Cornish wrestling
John Cawley throwing Chris French at Demonstration at Robby Richards Museum Opening - CWA Event 13–14 May 2006.
FocusGrappling
Country of originCornwall
CreatorCornish people
Olympic sportNo

Cornish wrestling (Cornish: Omdowl Kernewek[1]) is a form of wrestling that has been established in Cornwall for many centuries and possibly longer. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin’"[2][3] in the Cornish dialect of English; historically, this usage is attested by Chaucer,[4] Shakespeare[5] and Drayton.[6]

The referee is known as a 'stickler',[7] and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a 'pedant' originates from this usage.[8]

Cornish wrestling is a national sport of Cornwall, which spread throughout the British Isles and then, along with the Cornish diaspora, to such places as the United States, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa.

It has similarities to Devon wrestling but it was reputed to focus less on foot moves and more on throwing.[9]

Introduction to the rules of competition

The objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw one's opponent and cause them to land as flat as possible on their back. Each of the wrestlers wears a ‘jacket’ of tough make and material, enabling them to better grip their opponent. Grabbing of the opponent's or your own arms, wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as holding below the waist. All holds are to be taken upon the jacket, although the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent.[10][11] No fending is permitted. No force on the throat is permitted. Three sticklers watch and control each bout, keeping score of points.[12]

Four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the shoulders and two just above the buttocks. A wrestler scores points by throwing their opponent onto their back, the number of pins hitting the floor being the number of points scored. If a wrestler manages to score with three or four pins this is called a ‘Back’ and the bout is then finished, with the throwing wrestler as the winner.[13] The sticklers each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved. A Back may be awarded by majority, i.e. by two out of the three stickers. If a Back is not awarded, the winner is the wrestler with the most accumulated points within the time limit.[12]

Current Clubs

There are two clubs, open to the public, that teach Cornish wrestling, operating in Cornwall.

In addition Cornish wrestling is taught at Devon Celtic Combat which meets on a Wednesday evening at Morice Town Primary Academy, Charlotte St, Plymouth.

History

Cornish wrestling has a long history, with Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1139) describing Corineus, the legendary founder of Cornwall, as a man "of great courage and boldness, who, in an encounter with any person, even of gigantic stature, would immediately overthrow him, as if he were a child", and later tells the story of how Corineus wrestled a Cornish giant, Gogmagog or Goemagot upon the cliff top known as Lamm Goemagot.

Thomas Hoby writes that, in 1551 at Chastenbriant, the French king showed my Lord Marquess of Northampton "great pleasure and disport...sometime with his great boisterlie Bretons wrastling with my lordes yemen of Cornwall, who had much to do to gete the upper hande of them."[14]

Some of the earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1612 poem entitled "Poly-Olbion" by Michael Drayton, which gives the names of some Cornish Wrestling throws. Drayton also published a poem in 1627 called The Battle of Agincourt, which concerns the 1415 battle. The poem states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers.

Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers often had matches against each other though the rules they followed were not the same. One of these was the notable match between Richard Parkyn and the Devonian John Jordan.

In 1654, Oliver Cromwell and many of his privy council were reported as watching 100 Cornishmen wrestling in Hyde Park, presenting "...great agility of body and most neat and exquisite wrestling at every meeting of one with the other, which was ordered with such dexterity, that it was to show more the strength, vigour and nimbleness of their bodies, than to endanger their persons."[15]

Wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous (than hurling).... for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall, where the most untowardly amongst them will not as readily give you a muster of this exercise as you are prone to require it.

17th century historian Richard Carew, [16]

Charles II, along with "a world of lords" and many other spectators, watched a series of wrestling matches in St James' Park in 1669, with a purse of £1000, which saw the "Western men" win.[17]

His Highness York’s great Duke beheld the same
With other persons of renowned fame
Brave Cornishmen, you are to be commended
And will be so until the world is ended.[18]

Sir Thomas Parkyns (1664–1741), known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and organised an annual wrestling match in Bunny Park (prize a gold-laced hat). These matches continued until 1810. His book on the subject The Inn-Play: or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times.[19]

A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators, but thereafter interest in the sport waned. James Gerry (of Linkinhorne) and Samuel Rundle (Plymouth) fought for a £20 purse and the championship of Cornwall in 1883 at Liskeard. Lasting just over an hour, the match ended in a draw in the 19th round following Rundle tearing leg muscles. Gerry was reported in The Cornishman newspaper to have vanquished all the best men in America as well as many men in Cornwall, Rundle had beaten nearly all the wrestling men in Devon and Cornwall.[20]

In 1927 William Tregoning Hooper (Bras y Golon) agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonec of Quimperle that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In 1932, the Duke of Cornwall helped fund the competing Cornish wrestlers.[21]

In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its physical education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so.[22]

Traditions

A very old custom was, on the Sunday following a wrestling match or tournament, to wear to church any prizes won. Alternatively they were hung on an inside pillar near the main church door. This custom was especially observed when the victory was within another parish.[23]

Some Cornish wrestling matches allowed shin-kicking. This was often referred to as "Cornish purring".[24]

There is an ancient custom whereby sticklers of a tournament would appear at church the following Sunday wearing "Christys" (silk top hats)[25] with streamers (silk ribbons).[26][25]

There are multiple stories of women being capable wrestlers, even more than 200 years ago. For example, Caroline Andrewartha who was taught wrestling by her father and in turn taught her son Joel Andrewartha, who went on to become one of the best wrestlers in Cornwall, including beating Polkinghorne.[27][28] Another example is Lizzie Taylor (1831-1887), known as "Happy Ned" or "Lizzie-poor-Dick", who threw John Lillywhite in a wrestling-bout at Clowance. She was a miner who dressed in men's clothes.[29][30][31][32]

During a match, wrestlers shake hands before every hitch.[33]

Prior to the mid-1800s, competitors had to renounce the use of magic before the start of a tournament.[34]

Traditionally wrestlers would challenge each other to wrestling matches by throwing their hat into the ring. The idiom may come from this practice.[33][35][36]

In Cornwall, youngsters used to play the game of "shuffle hats and wrastle", where they would throw their hats into a ring, with their owners wrestling off in accordance with the pairing of the hats.[37][38][39]

There had been a custom of "begging the ring" whereby old or injured wrestlers would walk around the ring begging for alms. This was replaced by a wrestlers' benevolent fund in 1926 and then by the welfare state.[40][38][41]

Wrestling matches were once played in churchyards, but in 1297 the Bishop of Exeter banned it from such places in Devon and Cornwall. [42]

At some tournaments there were prizes for those wresters appearing in the neatest costume.[43]

In late Victorian times women were briefly banned from matches, as men often wrestled in their long johns, which was not considered respectable.[42]

Gold laced hats were often used as first place prizes for Cornish wrestling tournaments. It was said that wearers of such hats were immune from the attentions of the press gang.[26]

Wrestlers who were knocked senseless in bouts would often be treated by being "bled" on site if there was a doctor at hand.[44][45]

In the mid-1800s through to the early 1900s, extra trains were laid on going to and from towns where Cornish wrestling tournaments were being held.[46][47] In the early 1900s this was extended to extra bus services.[48]

Until 1927 there was no time limit for Cornish wrestling matches and there are records of matches taking many hours and even having to be reconvened the next day.[49] Note that in 1927 the rule became best 2 falls in 20 minutes, but there was much resistance to this change as it was perceived that often the worse player won these matches.[50] This was changed to the current rules of two, ten minute, rounds with points being used to determine the winner if no back is scored.[51] However, his time limit lapsed in the 1940s, was proposed to be reinstated in 1956,[52] but was only reinstated in 1967.[53]

In the early 1800s there were two distinct styles of wrestling. Wrestlers who fought in the Western style included Parkyn and wrestlers who fought with the Eastern style included the Truscotts. This distinction had disappeared by the end of the 1800s.[54]

The wrestler's motto

Gwari hweg yw gwari teg[55][56][57][58]

English Translation: Fair play is sweet play.[59][58][60]

The wrestler's oath

Cornish[61] Translation[59][60][62]
War ow enor ha war enor ow bro, On my honour and the honour of my country,
My a de omdewlel heb traytouri na garowder, I swear to wrestle without treachery or brutality
Hag avel ol ow lelder my a ystyn ow leuv dhe’m kontrari. And in token of my sincerity I offer my hand to my opponent.
Gans geryow ow hendasow: In the words of my forefathers:
“Gwari hweg yw gwari teg”. "Fair play is sweet play".

Governing bodies

There has been significant disagreement, over time, as to which were the ruling governing bodies in the sport and also differences in the precise nature of the rules. This has resulted in simultaneous claimants for world, national and regional titles.[63]

Governing bodies outside Cornwall

The Devon and Cornish wrestling Society was formed in 1849.[64]

The Western Counties Wrestling Association was formed in 1877[65]

Worldwide, various regional bodies have governed local Cornish wrestling tournaments or matches. Examples include:

Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society

Cornish wrestling in London 1866[78]

The Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society (also known as the Devon and Cornwall wrestling Society[79][80]) was formed in 1752, running tournaments and matches in London, often at Hackney Wick. Open competitions were held, awarding significant belts and prizes funded by the patrons. However, only natives of Cornwall were permitted to compete for the Great Duke of Cornwall cup.[81]

Patrons of the Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society

Governing bodies inside Cornwall

County Committee

In 1886 and 1887 a series of wrestling tournaments (in Truro,[85][86][87] Penzance[88] and Redruth[89] amongst others) was organised by what was described as the "County Committee" with secretary Mr J F Mark.

