Cornish wrestling
Gerry and Ashley Cawley.JPG
Gerry and Ashley Cawley wrestling at Pendennis Castle, 6 May 2002
FocusGrappling
Country of originCornwall
CreatorCornish people
Olympic sportNo

Cornish wrestling (Cornish: Omdowl Kernewek[1]) is a form of wrestling that has been established in Cornwall for many centuries and possibly longer. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin’"[2][3] in the Cornish dialect of English; historically, this usage is attested by Chaucer,[4] Shakespeare[5] and Drayton.[6]

The referee is known as a 'stickler',[7] and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a 'pedant' originates from this usage.[8]

Cornish wrestling is a national sport of Cornwall, which spread throughout the British Isles and then, along with the Cornish diaspora, to such places as the United States, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa.

Introduction to the rules of competition

The objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw ones opponent and cause them to land as flat as possible on the back. Each of the wrestlers wears a ‘jacket’ of tough make and material, enabling them to better grip their opponent. Grabbing of the wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as holding below the waist. All holds are to be taken upon the jacket, although the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent.[9][10] Three sticklers watch and control each bout, keeping score of points.[11]

Four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the shoulders and two just above the buttocks. A wrestler scores points by throwing their opponent onto their back, the number of pins hitting the floor being the number of points scored. If a wrestler manages to score with three or four pins this is called a ‘Back’ and the bout is then finished, with the throwing wrestler as the winner.[12] The sticklers each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved. A Back may be awarded by majority, i.e. by two out of the three stickers. If a Back is not awarded, the winner is the wrestler with the most accumulated points within the time limit.[11]

History

John Cawley throwing Chris French at Demonstration at Robby Richards Museum Opening - CWA Event 13–14 May 2006.
John Cawley throwing Chris French at Demonstration at Robby Richards Museum Opening - CWA Event 13–14 May 2006.

Cornish wrestling has a long history, with Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1139) describing Corineus, the legendary founder of Cornwall, as a man "of great courage and boldness, who, in an encounter with any person, even of gigantic stature, would immediately overthrow him, as if he were a child", and later tells the story of how Corineus wrestled a Cornish giant, Gogmagog or Goemagot upon the cliff top known as Lamm Goemagot.

Thomas Hoby writes that in 1551 at Chastenbriant the French king showed my Lord Marquess of Northampton "great pleasure and disport...sometime with his great boisterlie Bretons wrastling with my lordes yemen of Cornwall, who had much to do to gete the upper hande of them."[13]

Some of the earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1612 poem entitled "Poly-Olbion" by Michael Drayton, which gives the names of some Cornish Wrestling throws. Drayton also published a poem in 1627 called The Battle of Agincourt, which concerns the 1415 battle. The poem states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers.

Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers often had matches against each other though the rules they followed were not the same. One of these was the notable match between Richard Parkyn and the Devonian John Jordan.

In 1654, Oliver Cromwell and many of his privy council were reported as watching 100 Cornishmen wrestling in Hyde Park, presenting "...great agility of body and most neat and exquisite wrestling at every meeting of one with the other, which was ordered with such dexterity, that it was to show more the strength, vigour and nimbleness of their bodies, than to endanger their persons."[14]

Wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous (than hurling).... for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall, where the most untowardly amongst them will not as readily give you a muster of this exercise as you are prone to require it.

17th century historian Richard Carew, [15]

Charles II, along with "a world of lords" and many other spectators, watched a series of wrestling matches in St James' Park in 1669, with a purse of £1000, which saw the "Western men" win.[16]

His Highness York’s great Duke beheld the same
With other persons of renowned fame
Brave Cornishmen, you are to be commended
And will be so until the world is ended.[17]

Sir Thomas Parkyns (1664–1741), known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and organised an annual wrestling match in Bunny Park (prize a gold-laced hat). These matches continued until 1810. His book on the subject The Inn-Play: or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times.[18]

A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators, but thereafter interest in the sport waned. James Gerry (of Linkinhorne) and Samuel Rundle (Plymouth) fought for a £20 purse and the championship of Cornwall in 1883 at Liskeard. Lasting just over an hour, the match ended in a draw in the 19th round following Rundle tearing leg muscles. Gerry was reported in The Cornishman newspaper to have vanquished all the best men in America as well as many men in Cornwall, Rundle had beaten nearly all the wrestling men in Devon and Cornwall.[19]

In 1927 William Tregoning Hooper (Bras y Golon) agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonec of Quimperle that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In 1932, the Duke of Cornwall helped fund the competing Cornish wrestlers.[20]

In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its physical education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so.[21]

Traditions

A very old custom was, on the Sunday following a wrestling match or tournament, to wear to church any prizes won. Alternatively they were hung on an inside pillar near the main church door. This custom was especially observed when the victory was within another parish.[22]

There is an ancient custom whereby sticklers of a tournament would appear at church the following Sunday wearing "Christys" (silk top hats)[23] with streamers (silk ribbons).[24][23]

There are multiple stories of women being capable wrestlers, even more than 200 years ago. For example, Caroline who was taught wrestling by her father and in turn taught her son Joel Andrewartha, who went on to become one of the best wrestlers in Cornwall and beat Polkinhorne.[25][26] Another example is Lizzie Taylor (1831-1887) or Happy Ned, who threw John Lillywhite in a wrestling-bout at Clowance. She was a miner who dressed in men's clothes[27][28][29]

During a match, wrestlers shake hands before every hitch.[30]

Prior to the mid-1800s, competitors had to renounce the use of magic before the start of a tournament.[31]

Traditionally wrestlers would challenge each other to wrestling matches by throwing their hat into the ring. The idiom may come from this practice.[30][32][33]

In Cornwall, youngsters used to play the game of "shuffle hats and wrastle", where they would throw their hats into a ring, with their owners wrestling off in accordance with the pairing of the hats.[34][35][36]

There had been a custom of "begging the ring" whereby old or injured wrestlers would walk around the ring begging for alms. This was replaced by a wrestlers' benevolent fund in 1926 and then by the welfare state.[37][35][38]

Wrestling matches were once played in churchyards, but in 1297 the Bishop of Exeter banned it from such places in Devon and Cornwall. [39]

In late Victorian times women were briefly banned from matches, as men often wrestled in their long johns, which was not considered respectable.[39]

Gold laced hats were often used as first place prizes for Cornish wrestling tournaments. It was said that wearers of such hats were immune from the attentions of the press gang.[24]

Wrestlers who were knocked senseless in bouts would often be treated by being "bled" on site if there was a doctor at hand.[40]

In the mid-1800s though to the early 1900s, extra trains were laid on going to and from towns where Cornish wrestling tournaments were being held.[41][42] In the early 1900s this was extended to extra bus services.[43]

Until 1927 there was no time limit for Cornish wrestling matches and there are records of matches taking many hours and even having to be reconvened the next day.[44] Note that in 1927 the rule became best 2 falls in 20 minutes, but there was much resistance to this change as it was perceived that often the worse player won these matches.[45] This was changed to the current rules of two, ten minute, rounds with points being used to determine the winner if no back is scored.[46] However, his time limit lapsed in the 1940s, was proposed to be reinstated in 1956,[47] but was only reinstated in 1967.[48]

In the early 1800s there were two distinct styles of wrestling. Wrestlers who fought in the Western style included Parkyn and wrestlers who fought with the Eastern style included the Truscotts. This distinction had disappeared by the end of the 1800s.[49]

The wrestler's motto

Gwari hweg yw gwari teg[50][51][52]

English Translation: Fair play is sweet play.[53][54][55]

The wrestler's oath

War ow enor ha war enor ow bro, my a de omdewlel heb trayturi na garowder, hag avel oll ow lelder my a ystynn ow leuv dhe’m kontrari. Gans geryow ow hendasow: “gwari hweg yw gwari teg”.

