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A map of monarchies in Asia (in orange).
A map of monarchies in Asia (in orange).

Asia has more monarchies than any other continent.

National monarchies

State Type Succession Dynasty Title Image Incumbent Born Age Reigns since First-in-line
 Kingdom of Bahrain Mixed Hereditary Khalifa King
Donald Trump meets with King Hamed bin Issa of Bahrain, May 2017 (cropped).jpg
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa 28 Jan 1950 72 y. 6 Mar 1999
(as emir)
14 Feb 2002
(as king)
heir apparent: Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, Crown Prince of Bahrain (eldest son)
 Kingdom of Bhutan Constitutional Hereditary Wangchuck King
King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (edit).jpg
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck 21 Feb 1980 42 y. 9 Dec 2006 heir apparent: Jigme Namgyel Wangchuck, Crown Prince of Bhutan (eldest son)
 Brunei Darussalam Absolute Hereditary Bolkiah Sultan
Hassanal Bolkiah.jpg
Hassanal Bolkiah 15 Jul 1946 76 y. 4 Oct 1967 heir apparent: Al-Muhtadee Billah, Crown Prince of Brunei (eldest son)
 Kingdom of Cambodia Constitutional Hereditary and elective Norodom King
King Norodom Sihamoni (2019).jpg
Norodom Sihamoni 14 May 1953 69 y. 14 Oct 2004 None; appointed by the Royal Council of the Throne within the Royal Family members
 Japan Constitutional Hereditary Yamato Emperor
Emperor Naruhito (may 2019).jpg
Naruhito 23 Feb 1960 62 y. 1 May 2019 heir apparent: Fumihito, Crown Prince of Japan
(younger brother)
 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Constitutional Hereditary and elective Hashemite King
King Abdullah II (cropped).jpg
Abdullah II bin Al Hussein 30 Jan 1962 60 y. 7 Feb 1999 heir apparent: Hussein, Crown Prince of Jordan (eldest son)
 State of Kuwait Mixed Hereditary and elective Sabah Emir
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (cropped).jpg
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah 25 Jun 1937 85 y. 30 Sep 2020 heir presumptive: Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Crown Prince of Kuwait (younger half-brother; appointed by the reigning emir within the Royal Family members)
 Malaysia Constitutional Elected Bendahara Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
Al-Sultan Abdullah (cropped) 2.jpg
Abdullah 30 July 1959 63 y. 31 January 2019 None; appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death
 Sultanate of Oman Absolute Hereditary Al Said Sultan
Secretary Pompeo Meets with the Sultan of Oman Haitham bin Tariq Al Said (49565463757) (cropped).jpg
Haitham bin Tariq 13 Oct 1954 67 y. 11 Jan 2020 heir apparent: Theyazin bin Haitham, Crown Prince of Oman (eldest son)
 State of Qatar Mixed Hereditary Al Thani Emir
تميم بن حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني (49759678641) (cropped).jpg
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani 3 June 1980 42 y. 25 June 2013 None; will be appointed by the reigning emir within the Royal Family members
 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Absolute Hereditary and elective Saud King
Prince Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud at the Pentagon April 2012.jpg
Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud 31 Dec 1935 86 y. 23 Jan 2015 Heir apparent: Mohammed bin Salman, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia (eldest son)
 Kingdom of Thailand Constitutional Hereditary Chakri King
King Rama X official (crop).png
Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) 28 Jul 1952 70 y. 13 Oct 2016 Heir presumptive: Dipangkorn Rasmijoti (only legitimate son)
 United Arab Emirates Mixed Hereditary and elective Al Nahyan Emir
Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan-CROPPED.jpg
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan 25 Jan 1948 74 y. 3 Nov 2004 None; appointed by the seven emirs of UAE (normally the Emir of Abu Dhabi is always appointed as President, while the Emir of Dubai is always appointed as Prime Minister

Constituent monarchies

United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates consists of seven emirates that are all ruled by absolute monarchs. The President of the United Arab Emirates is an office held by the Ruler of Abu Dhabi and the office of Prime Minister is held by the Ruler of Dubai. The seven Emirates of the UAE are:


Note: Sheikh Humaid bin Rashid Al Nuaimi of Ajman, Saud bin Rashid Al Mu'alla of Umm al-Quwain, Saud bin Saqr Al-Qasimi of Ras al-Khaimah, and Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi of Fujairah are not pictured.