Cornish Wrestling Association

The different regional associations within Cornwall merged into the Cornwall County Wrestling Association ("CCWA") in September 1923, under the presidency of Lord St Levan,[90] to help standardize the rules, facilitate the competing of Duchy championships, mitigate the risk of clashing tournaments and promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall and indeed Worldwide.[10] When the CCWA was formed there were only 9 affiliated local associations, but by 1925 there were over 50.[91][90] Note that the Newquay and Port Isaac associations initially indicated that they wanted nothing to do with the CCWA.[92]

In 1928, William Tregonning Hooper initiated inter-Celtic tournaments between the CCWA and its counterpart in Brittany, as the similarities of Breton and Cornish wrestling are sufficient for successful competitions to be held between the two.[93]

In 1930, the CCWA had financial difficulties resulting in suspension of activities and the belts and cups being seized by the bank. As a result, belts and cups were not awarded.[94][95]

In 1932, the CCWA was refinanced, with help from the London Cornish Association,[96] Federation of Old Cornwall Societies,[97][96] Viscount Clifden,[98] the Western Morning News[98] and the Duke of Cornwall,[96][98][97] and the belts and cups were retrieved from the bank.[13][10][99] In 1933 the CCWA changed its name to the Cornish Wrestling Association ("CWA")[99] and adopted a rule to limit rounds to 15 minutes.[49][100]

In 1933 various local wrestling associations had competitions unaffiliated to the CWA, culminating with St Mawgan holding a championship of Cornwall, "under the old Cornish wrestling rules".[101]

The East Cornwall Wrestling Federation ("ECWF") was formed in 1934, at least in part to hold competitions under more traditional rules (the time limit being a key issue).[10][102][103][104] The ECWF also complained that the CWA had preferred placing championship tournaments in West Cornwall and had preferred selecting wrestlers from West Cornwall to represent Cornwall in the inter-Celtic competition.[105] The ECWF held rival championship titles of heavyweight, middleweight and lightweight champion in the "Old Cornish Style".[13][10] In 1934, the CWA initially suspended wrestlers involved with ECWF competitions.[63] This rule was suspended in 1936, but re-instigated in 1938.[106][107]

In 1936 the CWA removed the time limit to matches.[108]

In 1946, the ECWF was absorbed by the CWA, who have overseen almost all tournaments since.[109][110][111] A current example of an exception to this is the annual St Mawgan tournament.

In 1994 the CWA opened competitions to women.[112]

In 2004 the CWA became affiliated with the British Wrestling Association.[113]

Patrons of the CCWA/CWA

Notable people who were also Cornish wrestlers

Tom Molineaux

Notable Cornish wrestlers

Historically, there were simultaneous claimants to world, national and regional titles in Cornish wrestling. This was driven, at least in part, by there not being agreement concerning the definitive governing bodies in the sport until the 1920s.

Some of these wrestlers also competed in other wrestling styles, or in matches where multiple styles were used.

Algeria

Australia

Austria

Bolivia

Brazil

Canada

Jack King 1891[206]

Cornwall

Richard Parkyn
James Polkinghorne
Joseph Menear 1864[302]
Thomas Stone 1899[336]

Devon

Main article: Devon wrestling

Abraham Cann 1864[437]
John Slade 1866[460]

Egypt

England (excluding Devon)

Sir Thomas Parkyns 1713[206]
Tom Cannon 1885[504]

Estonia

Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt 1905

Finland

Karl Lehto 1910[514]

France

Germany

Joseph Ziehr 1902[67]

Greece

Holland

Ireland

Tim Harrington 1907[557]

Italy

Japan

Matsuda Sorakichi

Mexico

New Caledonia

See also: New Caledonia

New Zealand

Poland

Scotland

Duncan Cameron Ross 1888

South Africa

Sri Lanka

Sweden

Hjalmar Lundin
Charles Dufstrom 1912[637]

Turkey

Hali Adali 1899[648]
Ahmed Madrali 1904

United States

Jack Carkeek 1900[705]
Jack Rowett 1909[733]
Tony Harris 1902[749]
James Rodda wrestling Haskins in San Francisco 1898[750]
Martin Burns (left) and Frank Gotch (right)
William Martin 1902[67]
Evan Lewis 1919

Wales

Cornish wrestling throws

Main article: Cornish wrestling throws

There are a number of throws that are taught in training classes, but each has many variants.

In Play
Heaves
Back Heave
Cornish Hug
Fore Heave
Flying Mare
Half Heave
Scat un Back
Teddy Bag Heave
Under Heave
Crooks
Back Crook
Fore Crook
Slip Crook
Sprags
Back Sprag
Double Sprag
Single Sprag
Hip Throws
Fore Hip
Pull Over Hip
Out Play
Trips
Back Step
Heel
Lock Arm
Pull Under
Toe
Foul Throws
Foul Moves
Cross Collar
Crowbar Hitch

Championships

The following Senior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy, overseen by the CWA:

Championship Current Weight limit (lbs) 1963 Weight limit (lbs) 1938 Weight limit (lbs) 1936 Weight limit (lbs) 1924 Weight Limit (lbs)
Heavyweight Open Open Open Open Open[801][802]
Light Heavyweight 210 180[803] N/A N/A N/A
Middleweight 182 160 160 160 160[804][802]
Lightweight 168 145[805] 145 145 145[801][802]
Featherweight 154 130[806] 130[807] 140[808][809] 130[810][802]
Ladies Open N/A N/A N/A N/A

Note that women have held some of the weight based championships.

The following Junior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy:

Cornish Wrestling at the Royal Cornwall Show

The Cornish Wrestling Association (CWA) still features annually at the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Cornish wrestling tent can be found in the Countryside area very near to the west entrance. In the Cornish wrestling tent you will find an impressive display of Cornish wrestling trophies, belts, history, photos, books and DVDs. The wrestlers perform demonstrations of their style in the Countryside ring, usually twice a day for each of the three days of the show. The demonstrations feature most of the throws and moves of the Cornish style and also feature demonstration bouts usually with a variety of wrestlers from youngsters, girls, lightweights and heavyweights.

Outside Cornwall

Cornish wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria, Australia and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes.

