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Iberian Peninsula at about 200 BC [1].

In the area of modern Portugal a significant number of towns with Celtic toponymic were already mentioned by ancient Greek and Roman authors.

The regions where we can find a greater number of these names are in the north (inhabited by the Callaici or Callaeci) and center (inhabited by the Lusitanians) of Portugal. However, Celtic toponymy occurs throughout the whole country and is also found in the south (the Alentejo, inhabited by the Celtici, and the Algarve, inhabited by the Cynetes), which correspond to the ancient Roman provinces of Gallaecia and Lusitania.

The name of Portugal (Portvgalliæ) itself is partly of Celtic origin (see: Name of Portugal and Portus Cale).

Ancient (bracketed) and modern places in the Iberian peninsula which have names containing the Celtic elements -brigā or -bris < -brixs 'hill, hillfort'. Celtic toponymy of Portugal (Western side of Iberia) is shown light-blue and yellow on the map.

List of towns and places

Celtic name Modern name
Anobrega Ponte da Barca
Anobra Anobra in Condeixa-a-Nova. Likely derived from ānniyobris "hill", "ring" (Cf. old Irish ainne "ring"),[1]
Arabriga probably Alenquer or between Sesimbra and Outão
Arcobica probably Torrão in Alcácer do Sal
Arcobriga probably near Braga
Aritium Praetorium probably Tamazim, near Bemposta
Aritium oppidum vetus Casal da Várzea
Aritium Vetus Alvega in Abrantes
Aranni probably near Ourique
Arandis near Ourique
Ardila
Armona Ilha de Armona
Auobriga/ *Aobriga in the Ave Valley region
Equabonna/Aquabona Coina in Barreiro
Auaron Pr. Carreiro in Póvoa de Varzim (Cape Santo André)
Axabrica/Axabrix Xabregas
Boidobr(ig)a (?) Boidobra, in Covilhã. A combination of two elements:
  • boudi[2] or *boudo- 'victory' (Welsh budd 'gain, benefit') and "briga".
Bracara Braga
Brigantia Bragança
Brita/s
Budens Budens
*Burrulobriga around Elvas
Caetobriga/Caetobrix/Kaitobrix Setúbal
Caeilobricoi Castro Daire in Lamas de Moledo
Calabria > Caliabriga Castelo Calabre in Vila Nova de Foz Côa
Caladunum probably Vilar de Perdizes in Montalegre
Cambra<Calambriga Vale de Cambra (Aveiro), Casal de Cambra (Sintra)
Cale Vila Nova de Gaia; Portucale; Portugal
Cantippo
Castellum Araocelum São Cosmado in Mangualde
Catraleucus/ Contraleuco
Cempsibriga Sesimbra
Colobre Alcolobre in Constância (Colobre, 935 C.E.): the first element derives from *kwolu- 'wheel'[3]
Conimbriga Conímbriga, Condeixa-a-Nova; Coimbra (name only)
Civitas Aravorum <Aravi> Marialva
Collippo Batalha
Corumbriga
Cottaiobriga near Almeida
Ebora Évora
Eburobrittium Óbidos
*Elaneobriga around Braga
Evion
Ercobriga
Etobrico Alenquer
Jerabrica/Gerabrica/Hierabrica between Lisbon and Santarém
Jurumegna Juromenha in Alandroal
Lacobriga Lagos
Lamecum Lamego
Langobriga Fiães
castello Letiobri around Braga
Lemos
Londobris Berlengas
Longobriga Longroiva in Mêda
Lubrigos Vila Real
Civitas Aravorum <Aravi> Marialva (Mêda)
Malaceca/Malateca Marateca
Medrobiga Marvão
Meidubriga in Beira Alta
Mirobriga Miróbriga
Mirobriga Montemor o Velho
Meribriga/Merebriga in Alentejo
Merobriga probably Sines or near river Mira
Montobriga/Mundobriga around Castelo de Vide
Moron Almorol or Montalvão
Ocelum Ferro probably in Covilhã
Pendraganum Pedrógão Grande
Seliobriga São Martinho de Pedrulhais in Sepins
Senabriga Seia
Talabriga Lamas do Vouga
Talabriga Ponte de Lima, Estourãos
Tameobriga near Paiva and Douro
Terena Terena
Tongobriga/ Tuntobriga "capela dos mouros" in Freixo
Tur(o)lobriga around Chaves
Uxonoba
Vicus Camalocensis around Crato
Vicus Veniensis Cabeço de Lameirão in Meimoa
Vipasca Aljustrel

List of rivers

Celtic name Modern name
Arda from Proto-Celtic *ardwo- [4] Arda
Latinised Arduinna from Celtic *ardwo- hight, related to forests, Goddess of the forests [5] Ardena
Ardila *same as above Ardila
Latinised Arauca from Celtic[6] Arouca
Latinised Arauca from Celtic[7] Arouce
Latinised Arauca from Celtic[8] Arunca
Latinised Cavalum from Celtic/Gaulish *caballos - horse[9] Cavalum
Lethes Lima
Minius Minho
Munda, Latinised Mundaecus or Mondaecus Mondego
Tamaca Tâmega

References

  1. ^ Prósper (2002) p. 376.
  2. ^ Delamarre, Xavier [in French] (2003). Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic]. Vol. (Collection des Hespérides, 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance. page boudi- of 83-84. ISBN 978-2877722377.
  3. ^ Matasovic (2009) s.v. kwol-u-.
  4. ^ "An Etymological Lexicon of Proto-Celtic | Languages of Europe | Philology".
  5. ^ "Inactive".
  6. ^ "Arouca | Definição ou significado de Arouca no Dicionário Infopédia de Toponímia".
  7. ^ "Arouca | Definição ou significado de Arouca no Dicionário Infopédia de Toponímia".
  8. ^ "Arouca | Definição ou significado de Arouca no Dicionário Infopédia de Toponímia".
  9. ^ Whiter, Walter (1800). Etymologicon magnum, or Universal etymological dictionary, on a new plan [By W. Whiter]. Cambridge [England] Printed by F. Hodson, for the author. p. 158. caballos celtic etymology.

See also