Malaysia, where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Supreme Head of State) is elected to a five-year term. Nine hereditary rulers from the Malay States form a Council of Rulers who will determine the next Agong via a secret ballot. The position has to date, been de facto rotated through the State rulers, originally based on seniority. The nine Malay States are the;

The monarchy of Negeri Sembilan is itself elective.

Other subnational

India and Pakistan

See also: Princely states

The British ruled Indian Empire became independent from British rule in 1947 and became the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan and in 1950 India became the Republic of India, in 1956 Pakistan became the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, and in 1971 the province of East Pakistan separated from Pakistan to become Bangladesh. Princely states were only in the present-day countries of India and Pakistan, and not Bangladesh. The princely states who were vassal states of the British, had a certain degree of power and autonomy during the British Raj. The princely states had integrated into the newly independent India and Pakistan between 1947-1975 (the majority of states ascended into India or Pakistan in 1948) and the former monarchs of the princely states who joined before 1971 in India and before 1972 in Pakistan became titular rulers that received a privy purse and initially retained their statuses, privileges, and autonomy. During this time, the former princely states in India were merged into unions, each of which was headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh (ruling chief), equivalent to a state governor.[1] In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states. The states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan; a few of the former states retained their autonomy until 1969 when they were fully integrated into Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Pakistani Government in 1972, in which their titles, autonomy, and privy purses were take away. Presently the rulers of the former princely states are pretenders who carry out ceremonial roles.