See also

References

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  120. ^ Morris, Charles: Historical Tales, the Romance of Reality, JB Lippincott Company (Philadelphia) 1895, p212.
  121. ^ Sewell, Elizabeth Missing: Popular History of France, Longmans Green and Co (London) 1876, p302.
  122. ^ Jennings, LA: Mixed Martial Arts: A History from Ancient Fighting Sports, Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group 2021, p52-53.
  123. ^ Wrestling advocated : Football condened, Cornish Guardian, 23 September 1910, p2.
  124. ^ David Knight (2004) "Davy, Sir Humphry, baronet (1778–1829)" in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press
  125. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  126. ^ Trevithick, Ricard, Encyclopedia Britannica Vol XXIII, Maxwell Sommerville (Philadelphia) 1891, p589.
  127. ^ a b Cornish wrestling champion of 150 years ago, Cornish Guardian, 17 March 1966, p10.
  128. ^ Exeter Annual wrestling match, Staffordshire Advertiser, 8 August 1812, p4.
  129. ^ Exeter Annual wrestling, Bristol Times and Mirror, 1 August 1812, p3.
  130. ^ Fears for future of wrestling after event's small turnout, Cornish Guardian, 22 September 2010.
  131. ^ Playing the judo card cost Hague his job, The Guardian (London), 12 June 2001.
  132. ^ Gruesome British folk sports – from cheese-rolling to Hare Pie Scramble, The Spectator; London, 3 June 2023.
  133. ^ a b Gov. Roosevelt, a Wrestler, New York Times, 1 December 1899, p1.
  134. ^ a b Wrestler has apparently defied all traditions of athletics and is throwing all comers, The Minneapolis Journal, 21 January 1906
  135. ^ a b c Old "Farmer" Burns comes back and shows splendid condition, The Minneapolis journal, 21 January 1906, p3.
  136. ^ Wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 3 October 1856, p5.
  137. ^ Wit sharpened by fight for fortune, The San Francisco call, 12 January 1909, p6.
  138. ^ "Fitz" wrestled, The Victoria Daily Times, 1 March 1924, p10.
  139. ^ Berlenbach shows wrestling training, San Bernardino Sun, 6 April 1924, p4.
  140. ^ Robert Fitz-Simmons, Cornishman, 25 March 1897, p7.
  141. ^ Boxing and wrestling won't mix, says Edgren, Canton Daily News, 2 March 1924, p20.
  142. ^ Breton wrestlers in Cornwall, Cornishman, 31 August 1933, p6.
  143. ^ Iron Men, Manawatu Times, 19 October 1935, p11.
  144. ^ Cornish wrestling at stake, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 September 1944, p3.
  145. ^ For Realism, Border Watch — (SA), 21 March 1946, p4.
  146. ^ Paul Dupuis, from the CBC Here, Becomes a Star of British Films, The Gazette, 14 September 1945, p6.
  147. ^ a b Harry Pearce the Australian champion, Cornishman, 4 August 1904, p7.
  148. ^ Cornish Reminiscences, The Kadina and Wallaroo Times (SA), 20 July 1927, p4.
  149. ^ A wrestling match, The Examiner (SA), 28 September 1842, p4.
  150. ^ Cornish wrestling in South Australia, Royal Cornwall Gazette 17 October 1851, p6.
  151. ^ Champion match between Hodge and Cawrse, South Australian Register, 4 September 1852, p3.
  152. ^ a b c WRESTLING. CHAMPION MATCH BETWEEN HODGE AND CAWRSE, Adelaide Observer (SA), 4 September 1852, p8.
  153. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 30 June 1843.
  154. ^ a b c d e Payton, Philip: The Cornish Overseas: A History of Cornwall's Great Migration, Ian Grant 2005, p21-218.
  155. ^ Wrestling, Adelaide Times (SA), 29 July 1851, p3.
  156. ^ Wrestling match for the championship, South Australian (Adelaide, SA), 29 July 1851, p3.
  157. ^ a b Wrestling at Whitsuntide, Adelaide Observer, 7 June 1851, p15.
  158. ^ Death of an ex-champion wrestler, The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA), 5 February 1906, p4.
  159. ^ Old wrestler dead, The Murchison Times and Day Dawn Gazette (Cue, WA), 6 February 1906, p3.
  160. ^ Death of a wrestler, The Corowa Free Press (NSW), 9 February 1906, p6.
  161. ^ a b Wrestling at Redruth, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 27 August 1858, p5.
  162. ^ THE BATHURST MURDER., The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld.), 9 November 1872, p9.
  163. ^ Grand wrestling matches, South Australian Register, 7 August 1852, p2.
  164. ^ The grand wrestling match, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), 23 August 1852, p3.
  165. ^ Grand wrestling match, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic), 10 March 1856 , p5.
  166. ^ A formidable ruffian, Mount Alexander Mail (Vic.), 11 November 1872, p2.
  167. ^ The Ophir murder - the character of Corse, Empire (Sydney, NSW), 2 November 1872, p3.
  168. ^ Personal, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA), 2 January 1903, p4.
  169. ^ BRIGHTON REGATTA AND SPORTS, The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA), 2 January 1903, p2.
  170. ^ Wrestling, match between Curley Bray and Curnick for one hundred pounds, Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle (Melbourne, Vic.), 7 April 1860, p4.
  171. ^ Payton, Philip: Cornwall, Alexander Associates (Fowey) 1996, p240.
  172. ^ Helston retrospect, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 6 May 1954, p3.
  173. ^ Death of Mr G Philips, The Daily Mail (Brisbane, Qld.), 24 March 1922, p8.
  174. ^ ACCIDENT TO JACK THOMAS, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 15 May 1889, p5.
  175. ^ a b CALEDONIAN GAMES. FIRST DAY., Bendigo Advertiser (Vic.), 27 December 1879, p3.
  176. ^ RETIREMENT OF A WRESTLER, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 9 May 1889, p2.
  177. ^ Athletics, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic), 10 May 1889, p4.
  178. ^ Wrestling at the Caledonian Society's Gathering in Dunedin, Mount Ida Chronicle, 9 January 1879, p3.
  179. ^ Callow youths, Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW), 6 July 1935, p13.
  180. ^ Death of Champion Wrestler, Daily Post (Hobart, Tas.), 28 March 1913, p6.
  181. ^ Former champion wrestler's death, The Age (Melbourne, Vic.), 28 March 1913, p7.
  182. ^ Death of Mr J Walker, Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 26 March 1913, p2.
  183. ^ Great wrestling match, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic.), 4 March 1884, p1.
  184. ^ A NIGHT AT FOLEY'S, Globe (Sydney, NSW),25 January 1886 , p5.
  185. ^ Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 20 December 1894, p3.
  186. ^ Notes and News, Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld), 8 April 1890, p3.
  187. ^ Bendingo and district, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic), 23 June 1925, p5.
  188. ^ Wrestling, West Cumberland Times, 13 March 1907, p3.
  189. ^ a b Western Australia, Cornishman, 3 November 1904, p3.
  190. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling. Dell Nellson v. Thomas. Neither Man Prevails., Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 6 July 1891, p2.
  191. ^ Boxers and Their Doings and Their Doings, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 23 November 1910, p7.
  192. ^ Wrestling, Delhi Neilson, Champion of South Africa, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 24 February 1909, p7.
  193. ^ Wrestling, The Riverine Herald (Echuca, Vic. : Moama, NSW), 1 March 1909, p3.
  194. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 22 December 1890, p2.
  195. ^ Cornish wrestling, The Evening Star (Boulder, WA), 10 November 1898, p4.
  196. ^ Mons Victor, The Evening Star (Boulder, WA), 17 December 1898, p3.
  197. ^ Wrestling, The Goldfields Morning Chronicle (Coolgardie, WA), 23 August 1897, p3.
  198. ^ Wrestling, A desperate struggle, Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic), 3 February 1906, p17.
  199. ^ a b Wrestling on the Rand, Cornish middleweight championship, The Cornish Telegraph, 31 January 1907, p17.
  200. ^ Wrestling in Perth, Western Australia, Cornishman, 22 August 1907, p6.
  201. ^ Town crier attacked in front of his wife by gang of teenagers, The Western Morning News, 22 October 2009, p5.
  202. ^ Shocking attack leaves town crier with three broken ribs, Cornish Guardian, 21 October 2009, p3.
  203. ^ Festival finale, The Advertiser; Adelaide, 22 May 2001.
  204. ^ Cornish young wrestlers, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1946, p5.
  205. ^ a b c d e f Death of Richard (Schiller) Williams, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 August 1892, p7.
  206. ^ a b c The Iron Mountain Galdiator, Oswego Daily Palladium, 21 April 1891, p13.
  207. ^ The wrestlers, Anaconda Standard, 31 October 1892, p4.
  208. ^ Michigan: Jack King to wrestle, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 April 1906, p3.
  209. ^ a b Jack Rowett is still champion, Camulet News, 10 January 1911, p7.
  210. ^ Over the Northwest, Camulet News, 30 July 1898, p8.
  211. ^ a b Dr Todd, Arthur Cecil : The Cornish Miner in America, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro), 1967, p139-141.
  212. ^ The robbery of 70,000 dollars from a train, Cornishman, 19 October 1893, p7.
  213. ^ a b Peninsula News, The L'Anse sentinel, 29 January 1898, p1.
  214. ^ The Michigan train robbery cleared of all mystery, The Iola register (Iola, Kan.), 29 September 1893, p6.
  215. ^ Notes and Comments, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 April 1892, p5.
  216. ^ a b Dawson Canada, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1899, p3.
  217. ^ a b Klondike, Cornish Post and Mining News, 31 August 1899, p4.
  218. ^ Wrestling in Americal - Gulval man wins silver cup, Cornishman, 4 October 1906, p6.
  219. ^ Penzance Notes News, Cornishman, 8 August 1907, p5.
  220. ^ Stanton, Western Daily Press, 19 February 1875, p1.
  221. ^ Stanton for Stroud, Western Daily Press, 16 February 1875, p1.
  222. ^ Richard Carew (antiquary): The Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p76.
