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State Seal of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ArmigerRepublic of the Union of Myanmar
Adopted2011[1][2]
CrestA mullet Or
BlazonGule, a map of Myanmar Or surrounded by sprigs of Eugenia[3] of the same
SupportersTwo lion sejant Or
Mottoပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်

(• literally,
"Union•Presidential•State of Myanmar";
• officially,
"Republic of the Union of Myanmar")
Earlier version(s)
1948–1974
1974–1988
1988–2011

The State Seal of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် နိုင်ငံတော်အထိမ်းအမှတ်တံဆိပ်) is the national emblem used in all official government documents, including publications. As the seal is an official symbol, there are State Seal Law and Principles regarding appropriate usage of it.

Description

See also: § Symbolism (historical and current)

Usage

The State seal can be used for the following:

History

Before 1948

Konbaung dynasty

The previous state symbol of Burmese monarchs was the green peacock. Late kings of Konbaung dynasty adopted the circular State Seal bearing a peacock on the sun surrounded by the text: မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတံဆိပ်တော်.[4][5]

British Burma

Government seal
Armiger
Adopted1886
Relinquished1948
CrestA royal crown proper
BlazonQuarterly, I and IV Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or langued and armed Azure. II Or a lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules. III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent.
SupportersOn the dexter a lion rampant guardant Or langued and armed Gules, royally crowned Proper. On the sinister a Unicorn rampant Argent armed crined and unguled Or, and gorged with a Coronet composed of crosses patee and fleurs-de-lis, a chain affixed thereto passing through the forelegs and reflexed over the back Or
MottoFrench: Dieu et mon droit, lit.'God and my right'
Order(s)Order of the Garter
Badge of Burma
(1939–1941, 1945–1948)

After being annexed by the British Empire, the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom replaced the place of State seal. After Burma was separated from India, the green peacock on a yellow was adopted as the national symbol and badge of Burma, in 1939. But the State Seal was still the coat of arms of United Kingdom.

Japanese puppet state

State Seal of the State of Burma
(1943–1945)

The State of Burma, a Japanese puppet state, adopted the circular seal bearing stylized golden peacock as the State seal in 1943.

Current design

The current design of the State Seal was first introduced at the Constituent Assembly of the Union of Burma in 1947.[6]: 8 

4 January 1948 – 3 January 1974

State Seal of the Union of Burma
ArmigerUnion of Burma
Adopted1948
Relinquished1974
CrestA lion sejant Azure
BlazonAzure, a map of Myanmar Argent between two areas, surrounded by a circle Gules that bears the State motto:
သမဂ္ဂါနံ တပေါ သုခေါ
SupportersTwo lion sejant Argent
Mottoသမဂ္ဂါနံ တပေါ သုခေါ
(samaggānaṃ topo sukho)

ပြည်ထောင်စု
သမတ-မြန်မာ နိုင်ငံတော်။
(• literally,
"Union,
President-Myanmar,
State";
• formally,
"Republic of the Union of Myanmar")

The State Seal of Burma, approved by the Constituent Assembly in 1947,[6]: 8  contained the Burmese text ပြည်ထောင်စု သမတမြန်မာ နိုင်ငံတော်။ on the banner, which means "Republic of Union of Myanmar" (the same as the text in the current State Seal except the spelling of the word that mean President or Republic: သမတ), as well as three lions. Additionally, there was a circle surrounding the map of the country containing Verse 194 of the Buddhavagga in the Dhammapada in Pali: သမဂ္ဂါနံ တပေါ သုခေါ (samaggānaṃ tapo sukho), which translates to "Happy is the practice of those in harmony."[7] It was adopted at the independence of the country on 4 January 1948.