English Translation: On my honour and the honour of my country, I swear to wrestle without treachery or brutality and in token of my sincerity I offer my hand to my opponent. In the words of my forefathers: “gwari hweg yw gwari teg”.[53][55][56]

Governing bodies

There has been significant disagreement, over time, as to which were the ruling governing bodies in the sport and also differences in the precise nature of the rules. This has resulted in simultaneous claimants for world, national and regional titles.[57]

Governing bodies outside Cornwall

The Devon and Cornish wrestling Society was formed in 1849.[58]

The Western Counties Wrestling Association was formed in 1877[59]

Worldwide, various regional bodies have governed local Cornish wrestling tournaments or matches. Examples include:

Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society

The Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society (also known as the Devon and Cornwall wrestling Society[71][72]) was formed in 1752, running tournaments and matches in London, often at Hackney Wick. Open competitions were held, awarding significant belts and prizes funded by the patrons. However, only natives of Cornwall were permitted to compete for the Great Duke of Cornwall cup.[73]

Patrons of the Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society

Governing bodies inside Cornwall

The different regional associations within Cornwall merged into the Cornwall County Wrestling Association ("CCWA") in September 1923, under the presidency of Lord St Levan,[77] to help standardize the rules, facilitate the competing of Duchy championships, mitigate the risk of clashing tournaments and promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall and indeed Worldwide.[9] When the CCWA was formed there were only 9 affiliated local associations, but by 1925 there were over 50.[78][77] Note that the Newquay and Port Isaac associations indicated that they wanted nothing to do with the CCWA.[79]

In 1928, William Tregonning Hooper initiated inter-Celtic tournaments between the CCWA and its counterpart in Brittany, as the similarities of Breton and Cornish wrestling are sufficient for successful competitions to be held between the two.[80]

In 1930, the CCWA had financial difficulties resulting in suspension of activities and the belts and cups being seized by the bank. As a result, belts and cups were not awarded.[81][82]

In 1932, the CCWA was refinanced, with help from the London Cornish Association,[83] Federation of Old Cornwall Societies,[84][83] Viscount Clifden,[85] the Western Morning News[85] and the Duke of Cornwall,[83][85][84] and the belts and cups were retrieved from the bank.[12][9][86] In 1933 the CCWA changed its name to the Cornish Wrestling Association ("CWA")[86] and adopted a rule to limit rounds to 15 minutes.[44][87]

In 1933 various local wrestling associations had competitions unaffiliated to the CWA, culminating with St Mawgan holding a championship of Cornwall, "under the old Cornish wrestling rules".[88]

The East Cornwall Wrestling Federation ("ECWF") was formed in 1934, at least in part to hold competitions under more traditional rules (the time limit being a key issue).[9][89][90][91] The ECWF also complained that the CWA had preferred placing championship tournaments in West Cornwall and had preferred selecting wrestlers from West Cornwall to represent Cornwall in the inter-Celtic competition.[92] The ECWF held rival championship titles of heavyweight, middleweight and lightweight champion in the "Old Cornish Style".[12][9] In 1934, the CWA initially suspended wrestlers involved with ECWF competitions.[57] This rule was suspended in 1936, but re-instigated it in 1938.[93][94]

In 1946, the ECWF was absorbed by the CWA, who have overseen almost all tournaments since.[95][96][97] A current example of an exception to this is the annual St Mawgan tournament.

In 1994 the CWA opened competitions to women.[98]

In 2004 the CWA became affiliated with the British Wrestling Association.[99]

Patrons of the CCWA/CWA

Notable people who were also Cornish wrestlers

Notable Cornish wrestlers

Historically, there were simultaneous claimants to world, national and regional titles in Cornish wrestling. This was driven, at least in part, by there not being agreement concerning the definitive governing bodies in the sport until the 1920s.

Some of these wrestlers also competed in other wrestling styles, or in matches where multiple styles were used.

Algeria

Australia

Austria

Bolivia

Brazil

Canada

Cornwall

Thomas Stone 1899: Cornish wrestling champion of Cornwall[291]
Thomas Stone 1899: Cornish wrestling champion of Cornwall[291]

Devon

Egypt

England (excluding Devon)

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Holland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Mexico

New Caledonia

See also: New Caledonia

New Zealand

Poland

South Africa

Sri Lanka

Sweden

Turkey

United States

Wales

Cornish wrestling throws

There are a number of Cornish wrestling throws that are taught in training classes, but each has many variants.

In Play
Heaves
Back Heave
Cornish Hug
Fore Heave
Flying Mare
Half Heave
Scat un Back
Teddy Bag Heave
Under Heave
Crooks
Back Crook
Fore Crook
Slip Crook
Sprags
Back Sprag
Double Sprag
Single Sprag
Hip Throws
Fore Hip
Pull Over Hip
Out Play
Trips
Back Step
Heel
Lock Arm
Pull Under
Toe
Foul Throws
Foul Moves
Cross Collar
Crowbar Hitch

Championships

The following Senior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy, overseen by the CWA:

Championship Current Weight limit (lbs) 1963 Weight limit (lbs) 1938 Weight limit (lbs) 1936 Weight limit (lbs) 1924 Weight Limit (lbs)
Heavyweight Open Open Open Open Open[662][663]
Light Heavyweight 210 180[664] N/A N/A N/A
Middleweight 168 160 160 160 160[665][663]
Lightweight 154 145[666] 145 145 145[662][663]
Featherweight 145 130[667] 130[668] 140[669][670] 130[671][663]
Women Open N/A N/A N/A N/A

The following Junior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy:

Cornish Wrestling at the Royal Cornwall Show

The Cornish Wrestling Association (CWA) still features annually at the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Cornish wrestling tent can be found in the Countryside area very near to the west entrance. In the Cornish wrestling tent you will find an impressive display of Cornish wrestling trophies, belts, history, photos, books and DVDs. The wrestlers perform demonstrations of their style in the Countryside ring, usually twice a day for each of the three days of the show. The demonstrations feature most of the throws and moves of the Cornish style and also feature demonstration bouts usually with a variety of wrestlers from youngsters, girls, lightweights and heavyweights.