  223. ^ a b c d e f Dr Whetter, James: Cornish People in the 18th Century, Lyfrow Trelyspen, The Roseland Institute, Gorran 2000, p50-56.
  224. ^ Coate, Mary: Puritan Survey of 160 parishes in Cornwall, 1586
  225. ^ a b c d e f g Rev Polwhele, R: History of Cornwall, Michell & Co (Truro) 1816, p67-68.
  226. ^ Hamilton Jenkin, A K: The Story of Cornwall, Thomas Nelsom and Sons Ltd 1934, p119-121.
  227. ^ Cornish wrestling revival, Western Morning News, 20 September 1923, p2.
  228. ^ Cornish folk in times past, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 January 1959, p2.
  229. ^ Matthew's great day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 25 August 1994, p77.
  230. ^ One hundred years ago, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 March 1908, p6.
  231. ^ Wrestling match, Derby Mercury, 14 October 1757, p4.
  232. ^ Lamentable occurrence, Taunton Courier, and Western Advertiser, 30 June 1824, p5.
  233. ^ Gymnastics, Saint James's Chronicle, 16 June 1808, p1.
  234. ^ Wrestling, Star (London), 5 August 1826, p4.
  235. ^ Cornish Wrestlers, Western Morning News, 22 August 1944, p6.
  236. ^ Hedgecoe, John: A L Rowse's Cornwall, Weidenfeld and Nicolson (London), 1988, p74-75
  237. ^ Lover of Cornish wrestling, Late Rev L V Jolly, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser , 30 May 1963, p6.
  238. ^ Western Morning News,7 September 1944
  239. ^ Mawgan wrestling - champions present and past, Cornish Guardian, 28 July 1927, p13.
  240. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornishman, 9 March 1927, p2.
  241. ^ Death of an old farmer, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 30 March 1876, p5.
  242. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 December 1869, p4.
  243. ^ Death of a wrestler, Western Times - Tuesday 21 December 1869, p6.
  244. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 18 December 1869, p5.
  245. ^ Deaths, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Friday 19 September 1851, p5.
  246. ^ a b The great wrestling match, Globe, 26 October 1826, p3.
  247. ^ The Lanyon Family, The West Briton, 2 January 1890, p10.
  248. ^ Historic venue for wrestling in St Kew, Cornish Guardian, 16 August 1956, p9.
  249. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling down the ages, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 4 January 1954, p1.
  250. ^ Samuel Ley Thorne,The Converted Wrestler; or the Life of Abraham Bastard, 1877
  251. ^ a b Wrestling: James Cann and Olver, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 22 June 1828, p3.
  252. ^ Warren a St Just Hero, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 October 1943, p4.
  253. ^ James Warren, Cornish Times - Saturday 16 May 1857, p1.
  254. ^ Mining Intelligence, Cornish Times, 16 May 1857, p1.
  255. ^ a b 'Howitt, William: Rural Life of England, Longman (london), 1840, p536-538.
  256. ^ Heroic collection under the hammer, The West Briton, 23 February 2017, p54.
  257. ^ The late Mr W Grose of St Kew, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 February 1877, p4.
  258. ^ a b Wrestling match, Weekly Dispatch (London), 18 March 1838, p12.
  259. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 11 October 1835.
  260. ^ a b c d e f g Tom Gundry, Cornishman, 1 November 1888, p3.
  261. ^ Gleanings, Birmingham Daily Post, 25 October 1888, p7.
  262. ^ Cornish Wrestling returns to Sithney, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 03 June 1982, p41.
  263. ^ Wrestling Matches at Redruth, Cornishman, 28 August 1884, p6.
  264. ^ a b Cornwall and Devon Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 6 June 1847, p3.
  265. ^ Fish, Tin and Copper, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 22 May 1880, p4.
  266. ^ West of England gleanings, Weston Mercury, 27 October 1888, p2.
  267. ^ Wrestliana, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 February 1870, p4.
  268. ^ Wrestling, The Era, 17 September 1843, p11.
  269. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1892, p4.
  270. ^ A reminiscence of Johnna Roberts and Harry Williams, Cornishman, 31 March 1892, p7.
  271. ^ a b Wrestlers of the past, Cornishman - Thursday 28 January 1904, p5.
  272. ^ Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Post and Mining News, 19 March 1892, p6.
  273. ^ The wrestling at Copenhagen House, The Observer, 21 April 1851, p8.
  274. ^ Morning Advertiser, 6 June 1857.
  275. ^ a b Death of Mr W Delbridge, Cornishman, 4 March 1886, p7.
  276. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 26 May 1839
  277. ^ Morning Advertiser, 21 May 1839
  278. ^ The Era, 25 June 1848
  279. ^ The late capt. Joseph Hodge, a striking career, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 October 1909, p7.
  280. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 3 November 1899, p5.
  281. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, The Cornish Telegraph, 15 May 1884, p8.
  282. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornishman - Thursday 15 May 1884, p5.
  283. ^ a b c Death of a manly wrestler, Cornishman, 9 November 1899, p2.
  284. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, and respected man, Cornishman - Thursday 02 November 1899, p5.
  285. ^ a b c Wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 November 1860, p4.
  286. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 31 October 1860
  287. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 28 September 1853
  288. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 12 April 1854
  289. ^ a b The Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 30 July 1856, p3.
  290. ^ a b Royal Cornwall Gazette, 11 June 1858
  291. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 September 1858
  292. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 June 1861
  293. ^ Morning Advertiser, 10 June 1862
  294. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 June 1854
  295. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 19 June 1859
  296. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 April 1854
  297. ^ Treglown, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 25 March 1864, p8.
  298. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 22 February 1854, p3.
  299. ^ Barton RM, Life in Cornwall in the mid 19th Century, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro) 1971, p233.
  300. ^ The challenge wrestling match, Western Morning News, 14 September 1860, p2.
  301. ^ Penzance, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 May 1868, p2.
  302. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 2 April 1864, p1.
  303. ^ Joseph Menear, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 2 April 1864, p1.
  304. ^ Wrestling, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 12 June 1869, p3.
  305. ^ Who is Joe Menear, Cornishman, 25 October 1894, p3.
  306. ^ Hackney Wick, Sporting Life, 30 March 1864, p3.
  307. ^ Wrestling Notes, The Western Times, 14 November 1879, p2.
  308. ^ a b c Delbridge, James: Delbridge's guide on grab hold, or Cornish style of wrestling, (Michigan), 1879, p1-28.
  309. ^ Notes on the Exeter wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 June 1869, p3.
  310. ^ Exciting wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 December 1874, p5.
  311. ^ A wrestling match, Western Times, 25 September 1873, p1.
  312. ^ Cornish wrestling at St Blazey, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1902, p8.
  313. ^ Wrestling, The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW),20 June 1883, p2.
  314. ^ The Cornish Champion Vanquished, Cornishman, 11 July 1895, p7.
  315. ^ a b Wrestling match at Plymouth, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 April 1876, p7.
  316. ^ Butte City Montana, Cornish Post and Mining News, 24 March 1898, p6.
  317. ^ Scene at the Helton wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 20 October 1883, p5.
  318. ^ Jack Wannop as boxer and wrestler, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 19 January 1907, p12.
  319. ^ Cornishmen abroad: Wrestling, Cornishman, 7 June 1894, p2.
  320. ^ The canvas jacket, The Anaconda standard, 15 June 1895, p4.
  321. ^ The wrestling tournament, Cornishman, 5 July 1894, p4.
  322. ^ Wrestling for £100, East & South Devon Advertiser, 5 November 1887, p7.
  323. ^ Wrestling Champion - Death of Philip Hancock, Western Morning News - Tuesday 26 April 1927, p12.
  324. ^ a b Phip Hancock's ring days, Western Morning News, 29 September 1921, p2.
  325. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 21 August 1926, p3.
  326. ^ Phil Hancock, Tom Gundry and Jack Pearce, Cornishman, 5 October 1921, p3.
  327. ^ Bugle Native's long service, Cornish Guardian, 31 October 1929, p13.
  328. ^ a b Obituary, Cornish Guardian, 6 March 1969, p16.
  329. ^ a b Converted wrestling champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1965, p9.
  330. ^ Cornish wrestler and local preacher, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 June 1922, p3.
  331. ^ Cornish wrestling, Western Morning News, 12 July 1922, p2.
  332. ^ a b Wrestling Match, The Central Glamorgan Gazette, and General, Commercial, and Agricultural Advertiser, 27 May 1887, p6.
  333. ^ A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 16 July 1892, p4.
  334. ^ Death of Schiller Williams, Cornishman 25 August 1892, p6.
  335. ^ Letter from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  336. ^ a b c Death of Mr Tom Stone, Cornish Guardian, 18 March 1937, p10.
  337. ^ Lanivet: wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 10 May 1878, p5.
  338. ^ Truro Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 11 September 1896, p5.
  339. ^ County wrestling at Truro , Cornishman, 24 September 1891, p7.
  340. ^ The county wrestling matches , Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 19 September 1891, p4.