List of Princely States

Name Capital Salute type Existed Location/ Successor state
Ajaigarh State Ajaygarh (Ajaigarh) 11-gun salute state 1765–1949 India
Akkalkot State Ak(k)alkot non-salute state 1708–1948 India
Alipura State non-salute state 1757–1950 India
Alirajpur State (Ali)Rajpur 11-gun salute state 1437–1948 India
Alwar State 15-gun salute state 1296–1949 India
Amb (Tanawal) Darband/ Summer capital: Shergarh non-salute state 18th century–1969 Pakistan
Ambliara State non-salute state 1619–1943 India
Athgarh non-salute state 1178–1949 India
Athmallik State non-salute state 1874–1948 India
Aundh State Aundh (District - Satara) non-salute state 1699–1948 India
Babariawad non-salute state India
Baghal State non-salute state c.1643–1948 India
Baghat non-salute state c.1500–1948 India
Bahawalpur (princely state)Bahawalpur (princely state) Bahawalpur 17-gun salute state 1802–1955 Pakistan
Balasinor State 9-gun salute state 1758–1948 India
Ballabhgarh non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1710–1867 India
Bamra non-salute state 1545–1948 India
Banganapalle State 9-gun salute state 1665–1948 India
Bansda State 9-gun salute state 1781–1948 India
Banswara State 15-gun salute state 1527–1949 India
Bantva Manavadar non-salute state 1733–1947 India
Baoni State 11-gun salute state 1784–1948 India
Baraundha 9-gun salute state 1549–1950 India
Baria State 9-gun salute state 1524–1948 India
Baroda State Baroda 21-gun salute state 1721–1949 India
Barwani State Barwani (Sidhanagar c.1640) 11-gun salute state 836–1948 India
Bashahr non-salute state 1412–1948 India
Basoda State non-salute state 1753–1947 India
Bastar state non-salute state 1324–1948 India
Baudh State non-salute state 1874–1948 India
Beja State non-salute state 18th century–1948 India
Benares State 13-gun salute state 18th century–1948 India
Beri State non-salute state c.1750–1950 India
Bhaisunda non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Bhajji State non-salute state late 18th century–1948 India
Bharatpur State 17-gun salute state 17th century–1947 India
Bhavnagar State 13-gun salute state 1723–1948 India
Bhopal State Bhopal 19-gun salute state 1707–1949 India
Bhor State 9-gun salute state 1697–1948 India
Bijawar State 11-gun salute state 1765–1950 India
Bikaner State 17-gun salute state 1465–1947 India
Bonai non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Bundi State 17-gun salute state 1342–1949 India
Cambay State 11-gun salute state 1730–1948 India
Nawab of the Carnatic non-salute, annexed by the British Raj c.1690–1801 India
Chamba State Chamba 11-gun salute state c.550–1948 India
Changbhakar (Chang Bhakar) non-salute state c.1790–1948 India
Charkhari State 11-gun salute state 1765–1950 India
Chaube Jagirs non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Chhatarpur State 11-gun salute state 1785–1950 India
Chhota Udaipur State 9-gun salute state 1743–1948 India
Chhuikhadan State non-salute state 1750–1948 India
Chitral (princely state) Chitral 11-gun salute state 1560–1969 Pakistan
Chota Nagpur States non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Chuda non-salute state India
Cooch Behar State 13-gun salute state 1586–1949 India
Cutch State 17-gun salute state 1147–1948 India
Danta State 9-gun salute state 1061–1948 India
Darkoti non-salute state 11th century–1948 India
Daspalla State non-salute state 1498–1948 India
Datarpur non-salute, annexed by the British Raj c.1550–1849 India
Datia State 15-gun salute state 1626–1950 India
Dewas State 15-gun salute state 1728–1948 India
Dhami non-salute state 1815–1948 India
Dhar State Dhar (Dharanagar 1732 -...., Multhan 1728-1732) 15-gun salute state 1730–1947 India
Dharampur State Dharampur, formerly Mandvegan 9-gun salute state 1262–1948 India
Dhenkanal State non-salute state 1529–1948 India
Dholpur State 15-gun salute state c.700–1949 India
Dhrangadhra State (Kuwa, Halwad(-Dhrangadhra)) Dhrangadhra 13-gun salute state 1742–1948 India
Dhrol State 9-gun salute state 1595–1948 India
Dhurwai State non-salute state 1690–1950 India
State of DirD(h)ir Dir (or Dhir) non-salute state 19th century–1969 Pakistan
Dungarpur State 15-gun salute state 1197–1947 India
Faridkot State 11-gun salute state 1803–1947 India
Gangpur State non-salute state 1821–1948 India
Garhwal Kingdom Various 11-gun salute state 888–1949 India
Gaurihar State non-salute state 1807–1950 India
Gondal State 11-gun salute state 1634–1949 India
Guler State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1415–1813 India
Gwalior State Gwalior/Laskar 21-gun salute state 1761–1948 India
Hasht-Bhaiya non-salute state 1690–1948 India
Hindol State non-salute state 1554–1948 India
Hunza (princely state) Baltit non-salute state 15th century–1974 Pakistan
Hyderabad State Haydarabad (or Hyderabad) 21-gun salute state 1803–1948 India
Idar State 15-gun salute state c.1257–1948 India
Indore State 19-gun salute state 1818–1948 India
Jafarabad State non-salute state c.1650–1948 India
Jaipur State Jaipur (Jayapura) 17-gun salute state 1128–1949 India
Jaisalmer State Jaisalmir (or Jaisalmer) 15-gun salute state 1156–1947 India
Jaitpur State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1731–1840 India
Jalaun State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1806–1840 India