3 January 1974 – 19 October 1988

State Seal of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Versions
official colour
later interpretation
ArmigerSocialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Adopted1974
Relinquished1988
CrestA mullet Or
BlazonOr, a map of Myanmar Or in a field Sable surrounded by a pinion Or which is also surrounded by paddy ears Or
SupportersTwo lion sejant Or
Mottoပြည်ထောင်စု ဆိုရှယ်လစ်သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်

(• literally,
"Union,
Socialist President,
State of Myanmar";
• formally,
"Socialist Republic of the Union of Myanmar")
Earlier version(s)
1948-1974

The 1974 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma adopted a new State Seal[8] with Socialist symbols : a pinion (cogwheel) with 14 teeth, surrounding the map of Myanmar, surrounded by two paddy ears, the two artistic Burmese lions besides the branches: The left lion facing to the left and the right lion facing to the right, The words ပြည်ထောင်စု ဆိုရှယ်လစ်သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်, which means "Socialist Republic of the Union of Myanmar", on the ribbon banner at the bottom.[9] It was adopted together with the new State flag and the 1974 constitution on 3 January 1974. The original publications of 1974 constitution shows the State flag with full colours, but it shows the State seal only in white and black.[8] But in the official usage, it is always yellow and black.[10] The e-book version of the 1974 constitution from Myanmar Law Information System shows the blue State seal from Wikipedia in place of the State seal.

19 October 1988 – 31 January 2011

State Seal of the Union of Myanmar
ArmigerUnion of Myanmar
Adopted1988
Relinquished2011
CrestA mullet Or
BlazonOr, a map of Myanmar Or in a field Sable surrounded by a pinion Or which is also surrounded by paddy ears Or
SupportersTwo lion sejant Or
Mottoပြည်ထောင်စု မြန်မာ နိုင်ငံတော်

(• literally,
"Union,
Myanmar,
State";
• officially,
"Union of Myanmar")
Earlier version(s)
1974–1988

On 19 October 1988, the State Law and Order Restoration Council enacted a law which replaces the expression "Socialist Republic of the Union of Myanmar" with the expression "Union of Myanmar".[11] The State Seal was modified as the country name in State Seal Law had been replaced: the words ဆိုရှယ်လစ်သမ္မတ ("Socialist Republic") were removed.[5]

Changes to current State Seal

In 2008, the Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar for Burma was approved by a referendum. In this new constitution, changes have been made to the State Seal. The new State Seal uses the colours red and gold/yellow. Also, the pinion and paddy ears have been removed and replaced with Eugenia sprigs and the words on the ribbon have been changed to ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် which translates "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" .[12] The new Laws and Principles for State Seal were passed on 21 October 2010[13] (but were not enforced immediately) and the new State Seal was displayed on the television on that day's afternoon.[14] But the new state seal had not been adopted yet until 2011.[1] It was adopted on the day the 2008 Constitution came into force, on 31 January 2011.[2][15]

Symbolism (historical and current)

Peafowl

Peafowl symbolizes the race of the sun.[16]

Lion (Leograph)

The reason of the inclusion of three lions in the State Seal was given as follow:[6]: 10 

  1. In the traditional view of ancient sages, the nature of lion gives the natures of bravery, diligence, extinguishing any size of danger with the same effort, purity and virtue. Such characteristics can make Myanmar honoured and they are the ones that Myanmar citizens should imitate.
  2. Being surrounded by three lions means defending and protecting Myanmar. In the view of astrologist monks and persons, number three means "divisible by three" (end of all evil events).
  3. Lion and Myanmar are regarded as compatible paring according to astrology.
  4. Lion and traditional floral arabesques are inserted and decorated, so it is assumed as giving respect to an ancient traditional Myanmar culture appropriate for the modern Union of Myanmar.