  341. ^ 1891 UK Census, Transcript of Piece RG12/1822 (Part 1), Folio 7 Page 7.
  342. ^ a b Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Guardian, 4 April 1924, p7.
  343. ^ a b Thomas Bragg, Western Times - Monday 24 November 1879, p3.
  344. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 July 1887, p7.
  345. ^ Wrestling in Devon, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 30 September 1876, p5.
  346. ^ a b Wrestling in Devonshire, Sporting Life, 3 September 1879, p4.
  347. ^ A Wrestling Match, Western Times, 2 September 1879, p2.
  348. ^ Wrestling at Dartmouth, Western Times, 28 August 1880, p3.
  349. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 1 September 1882, p7.
  350. ^ a b Grand Wrestling Tournament, Bristol Mercury, 29 May 1882, p4.
  351. ^ Wrestling match at Cardiff, South Wales Daily News, 10 September 1883, p3.
  352. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 8 June 1882, p6.
  353. ^ Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornish & Devon Post, 27 August 1887, p2.
  354. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 30 June 1904, p6.
  355. ^ Wrestling, Tom Bragg and the "Terrible Turk", Cornishman, 11 February 1904, p7.
  356. ^ a b Wrestling, The championship of the world, The Devon Evening Express, 19 May 1888, p4.
  357. ^ a b Corvion, Tom: Pioneers of Professional Wrestling: 1860–1899, Archway Publishing (Bloomington) 2014, p37-38.
  358. ^ a b c Wrestling for the championship, Cornishman, 27 October 1892, p7.
  359. ^ Grandson of wrestling champ met wife at Helston flora day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 5 February 1998, p7.
  360. ^ a b The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornish & Devon Post, 8 January 1887, p2.
  361. ^ a b c Wrestling match for the championship of the world, Western Morning News, 16 May 1888, p4.
  362. ^ County Wrestling matches at Truro, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 September 1887, p8.
  363. ^ Wrestling at Plymouth, Cornishman, 24 May 1888, p5.
  364. ^ Prize wrestling, Cornishman, 16 May 1889, p6.
  365. ^ On Wednesday afternoon wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 19 August 1893, p5.
  366. ^ Yesterday's Cornwall, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 20 October 1994, p14.
  367. ^ The Cornish championship, Sporting Life, 23 October 1894, p4.
  368. ^ a b Trewennack wrestling matches, Cornishman, 1 November 1883, p5.
  369. ^ Helston Notes, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 August 1885, p5.
  370. ^ Wrestling at Porkellis, Cornishman - Thursday 20 August 1885, p3.
  371. ^ a b Passing of Mr J Capell, St Columb, Cornish Guardian - Thursday 11 February 1932, p2.
  372. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornish Post and Mining News, 26 September 1890, p8.
  373. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 July 1898.
  374. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 21 July 1898.
  375. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 26 September 1890.
  376. ^ Former wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 26 October 1942, p2.
  377. ^ Correspondence, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 10 January 1902, p5.
  378. ^ Redruth Wrestling matches, Cornishman, 25 September 1890, p8.
  379. ^ Wrestling matches at Helston, Cornishman, 10 July 1884, p5.
  380. ^ Redruth wrestling matches, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 September 1888, p2.
  381. ^ Truro wrestling match, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 18 July 1878, p5.
  382. ^ Wrestling Match, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 13 Jul 1885, p2.
  383. ^ Fine exposition of Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 23 June 1904, p5.
  384. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, The Sportsman, 20 August 1906, p8.
  385. ^ a b c Links with sport, Cornishman, 4 October 1922, p4.
  386. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, Cornishman, 23 August 1906, p8.
  387. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 August 1906
  388. ^ a b 1891 Census, Enumeration District 10, Folio 154 Page 3.
  389. ^ Cornish wrestling champion of yesteryear, Cornish Guardian, 4 August 1966, p7.
  390. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 1 August 1914
  391. ^ Passing of "Reub" Chapman: A former champion, Cornish Guardian, 3 July 1930, p9.
  392. ^ Charge against a wrestler, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 15 February 1901, p7.
  393. ^ Alleged arson in Cornwall, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 February 1901, p2.
  394. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 18 July 1907, p3.
  395. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 July 1925
  396. ^ a b c d Bodmin wrestler wins a second Cornish title, Cornish Guardian, 18 July 1963, p14.
  397. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 9 September 1912
  398. ^ a b Boxing World and Mirror of Life ,16 August 1913
  399. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 23 August 1913
  400. ^ Cornish Guardian, 20 June 1919
  401. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 August 1920
  402. ^ Western Morning News, 23 August 1921
  403. ^ Cornishman, 25 August 1920
  404. ^ Michigan, The Cornish Telegraph, 16 December 1909, p6.
  405. ^ a b Chapman wins honors, The Calumet News, 10 July 1911, p8.
  406. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 September 1912, p3.
  407. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, Cornish Guardian, 13 September 1912, p6.
  408. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in Lady of Pendower, Kinematograph Weekly, 28 June 1934, p37-38.
  409. ^ Tripp, Michael: PERSISTENCE OF DIFFERENCE: A HISTORY OF CORNISH WRESTLING, University of Exeter as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2009, p127-175.
  410. ^ Some old-time champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  411. ^ a b Wrestlers, North Devon Journal, 26 January 1871, p5.
  412. ^ Whispers and echoes, Cornish Guardian, 1 October 1926, p7.
  413. ^ a b Two celebrated wrestlers, Little Cock and Blind Bill, Hereford Times, 21 November 1846, p9.
  414. ^ Died, Western Times, 16 June 1838, p2.
  415. ^ Died, Dorset County Chronicle, 21 June 1838, p4.
  416. ^ An Extraordinary Wrestler, Wiltshire Independent, 28 June 1838, p4.
  417. ^ Death of a noted wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 May 1874, p37.
  418. ^ Death of a noted wrestler, Western Morning News 8 May 1874, p3.
  419. ^ Torpoint diversions, Hampshire Chronicle, 29 July 1811, p72.
  420. ^ Tavistock Wrestling match, North Devon Journal, 18 May 1827, p3.
  421. ^ Globe, 17 July 1811
  422. ^ Saint James's Chronicle, 26 May 1812
  423. ^ Star (London), 15 August 1812
  424. ^ Cornish wrestling at the Eagle tavern, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 14 August 1831, p3.
  425. ^ Wrestling at Saltash, Pilot (London), 6 August 1811, p3.
  426. ^ a b c d e Wrestling Notes: Thomas Cooper, Western Times, 3 February 1880, p7.
  427. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Express and Echo, 23 March 1875, p2.
  428. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Saturday 27 March 1875, p4.
  429. ^ Death of an old wrestler, The Exeter Flying Post or, Trewman's Plymouth and Cornish Advertiser, 24 March 1875, p5.
  430. ^ Death of an old wrestler, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 April 1875, p11.
  431. ^ a b Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 22 July 1827, p5.
  432. ^ a b Death of a renowned Devonshire wrestler, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA), 23 February 1867, p3.
  433. ^ An old wrestler, Western Times, 4 December 1866, p3.
  434. ^ Crediton, Western Times, 27 February 1866, p7.
  435. ^ Death of a renowned Devonshire wrestler, The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 7 December 1866, p6.
  436. ^ An old wrestler, The Western Times, 7 December 1866, p6.
  437. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 7 May 1864, p4.
  438. ^ Wrestling Notes, Western Times, 21 February 1880, p3.
  439. ^ A champion of other days, Western Times, 12 May 1860, p6.
  440. ^ a b Old Abraham Cann, the Champion Wrestler, The Cornish Telegraph - Wednesday 25 July 1860, p2.
  441. ^ Weekly Calendar, Sherborne Mercury, 20 August 1850, p4.
  442. ^ "Wrestlers", The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 13 February 1872, p2.
  443. ^ Abe Cann's bout with the Cornish champion, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 14 December 1927, p3.
  444. ^ a b Death of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 15 January 1891, p4.
  445. ^ a b Funeral of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 23 January 1891, p4.
  446. ^ a b Wrestling: Benefit of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 14 November 1883, p1.
  447. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 June 1845, p4.
  448. ^ Cornwall and Devon wrestling society: the championship, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 April 1868, p4.
  449. ^ Attempted murder in Devonshire, Sun (London), 16 November 1841, p3.
  450. ^ a b c Wrestling,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 18 September 1841, p3.
  451. ^ The Era, 13 October 1844
  452. ^ Grand Wrestling Match,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 16 August 1845, p3.
  453. ^ Morning Herald (London), 25 May 1847
  454. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 23 May 1847
  455. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842
  456. ^ Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 2 April 1842
  457. ^ Death of May, the wrestler, North Devon Journal, 25 June 1829, p3.
  458. ^ North Devon, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 19 February 1842, p3.