Outside Cornwall

Cornish wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria, Australia and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes. In the city of Grass Valley, the tradition of singing Cornish carols lives on and St Piran's Day celebrations are held every year, which along with carol singing, includes a flag raising ceremony, games involving the Cornish pasty, and Cornish wrestling competitions.[672]

See also

References

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  139. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 27 August 1858, p5.
  140. ^ The grand wrestling match, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), 23 August 1852, p3.
  141. ^ Grand wrestling match, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic), 10 March 1856 , p5.
  142. ^ A formidable ruffian, Mount Alexander Mail (Vic.), 11 November 1872, p2.
  143. ^ The Ophir murder - the character of Corse, Empire (Sydney, NSW), 2 November 1872, p3.
  144. ^ Personal, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA), 2 January 1903, p4.
  145. ^ BRIGHTON REGATTA AND SPORTS, The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA), 2 January 1903, p2.
  146. ^ Wrestling, match between Curley Bray and Curnick for one hundred pounds, Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle (Melbourne, Vic.), 7 April 1860, p4.
  147. ^ Payton, Philip: Cornwall, Alexander Associates (Fowey) 1996, p240.
  148. ^ Helston retrospect, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 6 May 1954, p3.
  149. ^ Death of Mr G Philips, The Daily Mail (Brisbane, Qld.), 24 March 1922, p8.
  150. ^ ACCIDENT TO JACK THOMAS, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 15 May 1889, p5.
  151. ^ a b CALEDONIAN GAMES. FIRST DAY., Bendigo Advertiser (Vic.), 27 December 1879, p3.
  152. ^ RETIREMENT OF A WRESTLER, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 9 May 1889, p2.
  153. ^ Athletics, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic), 10 May 1889, p4.
  154. ^ Callow youths, Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW), 6 July 1935, p13.
  155. ^ Death of Champion Wrestler, Daily Post (Hobart, Tas.), 28 March 1913, p6.
  156. ^ Former champion wrestler's death, The Age (Melbourne, Vic.), 28 March 1913, p7.
  157. ^ Death of Mr J Walker, Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 26 March 1913, p2.
  158. ^ Great wrestling match, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic.), 4 March 1884, p1.
  159. ^ A NIGHT AT FOLEY'S, Globe (Sydney, NSW),25 January 1886 , p5.
  160. ^ Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 20 December 1894, p3.
  161. ^ Notes and News, Gympie Times and Mary River Mining Gazette (Qld), 8 April 1890, p3.
  162. ^ Bendingo and district, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic), 23 June 1925, p5.
  163. ^ Wrestling, West Cumberland Times, 13 March 1907, p3.
  164. ^ a b Western Australia, Cornishman, 3 November 1904, p3.
  165. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling. Dell Nellson v. Thomas. Neither Man Prevails., Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 6 July 1891, p2.
  166. ^ Boxers and Their Doings and Their Doings, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 23 November 1910, p7.
  167. ^ Wrestling, Delhi Neilson, Champion of South Africa, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 24 February 1909, p7.
  168. ^ Wrestling, The Riverine Herald (Echuca, Vic. : Moama, NSW), 1 March 1909, p3.
  169. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW), 22 December 1890, p2.
  170. ^ Cornish wrestling, The Evening Star (Boulder, WA), 10 November 1898, p4.
  171. ^ Mons Victor, The Evening Star (Boulder, WA), 17 December 1898, p3.
  172. ^ Wrestling, The Goldfields Morning Chronicle (Coolgardie, WA), 23 August 1897, p3.
  173. ^ Wrestling, A desperate struggle, Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic), 3 February 1906, p17.
  174. ^ a b Wrestling on the Rand, Cornish middleweight championship, The Cornish Telegraph, 31 January 1907, p17.
  175. ^ Wrestling in Perth, Western Australia, Cornishman, 22 August 1907, p6.
  176. ^ Festival finale, The Advertiser; Adelaide, 22 May 2001.
  177. ^ Cornish young wrestlers, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1946, p5.
  178. ^ a b c d e f Death of Richard (Schiller) Williams, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 August 1892, p7.
  179. ^ Notes and Comments, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 April 1892, p5.
  180. ^ a b Dawson Canada, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1899, p3.
  181. ^ a b Klondike, Cornish Post and Mining News, 31 August 1899, p4.
  182. ^ Wrestling in Americal - Gulval man wins silver cup, Cornishman, 4 October 1906, p6.
  183. ^ Penzance Notes News, Cornishman, 8 August 1907, p5.
  184. ^ Stanton, Western Daily Press - Friday 19 February 1875, p1.
  185. ^ Richard Carew (antiquary): The Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p76.
  186. ^ a b c d e f Dr Whetter, James: Cornish People in the 18th Century, Lyfrow Trelyspen, The Roseland Institute, Gorran 2000, p50-56.
  187. ^ Coate, Mary: Puritan Survey of 160 parishes in Cornwall, 1586
  188. ^ a b c d e f g Rev Polwhele, R: History of Cornwall, Michell & Co (Truro) 1816, p67-68.
  189. ^ Hamilton Jenkin, A K: The Story of Cornwall, Thomas Nelsom and Sons Ltd 1934, p119-121.
  190. ^ Cornish wrestling revival, Western Morning News, 20 September 1923, p2.
  191. ^ Cornish folk in times past, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 January 1959, p2.
  192. ^ Matthew's great day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 25 August 1994, p77.
  193. ^ One hundred years ago, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 March 1908, p6.
  194. ^ Wrestling match, Derby Mercury, 14 October 1757, p4.
  195. ^ Lamentable occurrence, Taunton Courier, and Western Advertiser, 30 June 1824, p5.
  196. ^ Gymnastics, Saint James's Chronicle, 16 June 1808, p1.
  197. ^ Wrestling, Star (London), 5 August 1826, p4.
  198. ^ Cornish Wrestlers, Western Morning News, 22 August 1944, p6.
  199. ^ Lover of Cornish wrestling, Late Rev L V Jolly, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser , 30 May 1963, p6.
  200. ^ Western Morning News,7 September 1944
  201. ^ Mawgan wrestling - champions present and past, Cornish Guardian, 28 July 1927, p13.
  202. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornishman, 9 March 1927, p2.
  203. ^ Death of an old farmer, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 30 March 1876, p5.
  204. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 December 1869, p4.
  205. ^ Death of a wrestler, Western Times - Tuesday 21 December 1869, p6.
  206. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 18 December 1869, p5.
  207. ^ Deaths, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Friday 19 September 1851, p5.
  208. ^ a b The great wrestling match, Globe, 26 October 1826, p3.
  209. ^ Historic venue for wrestling in St Kew, Cornish Guardian, 16 August 1956, p9.
  210. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling down the ages, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 4 January 1954, p1.
  211. ^ Samuel Ley Thorne,The Converted Wrestler; or the Life of Abraham Bastard, 1877
  212. ^ a b Wrestling: James Cann and Olver, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 22 June 1828, p3.
  213. ^ James Warren, Cornish Times - Saturday 16 May 1857, p1.
  214. ^ Mining Intelligence, Cornish Times, 16 May 1857, p1.
  215. ^ a b 'Howitt, William: Rural Life of England, Longman (london), 1840, p536-538.
  216. ^ a b Wrestling match, Weekly Dispatch (London), 18 March 1838, p12.
  217. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 11 October 1835.
