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Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Fürstentum Waldeck und Pyrmont
Flag of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Top: Flag
(before 1830)
Bottom: Flag
(after 1830)
Coat of arms of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Mein Waldeck"
Waldeck (red) within the German Empire. The small northern territory is Pyrmont while the southern lands are Waldeck.
Waldeck (red) within the German Empire. The small northern territory is Pyrmont while the southern lands are Waldeck.
Map of Waldeck, showing the border between Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau
Map of Waldeck, showing the border between Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire
State of the Confederation of the Rhine
State of the German Confederation
State of the North German Confederation
State of the German Empire
CapitalWaldeck (to 1655)
Arolsen (from 1655)
51°22′N 9°1′E / 51.367°N 9.017°E / 51.367; 9.017
Common languagesGerman
United Protestant: Evangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmont
• 1712–1728
Friedrich Anton Ulrich (first)
• 1893–1918
Friedrich (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Established as a County
• Became Reichsgraf (immediate count)
• Succeeded to Pyrmont
• Raised to Imp. Principality
January 1712
• Administered by Prussia
• Subsumed into Prussia
• 1848
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Schwalenberg
County of Pyrmont
Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont
Today part ofGermany

The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929. In 1349 the county gained Imperial immediacy and in 1712 was raised to the rank of principality. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 it was a constituent state of its successors: the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation, the North German Confederation, and the German Empire. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1918, the renamed Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont became a component of the Weimar Republic until divided between Hannover and other Prussian provinces in 1929. It comprised territories in present-day Hesse and Lower Saxony (Germany).


Coat of arms of the counts of Waldeck (1349–1712)
Government bond of the Principality Waldeck and Pyrmont, issued 1 January 1863

The noble family of the Counts of Waldeck [de] and the later Princes of Waldeck and Pyrmont were male line descendants of the Counts of Schwalenberg [de] (based at Schwalenberg Castle), ultimately descendent from Widekind I of Schwalenberg [de] (reigned 1127-1136/7). Waldeck Castle, overlooking the Eder river at Waldeck, is first attested in 1120. A branch of the family was named after the castle in 1180, when Volkwin II of Schwalenberg [de] acquired the castle through his marriage with Luitgard, daughter of Count Poppo I [de] of Reichenbach [de] and Hollende [de], who was heiress of Waldeck. Over time, the family built up a small lordship in modern day North Hesse.

County of Waldeck

Initially, Waldeck was a fief of the Electorate of Mainz. In 1379, it became the County of Reichslehen.[2] After the death of Count Henry VI in 1397, the family split into two lines: the senior Landau line founded by Adolph III and the junior Waldeck line founded by Henry VII, which sometimes feuded with one another. The two lines came under the sovereignty of the Landgraviate of Hesse in 1431 and 1438 respectively, due to financial difficulties and the final victory of the Landgraviate over Mainz in 1427, which led to the transfer of the County of Ziegenhain [de] to Hesse. The Landgraves levied tribute on the Counts of Waldeck in exchange for forgiving their debts to them and taking on all their debts to others.[3]

After the death of Henry VIII in 1486, the Waldeck line split once more, into the Waldeck-Wildungen and Waldeck-Eisenberg lines. The senior Landau line ended with the death of Otto IV in 1495 and its possessions passed to the Wildungen and Eisenberg lines. In 1526 and 1529, Philip IV of Waldeck-Wildungen and Philip III of Waldeck-Eisenberg converted their respective principalities to Lutheranism. Several partitions led to the creation of further lines, but these were reunited by the new Wildung line in 1692.

In 1626, the family also inherited the County of Pyrmont [de] and thereafter called themselves "Counts of Waldeck and Pyrmont." The two counties of Waldeck and Pyrmont were physically separated and were not united into a single legal entity until the 19th century.