  459. ^ Devonshire, Bristol Mirror, 26 February 1842, p6.
  460. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 7 April 1866, p9.
  461. ^ Jack Slade's wrestling and boxing competitions, Sporting Life, 7 February 1887, p3.
  462. ^ Wrestling, The Sportsman, 17 February 1885, p4.
  463. ^ a b Champion Wrestler's Belt, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 12 August 1870, p6.
  464. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 23 June 1858
  465. ^ a b Wrestling at Exeter, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 13 August 1869, p4.
  466. ^ a b Western Morning News, 11 August 1869
  467. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 8 August 1852
  468. ^ Western Times, 9 May 1870
  469. ^ Wrestling match, The Western Times, 20 September 1871, p3.
  470. ^ Western Times, 15 August 1873
  471. ^ Western Times, 30 July 1874
  472. ^ Items of News, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 June 1877, p4.
  473. ^ Western Morning News, 5 June 1877
  474. ^ a b Devon Wrestling, Hutchings and Tapper, Battishill, The Western Times, 20 May 1879, p3.
  475. ^ a b c d The great Cornwall and Devon wrestling match between Baker and Pike for the championship, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 13 September 1879, p9.
  476. ^ a b c d e Devon wrestling, Western Times, 7 February 1879, p3.
  477. ^ Champion wrestling match, Cornish & Devon Post, 13 September 1879, p2.
  478. ^ Wrestling notes: Thomas Baker, Western Times, 13 January 1880, p2.
  479. ^ Devon Wrestling, Western Times, 6 February 1879, p6.
  480. ^ The Sportsman, 22 July 1880
  481. ^ Western Times, 1 November 1887
  482. ^ Grand wrestling tournament, Western Daily Press, 29 May 1882, p8.
  483. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 16 November 1894, p2.
  484. ^ Champion wrestling at Plymouth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1894, p4.
  485. ^ Champion wrestler at Cardiff, Star of Gwent, 20 September 1895, p9.
  486. ^ Cornish wrestling, Morning Post, 12 April 1887, p3.
  487. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 31 March 1887, p4.
  488. ^ Local News, Western Times, 24 May 1888, p2.
  489. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 11 August 1927, p3.
  490. ^ Wrestling at Camborne, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 August 1927, p2.
  491. ^ a b Cornish wrestlers challenged, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1927, p4.
  492. ^ The Wrestling Baronet of Bunny, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, 14 October 1882, p9.
  493. ^ Sir Thomas Parkyns: The Inn-play or Cornish Hugg Wrestler, J Bailey (London) 1713, p18-19.
  494. ^ a b c d Green, Timothy: Nottingham in the olden time, William Draper printer, 1859, p98-99.
  495. ^ Tregoning Hooper, Cornish Wrestling, Royal Institution of Cornwall, Vol II, Part 2, 1954, p88-97.
  496. ^ Wrestling, Morning Chronicle, 17 April 1827, p4.
  497. ^ Devonshire Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 17 April 1827, p3.
  498. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Globe, 7 June 1827, p3.
  499. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 2 July 1828, p2.
  500. ^ Wrestling at Tiverton,Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842, p4.
  501. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Sun (London), 16 May 1845, p2.
  502. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Morning Advertiser, 15 May 1845, p3.
  503. ^ Presentation to a champion wrestler, The Evening Express of The Devon Weekly Times, 23 July 1869, p6.
  504. ^ The Moth-Cannon Wrestling Match, The Saint Paul Globe,5 December 1885, p4.
  505. ^ a b c Local Sport, Western Mail, 19 September 1895, p7.
  506. ^ Wrestling at Cardiff: Cannon vs. Pike, South Wales Daily News, 27 September 1895, p6.
  507. ^ a b Boxing and wrestling, Daily Alta California, 9 August 1884, p1.
  508. ^ Boston Daily Globe, 18 June 1889, p10.
  509. ^ Wrestling, South Wales Daily News, 15 October 1895, p6.
  510. ^ Ju Jitsu exponent beaten, Cornish Guardian, 13 October 1927, p9.
  511. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, The Bendigo Independent (Vic), 6 February 1905, p3.
  512. ^ Cornish Wrestling, The Age (Melbourne, Vic.), 3 February 1905, p6.
  513. ^ a b Wrestling, Sporting Life, 17 June 1905, p1.
  514. ^ The Calumet News, 7 February 1910, p7.
  515. ^ Finnish wrestlers expect to make good showing against Chris Person, The Calumet news, 21 January 1910, p3.
  516. ^ Lehto bested Wirtanen Friday, The Sault Star, 26 May 1913, p5.
  517. ^ Wrestling, The Era, 30 June 1844, p12.
  518. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 June 1854, p3.
  519. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 5 February 1854, p7.
  520. ^ Wrestling, New York Clipper, 4 March 1854, p1.
  521. ^ England vs France, New York Clipper, 13 May 1876, p53.
  522. ^ Devon Wrestling, Rundle, The Western Times, 14 February 1879, p7.
  523. ^ The Cornish wrestling tournament calls out some good talent, Anaconda Standard, 7 July 1893, p4.
  524. ^ Sam Rundle, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 6 July 1904, p6.
  525. ^ The wrestling match, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (Beechworth, Vic.), 28 December 1875, p2.
  526. ^ McMillan wins, Salt Lake City Herald, 3 August 1886, p16.
  527. ^ New York Sun, 1 March 1886, p1.
  528. ^ Helena Athletic Club, Helena Independent, 2 January 1893, p8.
  529. ^ Dwyer beats Fischer, The Saint Paul globe, 9 April 1898, p5.
  530. ^ Challenge is accepted, Bisbee daily review, 7 July 1904, p5.
  531. ^ a b c Big wrestling match Friday eve, Bisbee daily review, 29 June 1904, p8.
  532. ^ Wrestling Match, Waterbury Democrat, 15 February 1902, p5.
  533. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 3 September 1908, p3.
  534. ^ a b Strong boys contesting in a series of bouts for the championship, The Minneapolis journal, 22 July 1906, p3.
  535. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 October 1909, p7.
  536. ^ Champ in Calumet, Escanaba Daily Press, 3 July 1941, p6.
  537. ^ Ziehr defeats Ed. Tremberth, Camulet News, 03 January 1911, p7.
  538. ^ Wrestling in the limelight, just now, The Minneapolis Journal, 19 August 1906, p28.
  539. ^ Athletics, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 17 November 1896, p2.
  540. ^ Land and water, Otago Witness, 6 July 1899, p36.
  541. ^ GREEK GEORGE" AGAIN, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 25 April 1900, p7.
  542. ^ a b The wrestlers, Cornishman, 28 October 1915, p3.
  543. ^ a b Butte city, Montana, Cornishman, 18 November 1915, p3.
  544. ^ a b Wrestling at Callington, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 July 1894, p7.
  545. ^ Wrestling, Trades' Free Press, 24 September 1826, p6.
  546. ^ Wrestling, Globe, 25 September 1826, p3.
  547. ^ Wrestling at Haigh Park, Globe, 11 April 1828, p3.
  548. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 29 September 1827, p3.
  549. ^ Wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 September 1827, p2.
  550. ^ Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 23 November 1828, p5.
  551. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 April 1827, p3.
  552. ^ wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 July 1828, p4.
  553. ^ Wrestling, Sporting Life, 29 April 1887, p3.
  554. ^ Wrestling near Bristol, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 August 1847, p3.
  555. ^ Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 30 May 1849, p3.
  556. ^ Cornwall and Devonshire wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser - Friday 11 June 1847, p2.
  557. ^ a b Wrestling match, Dillon Tribune, 14 June 1907, p1.
  558. ^ Cornish wrestling champ is dying in Montana, Daily Kennebec journal, 14 August 1908, p4.
  559. ^ Sporting Gossip Today, The Butte inter mountain, 22 January 1903, p8.
  560. ^ Gotch Wins Handily, The Morning Astorian, 12 April 1904, p1.
  561. ^ a b Cornishmen Abroad, Cornishman, 2 July 1903, p3.
  562. ^ Harrington the Champion, The Cornish Telegraph, 29 July 1903, p3.
  563. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 6 August 1903, p2.
  564. ^ Famous Cornish wrestler crazy, The Butte inter mountain, 28 October 1902, p1.
  565. ^ Wrestler goes insane, Salt Lake Tribune, 26 October 1902, p35.
  566. ^ Tim Harrington wins first prize, The Butte inter mountain, 6 July 1903, p8.
  567. ^ Jap throws all white opponents, The Ogden standard, 8 April 1910, p8.
  568. ^ a b Female Wrestlers, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 14 May 1904, p8.
  569. ^ a b Wrestling at the Winter gardens, Plymouth, Cornishman, 12 May 1904, p7.
  570. ^ Dublin born girl's versatility, Dublin Daily Express, 21 July 1915, p5.
  571. ^ a b Michigan - Cornish wrestling plans, Cornishman, 12 August 1915, p3.
  572. ^ Ahmeek wrestling tournament big sucess, Cornishman, 7 October 1915, p3.
  573. ^ "Evan Lewis' Cousin", Wisconsin State Journal, 10 August 1886, p4.
  574. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 December 1926, p12.
  575. ^ "Cornish wrestling: Fred Richard's feat against Tani", Cornish Guardian, 26 November 1926, p4.
  576. ^ "Wrestling: Effect of feats by Cornishmen", Western Morning News, 23 December 1926, p10.
  577. ^ "Wrestling at Redruth", Cornish Guardian, 10 June 1927, p15.
  578. ^ a b A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1892, p5.
  579. ^ Success of a Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 May 1892, p8.
  580. ^ a b Schiller Williams, Cornishman, 21 July 1892, p7.
  581. ^ Great Wrestling Match, Daily Anglo American, 14 April 1892, p2.
  582. ^ The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA), 2 March 1878 .
  583. ^ Wrestling for the championship of Westland, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 712, 4 JANUARY 1868, p2.