  218. ^ a b c d e f g Tom Gundry, Cornishman, 1 November 1888, p3.
  219. ^ Gleanings, Birmingham Daily Post, 25 October 1888, p7.
  220. ^ Cornish Wrestling returns to Sithney, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 03 June 1982, p41.
  221. ^ Wrestling Matches at Redruth, Cornishman, 28 August 1884, p6.
  222. ^ a b Cornwall and Devon Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 6 June 1847, p3.
  223. ^ Fish, Tin and Copper, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 22 May 1880, p4.
  224. ^ West of England gleanings, Weston Mercury, 27 October 1888, p2.
  225. ^ Wrestliana, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 February 1870, p4.
  226. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1892, p4.
  227. ^ A reminiscence of Johnna Roberts and Harry Williams, Cornishman, 31 March 1892, p7.
  228. ^ a b Wrestlers of the past, Cornishman - Thursday 28 January 1904, p5.
  229. ^ Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Post and Mining News, 19 March 1892, p6.
  230. ^ Morning Advertiser, 6 June 1857.
  231. ^ a b Death of Mr W Delbridge, Cornishman, 4 March 1886, p7.
  232. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 26 May 1839
  233. ^ Morning Advertiser, 21 May 1839
  234. ^ The Era, 25 June 1848
  235. ^ The late capt. Joseph Hodge, a striking career, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 October 1909, p7.
  236. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 3 November 1899, p5.
  237. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, The Cornish Telegraph, 15 May 1884, p8.
  238. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornishman - Thursday 15 May 1884, p5.
  239. ^ a b c Death of a manly wrestler, Cornishman, 9 November 1899, p2.
  240. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, and respected man, Cornishman - Thursday 02 November 1899, p5.
  241. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 31 October 1860
  242. ^ a b Wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 November 1860, p4.
  243. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 28 September 1853
  244. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 12 April 1854
  245. ^ a b The Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 30 July 1856, p3.
  246. ^ a b Royal Cornwall Gazette, 11 June 1858
  247. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 September 1858
  248. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 June 1861
  249. ^ Morning Advertiser, 10 June 1862
  250. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 June 1854
  251. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 19 June 1859
  252. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 April 1854
  253. ^ Treglown, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 25 March 1864, p8.
  254. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 22 February 1854, p3.
  255. ^ Barton RM, Life in Cornwall in the mid 19th Century, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro) 1971, p233.
  256. ^ The challenge wrestling match, Western Morning News, 14 September 1860, p2.
  257. ^ Penzance, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 May 1868, p2.
  258. ^ Joseph Menear, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 2 April 1864, p1.
  259. ^ Wrestling, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 12 June 1869, p3.
  260. ^ Who is Joe Menear, Cornishman, 25 October 1894, p3.
  261. ^ Hackney Wick, Sporting Life, 30 March 1864, p3.
  262. ^ a b c Delbridge, James: Delbridge's guide on grab hold, or Cornish style of wrestling, (Michigan), 1879, p1-28.
  263. ^ Notes on the Exeter wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 June 1869, p3.
  264. ^ Exciting wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 December 1874, p5.
  265. ^ A wrestling match, Western Times, 25 September 1873, p1.
  266. ^ Cornish wrestling at St Blazey, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1902, p8.
  267. ^ Wrestling, The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW),20 June 1883, p2.
  268. ^ The Cornish Champion Vanquished, Cornishman, 11 July 1895, p7.
  269. ^ a b Wrestling match at Plymouth, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 April 1876, p7.
  270. ^ Butte City Montana, Cornish Post and Mining News, 24 March 1898, p6.
  271. ^ Scene at the Helton wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 20 October 1883, p5.
  272. ^ Jack Wannop as boxer and wrestler, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 19 January 1907, p12.
  273. ^ Cornishmen abroad: Wrestling, Cornishman, 7 June 1894, p2.
  274. ^ The canvas jacket, The Anaconda standard, 15 June 1895, p4.
  275. ^ The wrestling tournament, Cornishman, 5 July 1894, p4.
  276. ^ Wrestling for £100, East & South Devon Advertiser, 5 November 1887, p7.
  277. ^ Wrestling Champion - Death of Philip Hancock, Western Morning News - Tuesday 26 April 1927, p12.
  278. ^ a b Phip Hancock's ring days, Western Morning News, 29 September 1921, p2.
  279. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 21 August 1926, p3.
  280. ^ Phil Hancock, Tom Gundry and Jack Pearce, Cornishman, 5 October 1921, p3.
  281. ^ Bugle Native's long service, Cornish Guardian, 31 October 1929, p13.
  282. ^ a b Obituary, Cornish Guardian, 6 March 1969, p16.
  283. ^ a b Converted wrestling champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1965, p9.
  284. ^ Cornish wrestler and local preacher, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 June 1922, p3.
  285. ^ Cornish wrestling, Western Morning News, 12 July 1922, p2.
  286. ^ A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 16 July 1892, p4.
  287. ^ Death of Schiller Williams, Cornishman 25 August 1892, p6.
  288. ^ Letter from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  289. ^ Lanivet: wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 10 May 1878, p5.
  290. ^ Truro Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 11 September 1896, p5.
  291. ^ a b c Death of Mr Tom Stone, Cornish Guardian, 18 March 1937, p10.
  292. ^ County wrestling at Truro , Cornishman, 24 September 1891, p7.
  293. ^ The county wrestling matches , Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 19 September 1891, p4.
  294. ^ 1891 UK Census, Transcript of Piece RG12/1822 (Part 1), Folio 7 Page 7.
  295. ^ a b Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Guardian, 4 April 1924, p7.
  296. ^ a b Thomas Bragg, Western Times - Monday 24 November 1879, p3.
  297. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 July 1887, p7.
  298. ^ Wrestling in Devon, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 30 September 1876, p5.
  299. ^ a b Wrestling in Devonshire, Sporting Life, 3 September 1879, p4.
  300. ^ A Wrestling Match, Western Times, 2 September 1879, p2.
  301. ^ Wrestling at Dartmouth, Western Times, 28 August 1880, p3.
  302. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 1 September 1882, p7.
  303. ^ a b Grand Wrestling Tournament, Bristol Mercury, 29 May 1882, p4.
  304. ^ Wrestling match at Cardiff, South Wales Daily News, 10 September 1883, p3.
  305. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 8 June 1882, p6.
  306. ^ Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornish & Devon Post, 27 August 1887, p2.
  307. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 30 June 1904, p6.
  308. ^ Wrestling, Tom Bragg and the "Terrible Turk", Cornishman, 11 February 1904, p7.
  309. ^ a b Corvion, Tom: Pioneers of Professional Wrestling: 1860–1899, Archway Publishing (Bloomington) 2014, p37-38.
  310. ^ a b c Wrestling for the championship, Cornishman, 27 October 1892, p7.