In 1639, Count Philip Dietrich of Waldeck from the new Eisenberg line, inherited the County of Culemborg in Gelderland along with the counties of Werth (Isselburg) [de] in Münsterland, Pallandt [de], and Wittem. The Lordship of Tonna in Thüringen, a fief of the Dukes of Saxe-Altenburg was inherited by Waldeck-Pyrmont in 1640, but sold to Duke Frederick I of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg in 1677. Waldeck remained the main residence of the county until 1655, when the residence was shifted from Waldeck to Arolsen. Philip Dietrich was succeeded in 1664 by his brother Count George Frederick, whose full title was "Count and Lord of Waldeck, Pyrmont, and Cuylenburg, Lord of Tonna, Paland, Wittem, Werth." In 1682, he was promoted by Emperor Leopold I to the status of "Prince of Waldeck", with Imperial immediacy. His four sons all predeceased him, so on 12 June 1685, he made a contract with his cousin, Christian Louis of the new Wildung line, to transfer the whole Waldeck patrimony to him and for it to be inherited by primogeniture thereafter. This agreement was confirmed by Emperor Leopold in 1697. After George Frederick's death in 1692, Christian Louis became the sole ruler of the entire principality.

The County of Cuylenburg and the Lordship of Werth were lost in 1714, owing to the marriage of George Frederick's second daughter, Sophia Henriette (1662-1702) to Ernest of Saxe-Hildeburghausen.

Principality of Waldeck (1712-1848)

On 6 January 1712, Frederick Anthony Ulrich of Waldeck and Pyrmont was elevated to prince by Emperor Charles VI. During the American War of Independence from 1775 to 1783, Prince Frederick Carl Augustus provided three regiments to the British for the war in America in exchange for payment. A total of 1,225 Waldeck soldiers fought in America.

The principality was caught up in the Napoleonic Wars and in 1807 it joined the Confederation of the Rhine,[4] but not the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. Waldeck was required to guarantee equal rights of worship to its Catholic citizens and supply 400 soldiers in case of a campaign. For a brief period, from 1806 until 1812, Pyrmont was a separate principality as a result of the partition of the territory between the brothers Frederick and George, but the territories were reunited after Frederick's death.

The independence of the principality was confirmed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, and Waldeck and Pyrmont became a member of the German Confederation. In 1832 it joined the Zollverein. In 1847, on Prussian initiative, the sovereignty of Hesse-Kassel over Waldeck (and Schaumburg-Lippe) was finally revoked by the Federal Convention of the Confederation. This had been the case defacto since Waldeck joined the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, but the ruling meant that Hesse-Kassel lost the right to claim the territory in escheat.

Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1849-1918)

Since 1645, Waldeck had been in a personal union with the County (later Principality) of Pyrmont [de]. Beginning in 1813, the prince strove to unite the two territories legally into the Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont. However, political opposition meant that this did not take place until 1849. Even after the unification, Pyrmont retained its own tiny Landtag for budgetary matters until 1863/64. In 1849-1850, Waldeck was divided into three districts: the District of the Eder [de], the of Eisenberg [de] and the District of the Twiste [de].

Fundamental law of the Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont, 23 May 1849 (excerpts)
Waldeck in 1905

On 1 August 1862, Waldeck-Pyrmont concluded a military convention with Prussia. As a result, Waldeck-Pyrmont fought on the Prussian side in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and thus avoided annexation at the war's end - unlike the neighbouring Electorate of Hesse. However, the small, cash-strapped principality could not afford to pay its contributions to the new North German Confederation, so the principality's Landtag unanimously voted to reject the North German Constitution in order to pressure the prince into signing an accession treaty Prussia. Bismarck had previously ruled out unification with Prussia on grounds of prestige. Therefore, under the treaty that Waldeck-Pyrmont and Prussia signed in October 1867, the principality remained nominally independent and retained its legislative sovereignty, but from 1 January 1868 Prussian took control of the principality's state deficit, internal administration, judiciary, and schools. Thereafter, Prussia appointed a State Director formally with the agreement of the prince. Appellate jurisdiction for Waldeck was exercised by the Prussian state court (Landgericht) in Kassel and for Pyrmont by the state court in Hannover. The prince retained control over the administration of the church, the prerogative of mercy, and the right of veto over new laws. He also continued to receive the income from his domains.[5] Prussian administration served to reduce administrative costs for the small state and was based on a ten-year contract that was repeatedly renewed for the duration of its existence. The situation continued in 1871, when the principality became a constituent state of the new German Empire. In 1905, Waldeck and Pyrmont had an area of 1121 km2 and a population of 59,000.

The princely house of Waldeck and Pyrmont is closely related to the royal family of the Netherlands. The last ruling prince, Frederick, was the brother of Queen Consort Emma of the Netherlands.

Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont (1919-1929)

Main article: Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont

On 13 November 1918, at the end of World War I, during the German Revolution that resulted in the fall of all the German monarchies, a representative of the revolutionary workers' and soldiers' council of Kassel came to Waldeck and declared that the monarchy was abolished. The principality became the Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont within the Weimar Republic. However, no new constitution was produced, so the monarchical constitution of 1849/1852 remained in force de jure until 1929.[6] The terms of the treaty with Prussia also remained in force. Following a referendum, Pyrmont was separated from Waldeck on 30 November 1921 and joined Prussia, becoming part of the new Hameln-Pyrmont district of the Province of Hanover.[7] After this, the territory was simply the Free State of Waldeck.

The remaining territory continued to be governed according to the 1867 treaty with Prussia until it was cancelled in 1926. On 9 April 1927, the federal Financial Equalisation act (Finanzausgleichsgesetz) was amended. For Waldeck, this meant that its allocation of federal tax income was reduced by almost 600,000 Reichsmarks. Without a massive rise in local taxes, the Free State was no longer financially viable. Therefore on 1 April 1929, the state was abolished and became part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. This marked the end of Waldeck's existence as a sovereign state.

Developments since 1929

When Waldeck joined Prussia in 1929, the three districts into which Waldeck had been divided in 1849-1850 (Eder, Eisenberg, and Twiste) were initially retained. Additionally, Höringhausen and Eimelrod, which had been exclaves of Prussia surrounded by Waldeck since 1866, were joined to Eisenberg district. In 1932, the federal government merged Eder and Eisenberg districts. The district of the Twiste was to be merged with the neighbouring district of Wolfhagen on 1 April 1934, but this was delayed after the Nazi seizure of power in 1933. A law of 28 February 1934 reversed the merger of Eder and Eisenberg and definitively cancelled the planned merger of Twiste and Wolfhagen.

On 1 February 1942, the three districts of Waldeck were merged into the new Waldeck district [de], which had its capital at Korbach. This new district had roughly the same borders as the old Free State. It was made part of Greater Hesse in 1945, which became the state of Hesse in the modern Federal Republic of Germany in 1946. On 1 August 1972, the city of Volkmarsen was separated from the district of Wolfhagen and reassigned to Waldeck. During the reform of the districts of Hesse in 1974, Waldeck was merged with the neighbouring district of Frankeberg to from the new district of Waldeck-Frankenberg, while the city of Züschen became a suburb of Fritzlar in Schwalm-Eder-Kreis.


Waldeck had raised a battalion of infantry in 1681 but for much of the subsequent history leading up to the Napoleonic Wars, Waldeckers generally served as what is commonly described as 'mercenaries', but was actually 'auxiliaries' hired out by the rulers of Waldeck for foreign service. Such was the demand that the single battalion became two in 1740 (the 1st Regiment), three battalions in 1744, four in 1767 (forming a 2nd Regiment). Most notably the foreign service was with the Dutch (the 1st and 2nd Regiments) and British (after an agreement was signed with Great Britain in 1776 to supply troops for the American War of Independence, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment, of a single battalion, was raised). The 3rd Waldeck Regiment thus served in America, where they were known under the 'umbrella term' used during that conflict for all Germans—'Hessians'. The regiment, which was made up of 4 'Battalion companies', a 'Grenadier' company, staff and a detachment of artillery, was captured by French and Spanish troops supporting the Americans and only a small number returned to Germany, where some formed part of a newly raised 5th Battalion (1784).

By the time of Napoleon's conquest of Germany, the Waldeck regiments in Dutch service had been dissolved when, as the Batavian Republic, the country was made into a kingdom ruled by Napoleon's brother Louis. Reduced to battalion strength, they now formed the 3rd battalions of the 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments of the Kingdom of Holland. The 5th Battalion was disbanded, and Waldeck was now also obliged to provide two companies to the II Battalion, 6th German Confederation (i.e., Confederation of the Rhine) Regiment (along with two companies from Reuß) in the service of the French Empire. As with all French infantry, they were referred to as 'Fusiliers'. They served mainly in the Peninsular War against the Duke of Wellington. In 1812, the 6th Confederation Regiment was re-formed, with three companies from Waldeck and one from Reuß again forming the II Battalion. By the time of the downfall of the French Empire in 1814 the battalions in Dutch service had disappeared, but Waldeck now supplied three Infantry and one Jäger Companies to the newly formed German Confederation.