  584. ^ Champion wrestling match, The Wellington Independent, 18 January 1868, p5.
  585. ^ Once a champion, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 22 October 1912, p10.
  586. ^ Death of Mr Frank Griffiths, Western Champion (Parkes, NSW), 24 October 1912, p20.
  587. ^ The Caledonian sports, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 27 December 1881, p2.
  588. ^ Wrestling, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 20 June 1883, p2.
  589. ^ More Wrestling, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 4120, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  590. ^ Wrestling, GREY RIVER ARGUS, VOLUME XXVI, ISSUE 4313, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  591. ^ Wrestling Match J Laurie V T Cantwell, The Inangahua Times, 18 May 1887, p2.
  592. ^ Black Point sports, NANGAHUA TIMES, 30 DECEMBER 1887, p2.
  593. ^ Wrestling, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 14 August 1905, p8.
  594. ^ CORNISH WRESTLING. Melbourne, Sunday, Zeehan and Dundas Herald (Tas) 14 August 1905, p3.
  595. ^ Wrestling, Leader (Melbourne, Vic), 29 July 1905, p17.
  596. ^ Wrestling, NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 16 September 1908, p5.
  597. ^ Mount Morgan, The Daily Northern Argus (Rockhampton, Qld), 7 February 1890, p3.
  598. ^ New Zealand Times, 9 June 1894 .
  599. ^ The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 2 July 1885.
  600. ^ Wrestling Championship, LYTTELTON TIMES, VOLUME LXXV, ISSUE 9310, 13 JANUARY 1891, p5.
  601. ^ a b Lewis and Ross matched, Cincinnati Tribune, 11 November 1893, p3.
  602. ^ a b c Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 June 1904, p5.
  603. ^ Cornish Wrestlers un Johannesburg, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 29 April 1897, p5.
  604. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 11 May 1905, p6.
  605. ^ Sharpshooting around Camborne, Cornishman, 26 July 1894, p3.
  606. ^ Wrestling at Truro, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 20 July 1894, p5.
  607. ^ a b c d e f g h Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 2 February 1905, p8.
  608. ^ Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 04 January 1906, p4.
  609. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 February 1905, p4.
  610. ^ Wrestling tournament in Fordsburg S.A., Cornubian and Redruth Times - Saturday 11 February 1905, p10.
  611. ^ a b In South Africa, Amateur tournament in Johannesburg, Sporting Chronicle, 2 October 1916, p3.
  612. ^ Some Old Time Champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  613. ^ Mr W Prynne St Stephen-in-Brannel, Cornish Guardian, 29 October 1931, p10.
  614. ^ Lightweight champion of South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 January 1905, p8.
  615. ^ a b c d e Wrestling tournament in South Africa, Cornishman, 11 October 1906, p4.
  616. ^ Lanner, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Thursday 18 October 1906, p4.
  617. ^ Lanner wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 12 October 1906, p8.
  618. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 15 June 1935, p8.
  619. ^ a b c Famous Cornish wrestler, Western Morning News, 10 April 1919, p7.
  620. ^ a b c Cornishmen in the Transvaal, Cornishman, 1 February 1906, p7.
  621. ^ The Cornish Sport, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 31 July 1924, p2.
  622. ^ Well known Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1949, p2.
  623. ^ a b A noted Cornish wrestler home from South Africa: The career of Almond Giles, Cornish Guardian, 12 July 1907, p3.
  624. ^ How Rand Cornishmen spent Christmas, Cornishman, 24 January 1907, p4.
  625. ^ St Dennis wrestlers in South Africa, Cornish Guardian 10 November 1905, p2.
  626. ^ a b Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 12 March 1907, p4.
  627. ^ a b A St Dennis wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Guardian, 14 April 1905, p5.
  628. ^ Solved: mystery of a stolen wrestling trophy, The Western Morning News, 31 March 2010, p5.
  629. ^ a b Our South African Letter, Cornishman, 13 October 1910, p8.
  630. ^ Mr S Ham, Cornishman, 31 October 1946, p2.
  631. ^ Wrestling on the Rand, The Cornish Telegraph - Thursday 15 March 1906, p6.
  632. ^ a b c South Africa's new champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1927, p3.
  633. ^ a b c Cornwall on the Reef a day with the wrestlers, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 January 1927, p8.
  634. ^ a b Redruth mans success in South Africa, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 6 January 1927, p7.
  635. ^ Wrestling champion of the Rand, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser,5 November 1964, p16.
  636. ^ Home from South Africa, where her husband is wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 October 1953, p12.
  637. ^ Cornish wrestling will be feature, Tacoma Times, 25 April 1912, p2.
  638. ^ Terse tales of the town, Ironwood News Record, 29 April, 1899, p15.
  639. ^ Rowett still champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 March 1899, p5.
  640. ^ Wrestling Tournament to be hold inn Houghton, The Copper Country Evening News, 18 July 1898, p3.
  641. ^ The "Terrible Swede" defeated, Indianapolis Journal, 24 November 1899, p2.
  642. ^ Albany NY, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 24 November 1899, p27.
  643. ^ Other Upper Peninsular sports, The Minneapolis journal, 4 February 1906, p5.
  644. ^ St Austell, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 28 January 1904, p5.
  645. ^ Person to wrestle Cornish style on fourth of July, The Calumet News, 24 June 1910, p2.
  646. ^ Cornish wrestling will be feature, The Tacoma Times, 25 April 1912, p2.
  647. ^ Wrestlers went draw at Bark River, Escanaba Daily Press, 26 June 1910, p1.
  648. ^ a b The stage, Montana Helena Independent, 11 December 1899, p2.
  649. ^ Threw four men, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 June 1899, p7.
  650. ^ a b Wrestling, The Minneapolis journal, 11 June 1903, p8.
  651. ^ Wrestling, Winnipeg Tribune, 28 June 1901, p3.
  652. ^ Grass Valley, Cornishman, 25 July 1907, p3.
  653. ^ Daily Transcript, 3 July 1861.
  654. ^ Letters from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  655. ^ The annual wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 August 1873, p3.
  656. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 9 August 1873.
  657. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1875, p4.
  658. ^ Wrestling in America, Western Morning News, 13 November 1861, p2.
  659. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1861, p8.
  660. ^ Sacramento Daily Union, 14 June 1866.
  661. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Sacramento Daily Union, 11 January 1868, p3.
  662. ^ Bill Pellew's Death, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 28 May 1908, p3.
  663. ^ Great mixed wrestling match, The Butte Daily Post, 1 July 1887, p2.
  664. ^ Salt Lake City Herald, 30 December 1912, p6.
  665. ^ Walkerville, James Williams dead, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 25 August 1906, p3.
  666. ^ A wrestling match, The Weekly Pioneer-Times, 9 June 1881, p3.
  667. ^ Grass Valley, Marysville Daily Appeal, 19 March 1903, p3.
  668. ^ The state wrestling tournament, Detroit Free Press, 27 November 1870, p1.
  669. ^ a b c Cornish wrestlers in America, Cornish Post and Mining News, 1 September 1898, p8.
  670. ^ Wrestling in California, Newcastle Guardian and Tyne Mercury, 8 December 1866, p8.
  671. ^ Jack Carkeek the Cornish wrestling wonder Cornubian and Redruth Times, 05 August 1905, p3.
  672. ^ a b Evening Star (Washington DC), 7 May 1926, p41.
  673. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in the United States Cornish & Devon Post, 5 October 1878, p8.
  674. ^ Wrestling in California, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 December 1866, p3.
  675. ^ The wrestling world, The Philadelphia Times, 13 October 1889, p10.
  676. ^ Wrestling in the United States, A Cornish champion, Cornishman, 3 October 1878, p6.
  677. ^ The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornishman, 21 June 1883, p6.
  678. ^ The wrestling match, Iowa County Democrat, 23 March 1883, p6.
  679. ^ Arrangement for a Great Wrestling Match wrestling, The Butte Weekly Miner, 25 July 1885, p2.
  680. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 July 1888, p41.
  681. ^ Championship of the world wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 24 June 1887, p6.
  682. ^ Gilbert won the match, The Anaconda standard, 25 May 1890, p5.
  683. ^ The field of sport, The Anaconda standard, 2 November 1890, p7.
  684. ^ Ishpeming, Waukesha Daily Freeman, 7 May 1926, p6.
  685. ^ a b Wrestling at Penzance, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 27 August 1886, p7.
  686. ^ a b Wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 18 December 1886, p5.
  687. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 5 May 1887, p1.
  688. ^ Political matters, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 6 May 1887, p7.
  689. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 7 May 1887, p7.
  690. ^ Carkeek wins a match, Daily Alta California, 19 April 1886, p5.
  691. ^ a b Singular death of Durham Ivey, A Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 20 December 1894, p6.
  692. ^ Cornish wrestler murdered, Cornishman, 17 February 1910, p8.
  693. ^ Richard Varcoe murdered, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 February 1910, p10.
  694. ^ Chasewater wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 September 1887, p5.
  695. ^ Would introduce boxing, The Clio Messenger,21 November 1912, p8.
  696. ^ Says he favors boxing, The Diamond Drill, 23 November 1912, p5.
  697. ^ The wrestling tournament, Gogebic Advocate, 26 July 1890, p6.