  311. ^ Grandson of wrestling champ met wife at Helston flora day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 5 February 1998, p7.
  312. ^ a b The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornish & Devon Post, 8 January 1887, p2.
  313. ^ a b c Wrestling match for the championship of the world, Western Morning News, 16 May 1888, p4.
  314. ^ County Wrestling matches at Truro, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 September 1887, p8.
  315. ^ Wrestling at Plymouth, Cornishman, 24 May 1888, p5.
  316. ^ Prize wrestling, Cornishman, 16 May 1889, p6.
  317. ^ On Wednesday afternoon wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 19 August 1893, p5.
  318. ^ Yesterday's Cornwall, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 20 October 1994, p14.
  319. ^ The Cornish championship, Sporting Life, 23 October 1894, p4.
  320. ^ a b Trewennack wrestling matches, Cornishman, 1 November 1883, p5.
  321. ^ Helston Notes, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 August 1885, p5.
  322. ^ Wrestling at Porkellis, Cornishman - Thursday 20 August 1885, p3.
  323. ^ a b Passing of Mr J Capell, St Columb, Cornish Guardian - Thursday 11 February 1932, p2.
  324. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornish Post and Mining News, 26 September 1890, p8.
  325. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 July 1898.
  326. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 21 July 1898.
  327. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 26 September 1890.
  328. ^ Correspondence, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 10 January 1902, p5.
  329. ^ Redruth Wrestling matches, Cornishman, 25 September 1890, p8.
  330. ^ Wrestling matches at Helston, Cornishman, 10 July 1884, p5.
  331. ^ Redruth wrestling matches, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 September 1888, p2.
  332. ^ Fine exposition of Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 23 June 1904, p5.
  333. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, The Sportsman, 20 August 1906, p8.
  334. ^ a b c Links with sport, Cornishman, 4 October 1922, p4.
  335. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, Cornishman, 23 August 1906, p8.
  336. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 August 1906
  337. ^ Former wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 26 October 1942, p2.
  338. ^ a b 1891 Census, Enumeration District 10, Folio 154 Page 3.
  339. ^ Cornish wrestling champion of yesteryear, Cornish Guardian, 4 August 1966, p7.
  340. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 1 August 1914
  341. ^ Passing of "Reub" Chapman: A former champion, Cornish Guardian, 3 July 1930, p9.
  342. ^ Charge against a wrestler, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 15 February 1901, p7.
  343. ^ Alleged arson in Cornwall, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 February 1901, p2.
  344. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 18 July 1907, p3.
  345. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 July 1925
  346. ^ a b c d Bodmin wrestler wins a second Cornish title, Cornish Guardian, 18 July 1963, p14.
  347. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 9 September 1912
  348. ^ a b Boxing World and Mirror of Life ,16 August 1913
  349. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 23 August 1913
  350. ^ Cornish Guardian, 20 June 1919
  351. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 August 1920
  352. ^ Western Morning News, 23 August 1921
  353. ^ Cornishman, 25 August 1920
  354. ^ Michigan, The Cornish Telegraph, 16 December 1909, p6.
  355. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 September 1912, p3.
  356. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, Cornish Guardian, 13 September 1912, p6.
  357. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in Lady of Pendower, Kinematograph Weekly, 28 June 1934, p37-38.
  358. ^ Tripp, Michael: PERSISTENCE OF DIFFERENCE: A HISTORY OF CORNISH WRESTLING, University of Exeter as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2009, p127-175.
  359. ^ Some old-time champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  360. ^ a b Wrestlers, North Devon Journal, 26 January 1871, p5.
  361. ^ Whispers and echoes, Cornish Guardian, 1 October 1926, p7.
  362. ^ a b Two celebrated wrestlers, Little Cock and Blind Bill , Hereford Times, 21 November 1846, p9.
  363. ^ Death of a noted wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 May 1874, p37.
  364. ^ Torpoint diversions, Hampshire Chronicle, 29 July 1811, p72.
  365. ^ Tavistock Wrestling match, North Devon Journal, 18 May 1827, p3.
  366. ^ Globe, 17 July 1811
  367. ^ Saint James's Chronicle, 26 May 1812
  368. ^ Star (London), 15 August 1812
  369. ^ Cornish wrestling at the Eagle tavern, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 14 August 1831, p3.
  370. ^ Wrestling at Saltash, Pilot (London), 6 August 1811, p3.
  371. ^ a b c d e Wrestling Notes: Thomas Cooper, Western Times, 3 February 1880, p7.
  372. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Express and Echo, 23 March 1875, p2.
  373. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Saturday 27 March 1875, p4.
  374. ^ a b Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 22 July 1827, p5.
  375. ^ a b Death of a renowned Devonshire wrestler, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA), 23 February 1867, p3.
  376. ^ An old wrestler, Western Times, 4 December 1866, p3.
  377. ^ Wrestling Notes, Western Times, 21 February 1880, p3.
  378. ^ A champion of other days, Western Times, 12 May 1860, p6.
  379. ^ a b Old Abraham Cann, the Champion Wrestler, The Cornish Telegraph - Wednesday 25 July 1860, p2.
  380. ^ Abe Cann's bout with the Cornish champion, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 14 December 1927, p3.
  381. ^ a b Death of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 15 January 1891, p4.
  382. ^ a b Funeral of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 23 January 1891, p4.
  383. ^ a b Wrestling: Benefit of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 14 November 1883, p1.
  384. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 June 1845, p4.
  385. ^ Cornwall and Devon wrestling society: the championship, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 April 1868, p4.
  386. ^ Attempted murder in Devonshire, Sun (London), 16 November 1841, p3.
  387. ^ a b c Wrestling,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 18 September 1841, p3.
  388. ^ The Era, 13 October 1844
  389. ^ Grand Wrestling Match,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 16 August 1845, p3.
  390. ^ Morning Herald (London), 25 May 1847
  391. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 23 May 1847
  392. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842
  393. ^ Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 2 April 1842
  394. ^ Death of May, the wrestler, North Devon Journal, 25 June 1829, p3.
  395. ^ North Devon, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 19 February 1842, p3.
  396. ^ Jack Slade's wrestling and boxing competitions, Sporting Life, 7 February 1887, p3.
  397. ^ Wrestling, The Sportsman, 17 February 1885, p4.
  398. ^ a b Champion Wrestler's Belt, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 12 August 1870, p6.
  399. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 23 June 1858
  400. ^ a b Wrestling at Exeter, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 13 August 1869, p4.
  401. ^ a b Western Morning News, 11 August 1869
  402. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 8 August 1852
  403. ^ Western Times, 9 May 1870
  404. ^ Western Times, 15 August 1873
  405. ^ Western Times, 30 July 1874