Cockade of Waldeck, worn on a Pickelhaube

By 1866, the Waldeck contingent was styled Fürstlisches Waldecksches Füselier-Bataillon, and in the Austro-Prussian War of that year Waldeck (already in a military convention with Prussia from 1862) allied with the Prussians; however the battalion saw no action. Joining the North German Confederation after 1867, under Prussian leadership, the Waldeck Fusilier Battalion became the III (Fusilier) Battalion of the Prussian Infantry Regiment von Wittich (3rd Electoral Hessian) No. 83, and as such it remained until 1918. The position of regimental 'Chef' (an honorary title) was held by the Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.

Unlike Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) retained no distinctions to differentiate them from the Prussian. The Waldeckers however, were permitted the distinction of carrying the Cockade of Waldeck on the Pickelhaube. The Waldeck battalion was garrisoned, at various times, at Arolsen/Mengeringhausen/Helsen, Bad Wildungen, Bad Pyrmont and Warburg.

The regiment saw action in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 (where it acquired the nickname Das Eiserne Regiment), and during the First World War—as part of the 22nd Division—fought mainly on the Eastern Front.

Gallery of castles

Rulers of Waldeck

Partitions of Waldeck under Waldeck rule

       County of

County of

County of

County of

County of

(1st creation)
       Waldeck renamed
County of Wildungen
(1st creation, Waldeck line)
       Inherited by
Spiegelberg family
House of Lippe
Gleichen family
County of

(2nd creation)
County of

Raised to
Principality of

County of Wildungen
(2nd creation, Eisenberg line)
County of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(Wildungen (Eisenberg) line)
Raised to
Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
County of


Table of rulers

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Widekind I c.1090?
Nephew of Bernard, Count of Hardenhausen
1107 – 11 June 1137 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg until 1127)
Lutrud of Itter
(d. bef. 2 March 1149)
five children
11 June 1137
aged 46-47?
Brothers and first known ruling members of the family.
Volkwin I c.1090?
Nephew of Bernard, Count of Hardenhausen
1107-1111 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg)
Unknown c.1111
aged c.20-21?
Regency of Lutrud of Itter (1137-1139) Children of Widekind, divided their inheritance.
Volkwin II 1125
First son of Widekind I and Lutrud of Itter
11 June 1137 – 1178 County of Waldeck Luitgard of Reichenbach
(d. aft. 1161)
(annulled 1161)
five children
aged 52-53
Widekind II 1148
Second son of Widekind I and Lutrud of Itter
1178-1189 County of Pyrmont Unknown
three children
aged 40-41
Widekind III 1162
First son of Volkwin II and Luitgard of Reichenbach
1178-1190 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg)
three children
aged 27-28
Sons of Volkwin II, divided the inheritance, but most of it was quickly reunited with Waldeck.
Herman I 1163
Second son of Volkwin II and Luitgard of Reichenbach
1178-1225 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg)
Unmarried 1225
aged 61-62
Henry I c.1165
Third son of Volkwin II and Luitgard of Reichenbach
1178-1214 County of Waldeck Heseke of Dassel
(d. 25 July 1220)
five children
aged 48-49
Schwalenberg annexed to Waldeck
Gottschalk I c.1170?
Son of Widekind II
1189-1247 County of Pyrmont Kunigunde of Limmer
six children
aged 76-77?
Adolph I c.1190
First son of Henry I and Heseke of Dassel
1214 – 3 October 1270 County of Waldeck Sophie
two children

Ethelind of Lippe
14 February 1254
no children
3 October 1270
aged 79-80?
Children of Henry I, divided the land. Adolph associated his eldest son to his rule, but he predeceased him.
Henry III[8] 1225
Son of Adolph I and Sophie
c.1250-1267 Matilda of Cuyk-Arnsberg
four children
aged 41-42
Volkwin III c.1190
Second son of Henry I and Heseke of Dassel
1214-1255 County of Schwalenberg Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(d.22 March 1274)
14 February 1254
twelve children
aged 64-65
Gottschalk II c.1220?
First son of Gottschalk I and Kunigunde of Limmer
1247-1262 County of Pyrmont Beatrice of Hallermund
five children
aged 41-42
Children of Gottschalk I, ruled jointly.
Herman I c.1220?
Second son of Gottschalk I and Kunigunde of Limmer
1247 – May 1265 Hedwig
(d.20 June 1262)
two children
May 1265
aged 44-45
Widekind I c.1240
First son of Volkwin III and Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
1255 – 28 September 1264 County of Schwalenberg Unknown
c. 1246