  698. ^ Wrestling in Michigan, Cornishman, 27 September 1894, p3.
  699. ^ A Gala Day, Reno Evening Gazette, 26 September 1895, p1.
  700. ^ Mining Fair, The record-union (California US), 25 February 1898, p41.
  701. ^ Tallywarren Notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 22 September 1898, p7.
  702. ^ Wrestling match, The Aspen Tribune, 18 April 1899, p4.
  703. ^ Wants to fight Sharkey, The San Francisco call, 30 May 1899, p5.
  704. ^ Interesting Career, A few incidents in the life of Jeffords the fighter, The Province, 23 August 1899, p4.
  705. ^ Why wrestling has declined in America, Columbus Daily Herald, 7 July 1900, p3.
  706. ^ The Wrestling Championship of the world, Cornish & Devon Post, 09 July 1887, p3.
  707. ^ Wrestling match at Plymouth Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornishman, 25 August 1887, p5.
  708. ^ a b The Wrestling Championship, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 6 August 1887, p5.
  709. ^ The championship of the world, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 July 1889, p5.
  710. ^ Wrestling, The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW), 20 August 1887, p411.
  711. ^ The wrestling championship contests at Redruth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 4 July 1889, p7.
  712. ^ a b Wrestling that disables, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 June 1901, p14.
  713. ^ Great Wrestling match at Ishpenning Michigan, Cornishman, 2 October 1890, p3.
  714. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 16 November 1905, p3.
  715. ^ Wrestling Challenge - A wrestling challenge to whom it may concern, West Briton, 30 November 1886.
  716. ^ Wrestler Jack Carkeek, The Sunday Leader, Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania, 21 December 1890, p7.
  717. ^ Sports of all sorts, The Anaconda Standard 29 March 1891, p9.
  718. ^ Jack Brady won, The Wheeling Register 22 December 1893, p1.
  719. ^ a b Jack Carkeek, the Cornish wrestling wonder, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 5 August 1905, p3.
  720. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 21 July 1887, p4.
  721. ^ Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 21 April 1887, p4.
  722. ^ Cornwall, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 June 1887, p5.
  723. ^ Wrestling match at Southport, Apollo v Carkeek, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 December 1900, p6.
  724. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, Daily Alta California, 5 November 1888, p8.
  725. ^ Jack Carkeek the Great (?) Cornish Wrestler, Turns Confidence Man and Robs His Best Friend, The Republican-Journal, 12 October 1888, p3.
  726. ^ Another charge against Carkeek, The Inter Ocean, 16 October 1888, p6.
  727. ^ Jack Carkeet arrested, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 23 September 1910, p8.
  728. ^ Serious charge against famous Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 22 September 1910, p8.
  729. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 11 March 1913, p9.
  730. ^ Carkeek in jail, Escanaba Daily Press, 2 February 1913, p1.
  731. ^ Dubuque Times 14, Sioux City Journal, 16 May 1884, p3.
  732. ^ The Montana man is Cornish champion of Colorado, The Anaconda Standard, 8 November 1891, p1.
  733. ^ Rowett-Harrington match will be hotly contested, The Calumet News, 5 October 1909, p6.
  734. ^ Carkeek in jail, Ironwood Times, 24 September 1937, p5.
  735. ^ a b Former Cornish champion still resides on Range, Ironwood Times, 3 June 1942, p22.
  736. ^ Name 3 area sports greats to Hall, Ironwood Daily Globe, 23 August 1990, p10.
  737. ^ Rowett still champion, Diamond Drill, 25 December 1909, p4.
  738. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 14 April 1910, p6.
  739. ^ a b Michigan, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 June 1899, p8.
  740. ^ Can He Come Back, Iron Country news, 02 May 1914, p1.
  741. ^ Cornishmen will wrestle, The Madison daily leader, 20 July 1897, p1.
  742. ^ Champion Cornish wrestler of America: Jack Rowett won the title in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 February 1898, p5.
  743. ^ Butte city, Montanna, The Cornish Telegraph, 9 December 1909, p6.
  744. ^ Cornish wrestlers in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 25 November 1909, p3.
  745. ^ Jones was declared the victor over Rowett, The Anaconda standard, 10 December 1899, p8.
  746. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p6.
  747. ^ New World's Champion, The Anaconda standard, 21 September 1899, p10.
  748. ^ a b On Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p3.
  749. ^ The Butte Inter Mountain, 4 August 1902, p8.
  750. ^ San Francisco Call, 23 February 1898, p12.
  751. ^ Cornish wrestling notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 July 1929, p7.
  752. ^ Celebrities I have seen, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1935, p7.
  753. ^ a b Cornish folk abroad, Cornishman, 10 July 1902, p3.
  754. ^ Cornish wrestling in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 July 1896, p6.
  755. ^ It is easy for Angove, Anaconda Standard, 11 May 1902, p11.
  756. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornish Post and Mining News, 11 August 1898, p6.
  757. ^ a b With the wrestlers, Waterbury Democrat, 16 August 1902, p7.
  758. ^ Interest in Wrestling Match, Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, 21 September 1898, p17.
  759. ^ With the wrestlers, the Cornish style will attract much attention, Waterbury Democrat, 14 February 1902, p7.
  760. ^ How governor Roosevelt wrestles, The Montreal Star, 13 January 1900, p19.
  761. ^ Boxing, Bryan morning eagle, 26 November 1905, Image 6, p6.
  762. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 5 October 1905, p2.
  763. ^ "Wrestling History: 1894". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  764. ^ a b Arizona Weekly News, Arizona silver belt, 29 December 1904, p2.
  765. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling in America, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 12 March 1908, p10.
  766. ^ a b Grass Valley California, Cornishman, 19 March 1908, p3.
  767. ^ a b c d St Austell man's shocking death, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 28 January 1910, p6.
  768. ^ St Austell man's success in America, St. Austell Star, 13 April 1905, p4.
  769. ^ Burnt to a cinder, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 January 1910, p2.
  770. ^ Cornishman burnt to death, Cornishman, 3 February 1910, p3.
  771. ^ Death levies toll in sport, The Daily Missoulian, 1 January 1911, p9.
  772. ^ a b Martin and Ziehr May wrestle on Good Friday, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 April 1905, p5.
  773. ^ The Calumet boy versus the champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 29 September 1898, p6.
  774. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 10 February 1910, p6.
  775. ^ B William versus Rowett, Camulet News, 21 February 1910, p8.
  776. ^ Michigan USA, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 September 1899, p3.
  777. ^ Articles signed for bout here, Escanaba Morning Press, 13 August 1909, p3.
  778. ^ Benefit would be appreciated, Escanaba Morning Press, 7 December 1909, p1.
  779. ^ Eddie Blou is ready for bout with Mike Dooley, Escanaba Morning Press, 20 January 1910, p4.
  780. ^ Lehto wins in tough contest, Sault Ste Marie Evening, 24 May 1913, p5.
  781. ^ Johns, Christopher, Cheer like mad for Cornwall, the story of Cornish wrestling, Map X Visuals, 1995, p18-19.
  782. ^ Splendid program at Lowell club, Bisbee daily review, 9 April 1911, p10.
  783. ^ War Eagle winner of a mixed bout, Anaconda Standard, 5 September 1911, p2.
  784. ^ Sid Varney was good wrestling coach, Oredigger (US)— 4 April 1921 p3.
  785. ^ Rydholm, Fred: Harlow’s Wooden Man, Winter 1984.
  786. ^ Cornish wrestling a popular pursuit, The Mining Journal, 5 May 2021.
  787. ^ Rowett to handle bouts at Chicago, Ironwood Times, 1 October 1921, p1.
  788. ^ This U P Rassler floored first time when he meets Doc, Bessemer Herald, 31 August 1923, p42.
  789. ^ Cornish wrestlers at Honiton, Cornish Guardian, 3 September 1926, p6.
  790. ^ Crediton Wrestling Contest, Western Times, 22 April 1872, p3.
  791. ^ Wrestling and running, The Butte Miner, 7 July 1882, p3.
  792. ^ Butte Daily Miner, 7 January 1885, p4.
  793. ^ Wisconsin Eau Claire Daily Leader, 2 October 1883, p35.
  794. ^ New York Sun, 8 March 1886, p1.
  795. ^ The wrestling match, New York Clipper, 2 April 1892 , p57.
  796. ^ Wrestling, The Wichita daily eagle, 22 March 1892 , p2.
  797. ^ The Saint Paul globe, 26 February 1898.
  798. ^ Granite news notes, The Philipsburg Mail, 20 December 1888, p3.
  799. ^ Wrestling at Cardiff, South Wales Daily News, 27 September 1895, p6.
  800. ^ Swansea Jack, Liverpool Echo, 6 July 1985, p7.
  801. ^ a b The old Cornish pastime, Cornish Guardian, 27 June 1924, p7.
  802. ^ a b c d Cornish wrestling A magnificent gift, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 September 1924, p4.
  803. ^ New enthusiasm for Cornish wrestling, Cornish Guardian, 21 March 1963, p8.
  804. ^ Another belt presented, Cornish Guardian, 17 October 1924, p6.
  805. ^ Retained county's lightweight wrestling championship, Cornish Guardian, 11 July 1963, p14.
  806. ^ Wadebridge wrestler wins featherweight title, Cornish Guardian, 1 August 1963, p11.
  807. ^ Cornish wrestling championship tournament, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1938, p14.
  808. ^ Wrestling at Helston, Cornish Guardian, 10 September 1936, p14.
  809. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 September 1936, p3.
  810. ^ Wrestling finale, Cornish Guardian, 3 October 1924, p3.

article by Michael Tresillian [permanent dead link]