Federation of South Arabia
اتحاد الجنوب العربي
Ittiḥād al-Janūb al-‘Arabī
Flag of South Arabia
Emblem of South Arabia
StatusBritish protectorate
Common languagesArabic
South Arabian
GovernmentFederal monarchy
High Commissioner 
• 1963
Sir Charles Johnston
• 1963–1964
Sir Kennedy Trevaskis
• 1964–1967
Sir Richard Turnbull
• 1967
Sir Humphrey Trevelyan
Chief Minister 
• 1963
Hassan Ali Bayumi
• 1963–1965
Zayn Abdu Baharun
• 1965
Abdul-Qawi Hassan Makkawi
• 1965–1966
Ali Musa al-Babakr
• 1966–1967
Salih al-Awadli
Historical eraCold War
• Established
4 April 1962
• Independence
30 November 1967
CurrencySouth Arabian dinar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Colony of Aden
Federation of Arab Emirates of the South
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate
South Yemen
Map of the Federation and the Protectorate of South Arabia.
Military event held in the Fadhli Sultanate to celebrate the new Federation

The Federation of South Arabia (FSA; Arabic: اتحاد الجنوب العربي Ittiḥād al-Janūb al-‘Arabī) was a federal state under British protection in what would become South Yemen. Its capital was Aden.[1]


Originally formed on April 4, 1962 from 15 states of the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South. On January 18, 1963, the Royal Colony of Aden joined it. After the annexation of the Upper Aulaki Sultanate in June 1964, the federation included 17 states.

Halfway between Sheikh Othman and Little Aden, the capital of the Federation of South Arabia (FSA), Al-Ittihad, was built in the desert. The distances between the regions were great: from Mualla (Aden region) to Sheikh Othman - 8 kilometers, to Little Aden - 13 kilometers.[2]

On July 23, 1962, negotiations began in London between the British Minister of Colonies, Duncan Sandys, and the ministers of the Federation of South Arabia and the Colony of Aden. The parties raised the issue of the constitutional status of Aden and the conditions for its entry into the federation. Numerous parties and organizations in Aden protested against these negotiations, declaring that the colonial ministers did not have the right to decide the fate of the population of Aden and that only the national government of Aden, created by general elections, would be competent to decide the question of a union with the federation. To achieve all this, it was necessary to eliminate its dependence on England. Representatives of the opposition, led by the Aden Trade Union Congress, said that any union concluded against the will of the people of Aden would be dissolved at the first opportunity. On the day the London negotiations began, a protest strike was declared in Aden. The Aden Trade Union Congress called for this strike, despite the fact that Aden had had a law prohibiting strikes since 1960, and violators were subject to imprisonment.[3][4]

On August 16, 1962, negotiations ended with the signing of an agreement, according to which Aden, while remaining under British sovereignty, was to become part of the Federation of South Arabia on March 1, 1963. The agreement provided that the federation agreement, signed on February 11, 1959, will remain in force, and the new agreement will be only an addition to it.[5] During these negotiations, agreement was also reached to introduce minor changes to the constitutional status of Aden once it became part of the federation.[6]

In 1965, the British temporarily removed the government of the Federation of South Arabia and imposed direct colonial rule.[7]

In 1966, the federation team took part in the Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. The Federation was dissolved following independence along with the Protectorate of South Arabia and the formation of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on November 30, 1967.


Flag Name Established Joined Notes
State of Aden 1963
Alawi Sheikhdom unknown
Aqrabi Sheikhdom 1770
Audhali Sultanate 18th century
Emirate of Beihan 1680
Dathina Sheikhdom 18th century
Emirate of Dhala early 19th century
Fadhli Sultanate 17th century
Haushabi Sultanate 18th century
Sultanate of Lahej 1728 1872 formerly ruled over Aden
Lower Aulaqi Sultanate 18th century
Sultanate of Lower Yafa ca. 1800
Muflahi Sheikhdom 1850
Sheikhdom of Shaib 18th century
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom 18th century
Upper Aulaqi Sultanate 18th century
Wahidi Sultanate 1830 consisted originally of four sub-sultanates: Wahidi Balhaf, Wahidi Azzan, Wahidi Bir Ali, Wahidi Haban