c. 1250

c. 1260

two children (in total)
28 September 1264
aged 23-24
Elder children of Volkwin III, divided the land. Widekind didn't have children and his part was inherited by his younger brothers, while Henry I ruled independently at Sternberg and passed it to his own descendants.
Henry I c.1240
Second son of Volkwin III and Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
1255-1279 County of Sternberg ? of Woldenberg
two children
aged 38-39
Adolph c.1250?
Third son of Volkwin III and Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
28 September 1264 – 26 January 1305 County of Schwalenberg Adelaide
(d.6 July 1274)

(d.1 April 1305)
26 January 1305
aged 54-55
Younger children of Volkwin III, ruled jointly in Schwalenberg.
Albert c.1250?
Fourth son of Volkwin III and Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
28 September 1264 – 1317 Jutta of Rosdorf
(d.aft.1 April 1305)
14 February 1254
twelve children
aged 66-67?
Herman II c.1240?
First son of Gottschalk II and Beatrice of Hallermund
May 1265 – 25 November 1328 County of Pyrmont Luitgard of Waldeck-Schwalenberg
(d.14 September 1317)
five children
25 November 1328
aged 87-88?
Children of Gottschalk II and Herman I, ruled jointly. Herman III was a son of Herman I, and cousin of the other two rulers, sons of Gottschalk I.
Gottschalk III c.1240?
Second son of Gottschalk II and Beatrice of Hallermund
May 1265 – 1279 Unmarried 1279
aged 38-39?
Herman III c.1240?
Third son of Gottschalk II and Beatrice of Hallermund
c.1265 c.1265
aged 24-25?
Adolph II 1258
First son of Henry III and Matilda of Cuyk-Arnsberg
3 October 1270 – 1276 County of Waldeck Unmarried 13 December 1302
aged 43-44
Abdicated in 1276 to his brother Otto, after a dispute with him and his other brothers on who would marry Sophia of Hesse, daughter of Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse, which Otto won, resulting in Adolph's resignation. Entering in clergy, Adolph eventually became Bishop of Liège (1301-1302).
Otto I 1262
Third son of Henry III and Matilda of Cuyk-Arnsberg
1276 – 11 November 1305 County of Waldeck Sophia of Hesse
nine children
11 November 1305
aged 42-43
Inherited the county as prize from his brothers after being chosen to marry Sophia of Hesse.
Hoyer I 1252
Son of Henry I and ? of Woldenberg
1279 – 28 October 1299 County of Sternberg Agnes of Lippe
five children
28 October 1299
aged 46-47
Henry II c.1270?
Son of Hoyer I and Agnes of Lippe
28 October 1299 – 8 January 1318 County of Sternberg Jutta of Tecklenburg
(d.bef. 8 January 1318)
five children
8 January 1318
aged 47-48
Henry IV[9] 1282
Son of Otto I and Sophia of Hesse
11 November 1305 – 1 May 1348 County of Waldeck Adelaide of Cleves
six children
1 May 1348
aged 65-66
Henry II[10] 1287
Son of Albert and Jutta of Rosdorf
1317 – 11 April 1349 County of Schwalenberg Elisabeth of Wölpe
(d. 2 February 1336)
nine children

