County (Principality) of Schaumburg-Lippe
Grafschaft (Fürstentum) Schaumburg-Lippe
1647–1918
Flag of Schaumburg-Lippe
Flag
Coat of arms of Schaumburg-Lippe
Coat of arms
Anthem: Heil unserm Fürsten, heil
Hail to our Prince, hail!
Schaumburg-Lippe within the German Empire
Schaumburg-Lippe within the German Empire
Location of Schaumburg-Lippe
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire(1789-1806)
State of the Confederation of the Rhine(1806-1813)
State of the German Confederation(1815-1866)
State of the North German Confederation(1867-1871)
State of the German Empire(1871-1918)
CapitalBückeburg
GovernmentPrincipality
Prince 
• 1807–1860
George William (first)
• 1911–1918
Adolf II (last)
Historical eraEarly modern Europe
• Partitioned from
    Schaumburg
1647
• Inherited
    Lippe-Alverdissen
 
1777
• Raised to principality
1807
1918
• Merged into
    Lower Saxony
 
1946
Population
• 1861
29,000[1]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Schaumburg County of Schaumburg
Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe

Schaumburg-Lippe, also called Lippe-Schaumburg, was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807 and a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg and an area of 340 km2 (131 sq mi) and over 40,000 inhabitants.

History

Schaumburg-Lippe was formed as a county in 1647 through the division of the County of Schaumburg by treaties between the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and the Count of Lippe. The division occurred because Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg had died in 1640 leaving no male heir. Initially Schaumburg-Lippe's position was somewhat precarious: it had to share a wide variety of institutions and facilities with the County of Schaumburg (which belonged to Hesse-Kassel), including the representative assembly and the highly productive Bückeberg mines, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel retained some feudal rights over it. It was further threatened by the headstrong policies of the ruling Count, Frederick Christian. To counter these threats, Friedrich's grandson, Count William (who reigned 1748–1777), retained a standing army of up to 1000 troops – quite a lot for such a small territory.

With William's death in 1777, the junior Schaumburg-Lippe-Alverdissen inherited the county, thereby reuniting Schaumburg-Lippe with Lippe-Alverdissen.

German cartoon from 1834 poking fun at the microscopic size of Schaumburg-Lippe

Schaumburg-Lippe was a county until 1807 when it became a principality; from 1871 it was a state within the German Empire. In 1913, it was the least populous state in the German Empire.[2] The capital was Bückeburg, while Stadthagen was the only other town. Under the constitution of 1868, there was a legislative diet of 15 members with ten elected by the towns and rural districts, one each by the nobility, clergy and educated classes and the remaining two nominated by the prince. Schaumburg-Lippe sent one member to the Bundesrat (federal council) and one deputy to the Reichstag.[3] The principality lasted until the end of the German monarchies in 1918, when it became a free state as the Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe. In November 1918, Prince Adolf was the penultimate German monarch to abdicate.

Rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe

Bückeburg Palace, former residence of the ruling princes, still owned by the princely family
Princely standard.

For the rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe, see House of Lippe § Rulers of Lippe.

See also: Bückeburg § Aristocracy

See also

References

  1. ^ A Treatise on Modern Geography, in which are Presented, Under Distinct Heads, the Natural Features, Productions, Zoology, and History of the Various Countries Throughout the World. Dublin: Congregation of the Christian Brothers. 1861. p. 121.
  2. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Schaumburg-Lippe" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schaumburg-Lippe" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.