List of rulers

State Last Ruler Deposed House Reign Ref(s)
Alawi Salih ibn Sayil 28 August 1967 Al Alawi Last reigning Sheikh (1940–1967). [8]
Aqrabi Mahmud ibn Muhammad 28 August 1967 Al Aqrabi Last reigning Sheikh (1957–1967). [8]
Audhali Salih ibn al-Husayn 17 September 1967 Al Audhali Last reigning Sultan (1928–1967). [8]
Lower Aulaqi Nasir ibn Aidrus 29 November 1967 Al Awlaqi Last reigning Sultan (1947–1967). [8]
Upper Aulaqi Awad ibn Salih 29 November 1967 Al Awlaqi Last reigning Sultan (1935–1967). [8]
Beihan Saleh bin al-Husayn 28 August 1967 Al Habieli Last reigning Emir (1935–1967). [8]
Dhala Shafaul ibn Ali Shaif 17 August 1967 Al Amiri Last reigning Emir (1954–1967). [8]
Fadhli Nasir bin Abdullah 29 November 1967 Al Fadhli Last reigning Sultan (1964–1967). [8]
Haushabi Faisal bin Surur 29 November 1967 Al Haushabi Last reigning Sultan (1955–1967). [8]
Lahej Fadhl VI bin Ali 17 August 1967 [as 1] Al Abdali Last reigning Sultan (1958–1967). [8]
Wahidi Balhaf[as 2] Ali ibn Muhammad 17 August 1967[as 3] Al Wahidi Last governing Hakim (1967). [8]
Wahidi Bir Ali Alawi ibn Salih 29 November 1967[as 4] Last reigning Sultan (1955–1967). [8]
Wahidi Haban Husayn ibn Abdullah 29 November 1967[as 5] Last reigning Sultan (until 1967). [8]
Lower Yafa Mahmud ibn Aidrus 28 August 1967[as 6] Al Afifi[as 7] Last reigning Sultan (1954–1967). [8]
  1. ^ Prior to his formal ascension to the throne, he had served as prince regent since 10 July 1958.[8]
  2. ^ Known as Balhaf and Azzan from 1881, signifying Balhaf's merge with Wahidi Azzan. Known simply as Wahidi from 1962, when the sultanates of Wahidi Bir Ali and Wahidi Haban were made subordinate.[8]
  3. ^ Prince Ali held the position of hakim (regent) from 20 February 1967 until the sultanate's abolition in August of the same year. He was never crowned sultan.[8]
  4. ^ Alawi previously reigned as sultan from 1955 until the monarchy was abolished in 1967. Before his reign ended, he was made subordinate to the Sultan of Balhaf and Azzan on 23 October 1962.[8]
  5. ^ Husayn had previously reigned as sultan prior to the monarchy's abolition in 1967. Before his reign ended, he was made subordinate to the Sultan of Balhaf and Azzan on 23 October 1962.[8]
  6. ^ Mahmud previously reigned as sultan from 1954 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967. His reign was not initially recognised by the British government, which continued to recognise his still-living father and predecessor as sultan until 1958.[8]
  7. ^ A clan of the Yafa tribe. The Yafai are divided into ten sheikhdoms that were spread across the former sultanates of Lower Yafa and Upper Yafa.[9]

Chief Ministers

High Commissioners

Main article: List of British representatives at Aden

Postage stamps

Two values of the 1965 definitives used at Aden

The Federation issued its own Adeni postage stamps from 1963 to 1966. Most of its issues were part of the omnibus issues common to all the Commonwealth territories, but it did issue its own definitive stamps on 1 April 1965. The set of 14 included 10 values, from 5 to 75 fils, each depicting the arms of the Federation in a single color, while the top four values (100 fils, 250 fils, 500 fils, and 1 dinar), featured the flag of the Federation.

The stamps referred to above are those listed in the Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalog. A number of other stamps have also been issued and are listed in Stanley Gibbons and other widely used stamp catalogs. It is possible, or even likely, that some of the stamps of South Arabia were not issued primarily for postal use.

See also


  1. ^ Parliament Building in Al Ittihad, the capital of the Federation of South Arabia
  2. ^ "LiveJournal >> Аден / Последняя битва Империи – Нортумберлендские фузилёры в Кратере". Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  3. ^ «The Times» (24.VII.1962), p. 8.
  4. ^ «Aden Chronicle» (July 12, 1962), p. 1.
  5. ^ «Aden Chronicle» (August 23, 1962), p. 3.
  6. ^ «Aden Chronicle» (October 4, 1962), pp. 1, 28.
  7. ^ Dean, Lucy (2004). "The Middle East and North Africa". Издание 2004 года. Routledge. Страница 1211. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Cahoon, Ben. "States of the Aden Protectorates". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  9. ^ A Collection of First World War Military Handbooks of Arabia, 1913–1917. Vol. 3. Archive Editions. 1988. pp. 84–93. ISBN 978-1-85207-086-1.

Further reading

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