Jambughoda State non-salute state late 14th century–1948 India
Jamkhandi State non-salute state 1811–1948 India
Jammu and Kashmir (princely state) 21-gun salute state 1846–1952 India
Jando(o)l (Jandul) Barwa non-salute state c. 1830–1948 Pakistan
Janjira State 11-gun salute state 1489–1948 India
Jaoli principality non-salute, annexed by Maratha Empire 17th century India
Jaora State 13-gun salute state 1808–1948 India
Jashpur State non-salute state 18th century–1948 India
Jaso State non-salute state 1732–1948 India
Jasrota non-salute state India
Jaswan State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1170–1849 India
Jath State non-salute state 1686–1948 India
Jawhar State 9-gun salute state 1343–1947 India
Jesar non-salute state India
Jhabua State 11-gun salute state 1584–1948 India
Jhalawar State 13-gun salute state 1838–1949 India
Jhansi State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1804–1858 India
Jigni State non-salute state 1730–1950 India
Jind State 13-gun salute state 1763–1948 India
Jobat State non-salute state 15th century–1948 India
Jodhpur State (Marwar) Jodhpur 17-gun salute state 1250–1949 India
Junagadh State Junagadh 13-gun salute state 1730–1948 India
Kahlur 11-gun salute state 697–1948 India
Kalahandi State 9-gun salute state 1760–1947 India
Kalat Kalat 19-gun salute state 1666–1955 Pakistan
Kalsia non-salute state 1006–1949 India
Kamta-Rajaula State non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Kangra State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 11th century–1846 India
Kanker State Kanker non-salute state up to 1947 India
Kapshi non-salute state mid 17th century–1956 India
Kapurthala State 13-gun salute state 1772–1947 India
Karauli State 17-gun salute state 1348–1949 India
Kawardha State non-salute state 1751–1948 India
Keonjhar State non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Keonthal non-salute state late 18th century–1948 India
Khairagarh State non-salute state 1833–1948 India
Khairpur (princely state) Khayrpur (Khairpur) 15-gun salute state 1775–1955 Pakistan
Khandpara State non-salute state c.1599–1948 India
Khaniadhana State non-salute state 1724–1948 India
State of KharanKharan (princely state) Kharan non-salute state 1697–1955 Pakistan
Kharsawan State non-salute state 1650–1948 India
Khayrpur (princely state) non-salute state 1775–1955 Pakistan
Khilchipur State 9-gun salute state 1544–1948 India
Kishangarh State non-salute state 1611–1948 India
Kochin = Cochi(n) Kochi (Kochin) 17-gun salute state 12th century–1947 India
Kolhapur State 19-gun salute state 1707–1949 India
Koriya non-salute state 16th century–1948 India
Kota State 17-gun salute state 17th century–1949 India
Kotharia, Rajasthan non-salute state c.1527–20th century India
Kotharia, Rajkot non-salute state c.1733–20th century India
Kothi State non-salute state 18th century–1950 India
Kulpahar non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1700–1858 India
Kumharsain non-salute state 15th–1947 India
Kurundvad Junior non-salute state 1733–1948 India
Kurundvad Senior non-salute state 1733–1948 India
Kuthar non-salute state 17th–19th century India
Kutlehar State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 750–1810 India
Lakhtar non-salute state 1604–1947 India
Las Bela (princely state) Bela non-salute state 1742–1955 Pakistan
Lathi State non-salute state 1340–1948 India
Lawa Thikana non-salute state 1772–1947 India
Limbda State non-salute state 1780-1948 India
Limbdi State 9-gun salute state c.1500–1947 India
Loharu State 9-gun salute state 1806–1947 India
Lunavada State 9-gun salute state 1434–1948 India
? Vallavpur ?13 -salute state 1434-1949 India
Maihar State 9-gun salute state 1778–1948 India
Makrai State non-salute state 1663–1948 India
Makran (princely state) Turbat non-salute state 18th century–1955 Pakistan
Malerkotla State 11-gun salute state 1657–1948 India
Malpur State Malpur non-salute state 1466–1943 India
Manda non-salute state 1542–1947 India
Mandi State Mandi 11-gun salute state 1290–1948 India
Manipur Imphal (Bishenpur 1775-1796) 11-gun salute state 1110–1949 India
Mayurbhanj State 9-gun salute state late 17th century–1949 India
Miraj Junior non-salute state 1820–1948 India
Miraj Senior non-salute state 1820–1948 India
Mohammadgarh State non-salute state 1842–1947 India
Mohanpur State Mohanpur non-salute state c.1227–1948 India
Morvi State 11-gun salute state 1698–1948 India
Mudhol State 9-gun salute state 1465–1948 India
Muli State non-salute state India
Mundru non-salute, annexed by the Jaipur State 1621–c.1818 India
Mysore (Mahisur) Bangalore (to 1831 Mysore [Mahisur]), Srirangapatna 21-gun salute state 1399–1950 India
Nabha State 13-gun salute state 1763–1947 India
Nagar (princely state) Nagar non-salute state 14th century–1974 Pakistan
Nagod(h) Nagodh (Nagod) 9-gun salute state 1344–1950 India
Nandgaon State non-salute state 1833–1948 India
Narsinghgarh State 11-gun salute state 1681–1948 India
Narsinghpur State non-salute state 1292–1948 India
Nasvadi non-salute state India
Nawanagar State Jamnagar 13-gun salute state 1540–1948 India
Nayagarh State non-salute state c.1500–1948 India
Nazargunj non-salute state 1899–20th century India
Nilgiri State non-salute state 1125–1949 India
Orchha State 15-gun salute state c.1501–1950 India