  406. ^ Items of News, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 June 1877, p4.
  407. ^ Western Morning News, 5 June 1877
  408. ^ a b c d The great Cornwall and Devon wrestling match between Baker and Pike for the championship, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 13 September 1879, p9.
  409. ^ a b c d Devon wrestling, Western Times, 7 February 1879, p3.
  410. ^ Champion wrestling match, Cornish & Devon Post, 13 September 1879, p2.
  411. ^ Wrestling notes: Thomas Baker, Western Times, 13 January 1880, p2.
  412. ^ Devon Wrestling, Western Times, 6 February 1879, p6.
  413. ^ The Sportsman, 22 July 1880
  414. ^ Western Times, 1 November 1887
  415. ^ Grand wrestling tournament, Western Daily Press, 29 May 1882, p8.
  416. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 16 November 1894, p2.
  417. ^ Champion wrestling at Plymouth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1894, p4.
  418. ^ Champion wrestler at Cardiff, Star of Gwent, 20 September 1895, p9.
  419. ^ Local News, Western Times, 24 May 1888, p2.
  420. ^ Cornish wrestling, Morning Post, 12 April 1887, p3.
  421. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 31 March 1887, p4.
  422. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 11 August 1927, p3.
  423. ^ Wrestling at Camborne, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 August 1927, p2.
  424. ^ a b Cornish wrestlers challenged, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1927, p4.
  425. ^ Sir Thomas Parkyns: The Inn-play or Cornish Hugg Wrestler, J Bailey (London) 1713, p18-19.
  426. ^ Wrestling, Morning Chronicle, 17 April 1827, p4.
  427. ^ Devonshire Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 17 April 1827, p3.
  428. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Globe, 7 June 1827, p3.
  429. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 2 July 1828, p2.
  430. ^ Wrestling at Tiverton,Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842, p4.
  431. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Sun (London), 16 May 1845, p2.
  432. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Morning Advertiser, 15 May 18455, p3.
  433. ^ Wrestling at Cardiff: Cannon vs. Pike, South Wales Daily News, 27 September 1895, p6.
  434. ^ a b Boxing and wrestling, Daily Alta California, 9 August 1884, p1.
  435. ^ Wrestling, South Wales Daily News, 15 October 1895, p6.
  436. ^ Ju Jitsu exponent beaten, Cornish Guardian, 13 October 1927, p9.
  437. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, The Bendigo Independent (Vic), 6 February 1905, p3.
  438. ^ Cornish Wrestling, The Age (Melbourne, Vic.), 3 February 1905, p6.
  439. ^ a b Wrestling, Sporting Life, 17 June 1905, p1.
  440. ^ Finnish wrestlers expect to make good showing against Chris Person, The Calumet news, 21 January 1910, p3.
  441. ^ Wrestling, The Era, 30 June 1844, p12.
  442. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 June 1854, p3.
  443. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 5 February 1854, p7.
  444. ^ Wrestling, New York Clipper, 4 March 1854, p1.
  445. ^ England vs France, New York Clipper, 13 May 1876, p53.
  446. ^ Sam Rundle, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 6 July 1904, p6.
  447. ^ The wrestling match, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (Beechworth, Vic.), 28 December 1875, p2.
  448. ^ Dwyer beats Fischer, The Saint Paul globe, 9 April 1898, p5.
  449. ^ Challenge is accepted, Bisbee daily review, 7 July 1904, p5.
  450. ^ a b c Big wrestling match Friday eve, Bisbee daily review, 29 June 1904, p8.
  451. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 3 September 1908, p3.
  452. ^ a b Strong boys contesting in a series of bouts for the championship, The Minneapolis journal, 22 July 1906, p3.
  453. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 October 1909, p7.
  454. ^ Ziehr defeats Ed. Tremberth, Camulet News, 03 January 1911, p7.
  455. ^ Wrestling in the limelight, just now, The Minneapolis Journal, 19 August 1906, p28.
  456. ^ Athletics, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 17 November 1896, p2.
  457. ^ Land and water, Otago Witness, 6 July 1899, p36.
  458. ^ GREEK GEORGE" AGAIN, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 25 April 1900, p7.
  459. ^ a b The wrestlers, Cornishman, 28 October 1915, p3.
  460. ^ a b Butte city, Montana, Cornishman, 18 November 1915, p3.
  461. ^ a b Wrestling at Callington, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 July 1894, p7.
  462. ^ Wrestling, Trades' Free Press, 24 September 1826, p6.
  463. ^ Wrestling, Globe, 25 September 1826, p3.
  464. ^ Wrestling at Haigh Park, Globe, 11 April 1828, p3.
  465. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 29 September 1827, p3.
  466. ^ Wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 September 1827, p2.
  467. ^ Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 23 November 1828, p5.
  468. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 April 1827, p3.
  469. ^ wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 July 1828, p4.
  470. ^ Wrestling, Sporting Life, 29 April 1887, p3.
  471. ^ Wrestling near Bristol, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 August 1847, p3.
  472. ^ Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 30 May 1849, p3.
  473. ^ Cornwall and Devonshire wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser - Friday 11 June 1847, p2.
  474. ^ a b Female Wrestlers, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 14 May 1904, p8.
  475. ^ a b Wrestling at the Winter gardens, Plymouth, Cornishman, 12 May 1904, p7.
  476. ^ Dublin born girl's versatility, Dublin Daily Express, 21 July 1915, p5.
  477. ^ a b Michigan - Cornish wrestling plans, Cornishman, 12 August 1915, p3.
  478. ^ Ahmeek wrestling tournament big sucess, Cornishman, 7 October 1915, p3.
  479. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 December 1926, p12.
  480. ^ "Cornish wrestling: Fred Richard's feat against Tani", Cornish Guardian, 26 November 1926, p4.
  481. ^ "Wrestling: Effect of feats by Cornishmen", Western Morning News, 23 December 1926, p10.
  482. ^ "Wrestling at Redruth", Cornish Guardian, 10 June 1927, p15.
  483. ^ a b A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1892, p5.
  484. ^ Success of a Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 May 1892, p8.
  485. ^ a b Schiller Williams, Cornishman, 21 July 1892, p7.
  486. ^ The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA), 2 March 1878 .
  487. ^ Wrestling for the championship of Westland, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 712, 4 JANUARY 1868, p2.
  488. ^ Once a champion, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 22 October 1912, p10.
  489. ^ Death of Mr Frank Griffiths, Western Champion (Parkes, NSW), 24 October 1912, p20.
  490. ^ The Caledonian sports, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 27 December 1881, p2.
  491. ^ Wrestling, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 20 June 1883, p2.
  492. ^ More Wrestling, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 4120, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  493. ^ Wrestling, GREY RIVER ARGUS, VOLUME XXVI, ISSUE 4313, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  494. ^ Black Point sports, NANGAHUA TIMES, 30 DECEMBER 1887, p2.
  495. ^ Wrestling Championship, LYTTELTON TIMES, VOLUME LXXV, ISSUE 9310, 13 JANUARY 1891, p5.
  496. ^ Wrestling, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 14 August 1905, p8.
  497. ^ CORNISH WRESTLING. Melbourne, Sunday, Zeehan and Dundas Herald (Tas) 14 August 1905, p3.
  498. ^ Wrestling, Leader (Melbourne, Vic), 29 July 1905, p17.