State Motto on the Circle

သမဂ္ဂါနံ တပေါ သုခေါ (samaggānaṃ tapo sukho), which can be translated to "Happy is the practice of those in harmony," is from Verse 194 of the Buddhavagga in the Dhammapada.[7]

Ears of Paddy

Ears of paddy are the symbol for cultivating class.[17]

Pinion

Pinion (cogwheel) is the symbol for working class.[17]

Five-Pointed Star (Mullet)

Five-pointed star represents the revolution/resistance and the struggle for independence of Myanmar against colonialist and fascists.[18]

Sprigs of Eugenia

Eugenia sprig symbolizes victory.[19]

Map of Myanmar

The map of Myanmar in the State Seal symbolizes the principal that the Sovereign power of the State is derived from the citizens and is in force in the entire country.[18]

Myanmar traditional floral arabesques

Myanmar traditional floral arabesques are included to decorate the State seal as representation of ancient Myanmar traditions which are appropriate for modern Union of Myanmar.[6][5]

State Name

The then conventional long names of the State are included in the State Seals,

Gallery

See also

References

http://www.hubert-herald.nl/Myanmar1.htm

  1. ^ a b Public Service Medal certificate awarded on 4 January 2011 is with old State Seal bearing cogwheel and paddy ears. [1]
  2. ^ a b c "နိုင်ငံတော်အထိမ်းအမှတ်တံဆိပ်ဥပဒေ". Constitutional Tribunal of the Union of Myanmar, Law Library (in Burmese). အာဏာတည်သည့်ရက်: 31/1/2011
  3. ^ a b c "The Union Seal Law". Act of 21 October 2010 (PDF). The State Peace and Development Council.
  4. ^ တက္ကသိုလ်စိန်တင် (June 2005). သီပေါဘုရင်နှင့် စုဖုရားလတ် [King Thibaw and Supayalat].
  5. ^ a b c [2], Part 1, Treatise about State Seals and State Flags Used Through Successive Periods In Myanmar.
    Presenter = Yi Yi Nyunt, Director, Nationalities Youth Resources Development Degree College Sagaing, Department of Education and Practising, Ministry of Border Affairs, Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, 5 February 2014
  6. ^ a b c d e "ပြည်ထောင်စု သမတမြန်မာငံနိုင် အလံတော်". ဖဆပလ သတင်းစဉ်. 9 August 1947.
  7. ^ a b "The Dhammapada: Verses and Stories".
  8. ^ a b c Article 191, Chapter XIV, Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, 1974
  9. ^ a b "State Seal Bylaws". Article 2, Act of 30 March 1974. Pyithu Hluttaw.
  10. ^ Facts About Burma. Burma Socialist Programme Party Headquarters. 1983.
  11. ^ "Adaptation of Expressions Law". Act of 19 October 1988 (PDF). State Law and Order Restoration Council.
  12. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2010.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Union Seal Law". Act of 21 October 2010 (PDF). State Peace and Development Council.
  14. ^ "Regime New Flag to raise today". 22 October 2010.
  15. ^ "၂၀၀၈ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေ" [2008 Constitution]. Constitutional Tribunal of the Union of Myanmar (in Burmese). March 2018. ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေပြဋ္ဌာန်းချက်များနှင့်အညီ ၂၀၀၈ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံအခြေခံဥပဒေသည် ပထမအကြိမ် ပြည်ထောင်စုလွှတ်တော်စတင်ကျင်းပသည့် ၃၁-၁-၂၀၁၁ ရက်နေ့တွင် စတင်အာဏာတည်ခဲ့သည်။
  16. ^ မြန်မာဖတ်စာ ပဉ္စမတန်း (Grade-6) [Myanmar Textbook for Fifth Standard (Grade-6)] (in Burmese). Ministry of Education, Government of the Union of Myanmar. 2006. p. 4.
  17. ^ a b မြန်မာဖတ်စာ ဒုတိယတန်း (Grade-3) [Myanmar Textbook for Second Standard (Grade-3)] (in Burmese). Ministry of Education, Government of the Union of Myanmar. 2006. p. 1.
  18. ^ a b c "ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်" (PDF). www.burmalibrary.org (in Burmese). 24 December 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  19. ^ Myanmar-English Official Dictionary. Yangon, Burma: Department of the Myanmar Language Commission. 1993.