Orissa Tributary States non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Oudh State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1732–1858 India
Pahra non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Pal Lahara State non-salute state 11th century–1948 India
Palanpur State non-salute state 1370–1948 India
Paldeo non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Palitana State 9-gun salute state 1194–1948 India
Panna State 11-gun salute state 1731–1950 India
Patdi State Patdi non-salute state 1741–1947 India
Patan, Rajasthan non-salute state 12th–20th century India
Pataudi State non-salute state 1804–1947 India
Pathari State non-salute state 1794–1948 India
Patiala State 17-gun salute state 1627–1948 India
Patna (princely state) 9-gun salute state 1191–1948 India
Pethapur State non-salute state 13th century–1940 India
Phaltan State non-salute state 1284–1948 India
Phulra(h) Phulra(h) non-salute state 1828–1950 Pakistan
Piploda State non-salute state 1547–1948 India
Porbandar State 13-gun salute state 1193–1948 India
Pratapgarh State Pratapgarh (Partabgarh) 15-gun salute state 1425–1949 India
Pudukkottai state 17-gun salute state 1680–1948 India
Punial State non-salute state up to 1974 Pakistan
Radhanpur State 11-gun salute state 1753–1948 India
Raghogarh State non-salute state 1673–1947 India
Raigarh State non-salute state 1625–1947 India
Rairakhol State non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Rajgarh State 11-gun salute state late 15th century–1948 India
Rajgarh State 9-gun salute state late 12th century-1948 India
Rajkot State 9-gun salute state 1620–1948 India
Rajpipla State 13-gun salute state 1340–1948 India
Rajpur, Baroda non-salute state India
Ramdurg State non-salute state 1742–1948 India
Rampur State Rampur 15-gun salute state 1774–1949 India
Ranasan State non-salute state 17th century–1943 India
Ranpur State non-salute state 17th century–1948 India
Ratlam State 13-gun salute state 1652–1948 India
Rewa (princely state) 17-gun salute state c.1790–1948 India
Sachin State 9-gun salute state 1791–1948 India
S(h)ailana Shailana (Sailana) 11-gun salute state 1736–1948 India
Sakti State non-salute state up to 1948 India
Sambalpur State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1493–1848 India
Samthar State 11-gun salute state 1760–1950 India
Sandur State non-salute state 1713–1949 India
Sangli State 9-gun salute state 1782–1948 India
Sant State 9-gun salute state 1255–1948 India
Saraikela State non-salute state 1620–1948 India
Sarangarh State non-salute state up to 1948 India
Sardargarh Bantva non-salute state 1733–1947 India
Savanur State non-salute state 1672–1948 India
Sawantwadi State 9-gun salute state 1627–1948 India
Shahpura State 9-gun salute state 1629–1949 India
Siba State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1450–1849 India
Sirmur State Sirmür 11-gun salute state 1095–1948 India
Sirohi State 15-gun salute state 1405–1949 India
Sitamau State 11-gun salute state 1701–1948 India
Sohawal State non-salute state 1550–1950 India
Somna State non-salute state 19th century–1949 India
Sonepur State 9-gun salute state 1556–1948 India
Suket State 11-gun salute state 765–1948 India
Surgana State non-salute state late 18th century–1948 India
Surguja State non-salute state 1543–1948 India
Swat Saidu Sharif non-salute state 1858–1969 Pakistan
Talcher State non-salute state 12th century–1948 India
Taraon State non-salute state 1812–1948 India
Tekari Raj non-salute state India
Thanjavur Maratha kingdom non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 1674–1855 India
Tigiria State non-salute state 16th century–1948 India
Tonk State non-salute state 1806–1949 India
Torawati non-salute state 12th–20th century India
Tori Fatehpur non-salute state 1690–1950 India
TravancoreTravancore Tiruvidamkodu/Tiruvankur/Travancore) (Padmanabhapuram to 1795) 19-gun salute state 1729–1949 India
Tripura (princely state) (Hill Tipperah) Agartala 13-gun salute state 1809–1949 India
Tulsipur State non-salute, annexed by the British Raj 16th century–1859 India
Udaipur State (Mewar) Udaipur 19-gun salute state 734–1949 India
Udaipur State, Chhattisgarh non-salute state 1818–1948 India
Vala State non-salute state 1740–1948 India
Varsoda non-salute state c.745–1947 India
Vijaynagar State Vijayanagar (previously Ghodasar) non-salute state 1577–1948 India
Vallbhapur State non-salute state 16th century–1948 India
Wadagam State Wadagam non-salute state 18th century–1948 India
Wadhwan State Wadhwan 9-gun salute state 1630–1948 India
Wankaner State (Vankaner) 11-gun salute state 1605–1948 India
Yasin State Yasin non-salute state c1640–c1972 Pakistan


See also: List of Indonesian monarchies

 Indonesia is a republic, however several provinces or regencies preserves their own monarchy, although only Special Region of Yogyakarta that retain actual administrative authority, the rest only holds cultural significance.


Although the  Philippines is a republic, the Southern Philippines have retained their monarchical traditions and are protected under the Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act of 1997.

See also


  1. ^ Wilhelm von Pochhammer, India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent (1981) ch 57