  499. ^ Wrestling, NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 16 September 1908, p5.
  500. ^ Mount Morgan, The Daily Northern Argus (Rockhampton, Qld), 7 February 1890, p3.
  501. ^ a b c Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 June 1904, p5.
  502. ^ Cornish Wrestlers un Johannesburg, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 29 April 1897, p5.
  503. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 11 May 1905, p6.
  504. ^ Sharpshooting around Camborne, Cornishman, 26 July 1894, p3.
  505. ^ Wrestling at Truro, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 20 July 1894, p5.
  506. ^ a b c d e f g h Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 2 February 1905, p8.
  507. ^ Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 04 January 1906, p4.
  508. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 February 1905, p4.
  509. ^ Wrestling tournament in Fordsburg S.A., Cornubian and Redruth Times - Saturday 11 February 1905, p10.
  510. ^ a b In South Africa, Amateur tournament in Johannesburg, Sporting Chronicle, 2 October 1916, p3.
  511. ^ Some Old Time Champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  512. ^ Mr W Prynne St Stephen-in-Brannel, Cornish Guardian, 29 October 1931, p10.
  513. ^ Lightweight champion of South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 January 1905, p8.
  514. ^ a b c d e Wrestling tournament in South Africa, Cornishman, 11 October 1906, p4.
  515. ^ Lanner, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Thursday 18 October 1906, p4.
  516. ^ Lanner wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 12 October 1906, p8.
  517. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 15 June 1935, p8.
  518. ^ a b c Famous Cornish wrestler, Western Morning News, 10 April 1919, p7.
  519. ^ a b c Cornishmen in the Transvaal, Cornishman, 1 February 1906, p7.
  520. ^ The Cornish Sport, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 31 July 1924, p2.
  521. ^ Well known Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1949, p2.
  522. ^ a b A noted Cornish wrestler home from South Africa: The career of Almond Giles, Cornish Guardian, 12 July 1907, p3.
  523. ^ How Rand Cornishmen spent Christmas, Cornishman, 24 January 1907, p4.
  524. ^ St Dennis wrestlers in South Africa, Cornish Guardian 10 November 1905, p2.
  525. ^ a b Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 12 March 1907, p4.
  526. ^ a b A St Dennis wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Guardian, 14 April 1905, p5.
  527. ^ a b Our South African Letter, Cornishman, 13 October 1910, p8.
  528. ^ Mr S Ham, Cornishman, 31 October 1946, p2.
  529. ^ Wrestling on the Rand, The Cornish Telegraph - Thursday 15 March 1906, p6.
  530. ^ a b c South Africa's new champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1927, p3.
  531. ^ a b c Cornwall on the Reef a day with the wrestlers, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 January 1927, p8.
  532. ^ a b Redruth mans success in South Africa, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 6 January 1927, p7.
  533. ^ Wrestling champion of the Rand, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser,5 November 1964, p16.
  534. ^ Home from South Africa, where her husband is wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 October 1953, p12.
  535. ^ Rowett still champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 March 1899, p5.
  536. ^ St Austell, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 28 January 1904, p5.
  537. ^ Other Upper Peninsular sports, The Minneapolis journal, 4 February 1906, p5.
  538. ^ Cornish wrestling will be feature, The Tacoma Times, 25 April 1912, p2.
  539. ^ Threw four men, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 June 1899, p7.
  540. ^ a b Wrestling, The Minneapolis journal, 11 June 1903, p8.
  541. ^ Grass Valley, Cornishman, 25 July 1907, p3.
  542. ^ Daily Transcript, 3 July 1861.
  543. ^ Letters from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  544. ^ The annual wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 August 1873, p3.
  545. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 9 August 1873.
  546. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1875, p4.
  547. ^ Wrestling in America, Western Morning News, 13 November 1861, p2.
  548. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1861, p8.
  549. ^ Sacramento Daily Union, 14 June 1866.
  550. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Sacramento Daily Union, 11 January 1868, p3.
  551. ^ Bill Pellew's Death, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 28 May 1908, p3.
  552. ^ Walkerville, James Williams dead, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 25 August 1906, p3.
  553. ^ Grass Valley, Marysville Daily Appeal, 19 March 1903, p3.
  554. ^ a b c Cornish wrestlers in America, Cornish Post and Mining News, 1 September 1898, p8.
  555. ^ Wrestling in California, Newcastle Guardian and Tyne Mercury, 8 December 1866, p8.
  556. ^ Jack Carkeek the Cornish wrestling wonder Cornubian and Redruth Times, 05 August 1905, p3.
  557. ^ a b Evening Star (Washington DC), 7 May 1926, p41.
  558. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in the United States Cornish & Devon Post, 5 October 1878, p8.
  559. ^ Wrestling in California The Cornish Telegraph, 12 December 1866, p3.
  560. ^ Wrestling in the United States, A Cornish champion, Cornishman, 3 October 1878, p6.
  561. ^ The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornishman, 21 June 1883, p6.
  562. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 July 1888, p41.
  563. ^ Championship of the world wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 24 June 1887, p6.
  564. ^ Gilbert won the match, The Anaconda standard, 25 May 1890, p5.
  565. ^ The field of sport, The Anaconda standard, 2 November 1890, p7.
  566. ^ a b Wrestling at Penzance, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 27 August 1886, p7.
  567. ^ a b Wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 18 December 1886, p5.
  568. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 5 May 1887, p1.
  569. ^ Political matters, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 6 May 1887, p7.
  570. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 7 May 1887, p7.
  571. ^ Carkeek wins a match, Daily Alta California, 19 April 1886, p5.
  572. ^ a b Singular death of Durham Ivey, A Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 20 December 1894, p6.
  573. ^ Cornish wrestler murdered, Cornishman, 17 February 1910, p8.
  574. ^ Richard Varcoe murdered, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 February 1910, p10.
  575. ^ Chasewater wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 September 1887, p5.
  576. ^ Wrestling in Michigan, Cornishman, 27 September 1894, p3.
  577. ^ Mining Fair, The record-union (California US), 25 February 1898, p41.
  578. ^ Tallywarren Notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 22 September 1898, p7.
  579. ^ Wrestling match, The Aspen Tribune, 18 April 1899, p4.
  580. ^ Wants to fight Sharkey, The San Francisco call, 30 May 1899, p5.
  581. ^ The Wrestling Championship of the world, Cornish & Devon Post, 09 July 1887, p3.
  582. ^ Wrestling match at Plymouth Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornishman, 25 August 1887, p5.
  583. ^ a b The Wrestling Championship, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 6 August 1887, p5.
  584. ^ The championship of the world, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 July 1889, p5.
  585. ^ Wrestling, The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW), 20 August 1887, p411.
  586. ^ The wrestling championship contests at Redruth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 4 July 1889, p7.
