • Anderson, James M. "Preroman indo-european languages of the hispanic peninsula" . In: Revue des Études Anciennes. Tome 87, 1985, n°3-4. pp. 319–326. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/rea.1985.4212]; [www.persee.fr/doc/rea_0035-2004_1985_num_87_3_4212]
  • Hoz, Javier de. "Lepontic, Celtiberian, Gaulish and the archaeological evidence". In: Etudes Celtiques. vol. 29, 1992. Actes du IXe congrès international d'études celtiques. Paris, 7-12 juillet 1991. Deuxième partie : Linguistique, littératures. pp. 223–240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.1992.2006
  • Hoz, Javier de. (1996). The Botorrita first text. Its epigraphical background; in: Die größeren altkeltischen Sprachdenkmäler. Akten des Kolloquiums Innsbruck 29. April - 3. Mai 1993, ed. W. Meid and P. Anreiter, 124–145, Innsbruck.
  • Jordán Cólera, Carlos: (2004). Celtibérico. [1]. University of Zaragoza, Spain.
  • Joseph, Lionel S. (1982): The Treatment of *CRH- and the Origin of CaRa- in Celtic. Ériu n. 33 (31-57). Dublín. RIA.
  • Lorrio, Alberto J. "Les Celtibères: archéologie et culture". In: Etudes Celtiques. vol. 33, 1997. pp. 7–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.1997.2109
  • Luján, Eugenio R. "Celtic and Celtiberian in the Iberian peninsula". In: E. Blasco et al. (eds.). Iberia e Sardegna. Le Monnier Universitá. 2013. pp. 97–112. ISBN 978-88-00-74449-2
  • Luján, Eugenio R.; Lorrio, Alberto J. "Un puñal celtibérico con inscripción procedente de Almaraz (Cáceres, España)". In: Etudes Celtiques, vol. 43, 2017. pp. 113–126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.2017.1096
  • McCone, Kim.(1996): Towards a relative chronology of ancient and medieval Celtic sound change Maynooth Studies in Celtic Linguistics 1. Maynooth. St. Patrick's College.
  • Meid, Wolfgang. (1994). Celtiberian Inscriptions, Archaeolingua, edd. S. Bökönyi and W. Meid, Series Minor, 5, 12–13. Budapest.
  • Schrijver, Peter (1991): The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin. Amsterdam. Ed. Rodopi.
  • Schumacher, Stefan (2004): Die keltischen Primärverben: ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft vol. 110. Universität Innsbruck.
  • Untermann, Jürgen. (1997): Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum. IV Die tartessischen, keltiberischen und lusitanischen Inschriften, Wiesbaden.
  • Velaza, Javier (1999): Balance actual de la onomástica personal celtibérica, Pueblos, lenguas y escrituras en la Hispania Prerromana, pp. 663–683.
  • Villar, Francisco (1995): Estudios de celtibérico y de toponimia prerromana, Salamanca.
  • Zair, Nicholas. (2012): The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Celtic. Leiden. Ed. Brill.

Further reading[edit]

General studies
  • Beltrán Lloris, Francisco; Jordán Cólera, Carlos. "Celtibérico". In: Palaeohispanica: revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania antigua n. 20 (2020): pp. 631–688. ISSN 1578-5386 DOI: 10.36707/palaeohispanica.v0i20.395
  • Blažek, Václav. "Celtiberian". In: Sborník prací Filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity. N, Řada klasická = Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2007, vol. 56, iss. N. 12, pp. [5]-25. ISSN 1211-6335.
  • Cólera, Carlos Jordán (2007). "Celtiberian". e-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. Vol. 6: The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula. Article 17. pp. 749–850. ISSN 1540-4889 Available at: https://dc.uwm.edu/ekeltoi/vol6/iss1/17
  • Stifter, David (2006). "Contributions to Celtiberian Etymology II". In: Palaeohispanica: revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua, 6. pp. 237–245. ISSN 1578-5386.
Specific themes
  • Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia de. "Celtic ‘son’, ‘daughter’, other descendants, and *sunus in Early Celtic". In: Indogermanische Forschungen 118, 2013 (2013): 259–298. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/indo.2013.118.2013.259
  • Fernández, Esteban Ngomo. “A propósito de matrubos y los términos de parentesco en celtibérico”. In: Boletín del Archivo Epigráfico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. nº. 4 (2019): 5-15. ISSN 2603-9117
  • Fernández, Esteban Ngomo. "El color rojo en celtibérico: del IE *H1roudh- al celtibérico routaikina". In: Boletín del Archivo Epigráfico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. nº. 6 (junio, 2020): 5-19. ISSN 2603-9117
  • Simón Cornago, Ignacio; Jordán Cólera, Carlos Benjamín. "The Celtiberian S. A New Sign in (Paleo)Hispanic Epigraphy". In: Tyche 33 (2018). pp. 183–205. ISSN 1010-9161