  587. ^ a b Wrestling that disables, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 June 1901, p14.
  588. ^ Great Wrestling match at Ishpenning Michigan, Cornishman, 2 October 1890, p3.
  589. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 16 November 1905, p3.
  590. ^ Wrestling Challenge - A wrestling challenge to whom it may concern, West Briton, 30 November 1886.
  591. ^ Wrestler Jack Carkeek, The Sunday Leader, Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania, 21 December 1890, p7.
  592. ^ Sports of all sorts, The Anaconda Standard 29 March 1891, p9.
  593. ^ Jack Brady won, The Wheeling Register 22 December 1893, p1.
  594. ^ a b Jack Carkeek, the Cornish wrestling wonder, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 5 August 1905, p3.
  595. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 21 July 1887, p4.
  596. ^ Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 21 April 1887, p4.
  597. ^ Cornwall, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 June 1887, p5.
  598. ^ Wrestling match at Southport, Apollo v Carkeek, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 December 1900, p6.
  599. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, Daily Alta California, 5 November 1888, p8.
  600. ^ Jack Carkeet arrested, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 23 September 1910, p8.
  601. ^ Serious charge against famous Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 22 September 1910, p8.
  602. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 11 March 1913, p9.
  603. ^ The Montana man is Cornish champion of Colorado, The Anaconda Standard, 8 November 1891, p1.
  604. ^ Michigan: Jack King to wrestle, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 April 1906, p3.
  605. ^ a b Jack Rowett is still champion, Camulet News, 10 January 1911, p7.
  606. ^ Over the Northwest, Camulet News, 30 July 1898, p8.
  607. ^ a b Dr Todd, Arthur Cecil : The Cornish Miner in America, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro), 1967, p139-141.
  608. ^ The robbery of 70,000 dollars from a train, Cornishman, 19 October 1893, p7.
  609. ^ a b Peninsula News, The L'Anse sentinel, 29 January 1898, p1.
  610. ^ The Michigan train robbery cleared of all mystery, The Iola register (Iola, Kan.), 29 September 1893, p6.
  611. ^ Rowett still champion, Diamond Drill, 25 December 1909, p4.
  612. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 14 April 1910, p6.
  613. ^ a b Michigan, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 June 1899, p8.
  614. ^ Can He Come Back, Iron Country news, 02 May 1914, p1.
  615. ^ Cornishmen will wrestle, The Madison daily leader, 20 July 1897, p1.
  616. ^ Champion Cornish wrestler of America: Jack Rowett won the title in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 February 1898, p5.
  617. ^ Butte city, Montanna, The Cornish Telegraph, 9 December 1909, p6.
  618. ^ Cornish wrestlers in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 25 November 1909, p3.
  619. ^ Jones was declared the victor over Rowett, The Anaconda standard, 10 December 1899, p8.
  620. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p6.
  621. ^ New World's Champion, The Anaconda standard, 21 September 1899, p10.
  622. ^ a b On Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p3.
  623. ^ Cornish wrestling notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 July 1929, p7.
  624. ^ Celebrities I have seen, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1935, p7.
  625. ^ a b Cornish folk abroad, Cornishman, 10 July 1902, p3.
  626. ^ Cornish wrestling in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 July 1896, p6.
  627. ^ a b Cornishmen Abroad, Cornishman, 2 July 1903, p3.
  628. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornish Post and Mining News, 11 August 1898, p6.
  629. ^ With the wrestlers, Waterbury Democrat, 16 August 1902, p7.
  630. ^ With the wrestlers, the Cornish style will attract much attention, Waterbury Democrat, 14 February 1902, p7.
  631. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 5 October 1905, p2.
  632. ^ "Wrestling History: 1894". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  633. ^ a b Arizona Weekly News, Arizona silver belt, 29 December 1904, p2.
  634. ^ Boxing, Bryan morning eagle, 26 November 1905, Image 6, p6.
  635. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling in America, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 12 March 1908, p10.
  636. ^ a b Grass Valley California, Cornishman, 19 March 1908, p3.
  637. ^ a b c d St Austell man's shocking death, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 28 January 1910, p6.
  638. ^ St Austell man's success in America, St. Austell Star, 13 April 1905, p4.
  639. ^ Burnt to a cinder, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 January 1910, p2.
  640. ^ Cornishman burnt to death, Cornishman, 3 February 1910, p3.
  641. ^ Cornish wrestling champ is dying in Montana, Daily Kennebec journal, 14 August 1908, p4.
  642. ^ Sporting Gossip Today, The Butte inter mountain, 22 January 1903, p8.
  643. ^ Gotch Wins Handily, The Morning Astorian, 12 April 1904, p1.
  644. ^ Harrington the Champion, The Cornish Telegraph, 29 July 1903, p3.
  645. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 6 August 1903, p2.
  646. ^ Famous Cornish wrestler crazy, The Butte inter mountain, 28 October 1902, p1.
  647. ^ a b Tim Harrington wins first prize, The Butte inter mountain, 6 July 1903, p8.
  648. ^ Jap throws all white opponents, The Ogden standard, 8 April 1910, p8.
  649. ^ Death levies toll in sport, The Daily Missoulian, 1 January 1911, p9.
  650. ^ a b Martin and Ziehr May wrestle on Good Friday, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 April 1905, p5.
  651. ^ The Calumet boy versus the champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 29 September 1898, p6.
  652. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 10 February 1910, p6.
  653. ^ B William versus Rowett, Camulet News, 21 February 1910, p8.
  654. ^ Michigan USA, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 September 1899, p3.
  655. ^ Johns, Christopher, Cheer like mad for Cornwall, the story of Cornish wrestling, Map X Visuals, 1995, p18-19.
  656. ^ Splendid program at Lowell club, Bisbee daily review, 9 April 1911, p10.
  657. ^ Sid Varney was good wrestling coach, Oredigger (US)— 4 April 1921 p3.
  658. ^ Rydholm, Fred: Harlow’s Wooden Man, Winter 1984.
  659. ^ Cornish wrestlers at Honiton, Cornish Guardian - Friday 03 September 1926, p6.
  660. ^ Crediton Wrestling Contest, Western Times, 22 April 1872, p3.
  661. ^ Swansea Jack, Liverpool Echo, 6 July 1985, p7.
  662. ^ a b The old Cornish pastime, Cornish Guardian, 27 June 1924, p7.
  663. ^ a b c d Cornish wrestling A magnificent gift, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 September 1924, p4.
  664. ^ New enthusiasm for Cornish wrestling, Cornish Guardian, 21 March 1963, p8.
  665. ^ Another belt presented, Cornish Guardian, 17 October 1924, p6.
  666. ^ Retained county's lightweight wrestling championship, Cornish Guardian, 11 July 1963, p14.
  667. ^ Wadebridge wrestler wins featherweight title, Cornish Guardian, 1 August 1963, p11.
  668. ^ Cornish wrestling championship tournament, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1938, p14.
  669. ^ Wrestling at Helston, Cornish Guardian, 10 September 1936, p14.
  670. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 September 1936, p3.
  671. ^ Wrestling finale, Cornish Guardian, 3 October 1924, p3.
  672. ^ "Grass Valley's St Pirans Day Celebration". DowntownGrassValley.com. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-19.