Matilda of Rietberg
(d.25 April 1400)
one child
11 April 1349
aged 61-62
Henry III c.1290
First son of Henry II and Jutta of Tecklenburg
8 January 1318 – 1346 County of Sternberg Hedwig of Diepholz
bef.14 September 1330
four children
aged 55-56
Children of Hoyer II, ruled jointly.
Hoyer II c.1290
Second son of Henry II and Jutta of Tecklenburg
8 January 1318 – 1320 Unmarried 1320
aged 29-30
Gottschalk IV 1289
First son of Herman II and Luitgard of Waldeck- Schwalenberg
25 November 1328 – 24 February 1342 County of Pyrmont Adelaide of Homburg
(d.11 October 1341)
six children
24 February 1342 Children of Herman II, ruled jointly.
Henry I c.1290
Second son of Herman II and Luitgard of Waldeck- Schwalenberg
25 November 1328 – c.1330 Unmarried c.1330
Herman IV 1310
Third son of Herman II and Luitgard of Waldeck- Schwalenberg
25 November 1328 – 1334 1334
aged 23-24
Henry II c.1320?
First son of Gottschalk IV and Adelaide of Homburg
24 February 1342 – 1390 County of Pyrmont Unknown
three children
aged 69-70
Children of Gottschalk IV, ruled jointly.
Gottschalk V c.1320?
Second son of Gottschalk IV and Adelaide of Homburg
24 February 1342 – 1355 Unmarried 1355
aged 34-35?
Herman V c.1320?
Third son of Gottschalk IV and Adelaide of Homburg
24 February 1342 – 1360 Oda
no children/
three children
aged 39-40?
Herman VI c.1320?
Fourth son of Gottschalk IV and Adelaide of Homburg
24 February 1342 – 1377 Unmarried 1377
aged 56-57?
Henry IV c.1330
Son of Henry III and Hedwig of Diepholz
1346-1385 County of Sternberg Adelaide of Holstein-Pinneberg
(c.1330-bef. 21 May 1376)
two children
aged 54-55?
Otto II c.1305
Son of Henry IV and Adelaide of Cleves
1 May 1348 – 11 November 1369 County of Waldeck Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
27 August 1339
two children

Margaret of Löwenberg
no children
11 November 1369
aged 63-64
Henry III c.1330
Son of Henry II and Elisabeth of Wölpe
11 April 1349 – 1356 County of Schwalenberg Unmarried 1369
aged 38-39
Sold his estates to Waldeck in 1356, and pursued a religious life.
Schwalenberg reabsorbed in Waldeck
Henry VI of Iron[11] c.1340
Son of Otto II and Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
11 November 1369 – 16 February 1397 County of Waldeck Elizabeth of Berg
16 December 1363
seven children
16 February 1397
aged 56-57
John c.1350
Son of Henry IV and Adelaide of Holstein-Pinneberg
1385-1402 County of Sternberg Unmarried 1402
aged 51-52
Left no heirs. The county was annexed to Waldeck.
Sternberg annexed to Waldeck
Henry III c.1360?
Son of Henry II
1390-1429 County of Pyrmont Pelek
two children

Haseke of Spiegelberg
(d.22 March 1465)
two children
aged 68-69?
Adolph III c.1365
First son of Henry VI and Elizabeth of Berg
16 February 1397 – 19 April 1431 County of Landau Agnes of Ziegenhain
(d.aft.26 December 1438)
one child
19 April 1431
aged 65-66
Children of Henry VI, divided the land.
Henry VII[12] c.1370
Second son of Henry VI and Elizabeth of Berg
16 February 1397 – 1445 County of Waldeck Margaret of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein
27 August 1398
three children
aged 74-75
Henry IV c.1410?
Son of Henry III and Pelek
1429-1478 County of Pyrmont Unmarried 1478
aged 67-68?
Children of Henry III, ruled jointly.
Maurice 1418
Son of Henry III and Haseke of Spiegelberg
1429-1494 Margaret of Nassau-Beilstein
(d.27 December 1498)
no children
aged 75-76?
Inherited by the Spiegelberg family (1494-1557), the House of Lippe (1557-1583) and the Gleichen family (1583-1625)
Definitely annexed to Waldeck-Wildungen (from 1625)
Otto III 1389
Son of Adolph III and Agnes of Ziegenhain
19 April 1431 – 1459 County of Landau Anna of Oldenburg
(d.aft.7 April 1438)
three children
aged 69-70
Wolrad I 1399
Son of Henry VII and Margaret of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein
c.1445-1475 County of Waldeck Barbara of Wertheim
Bef.9 March 1440
three children
aged 75-76
Otto IV 1440
Son of Otto III and Anna of Oldenburg
1459 – 14 October 1495 County of Landau Matilda of Neuenahr
(d.26 May 1465)
16 January 1464
one child

Elisabeth of Tecklenburg
no children
14 October 1495
Bad Arolsen
aged 54-55
Landau annexed by Eisenberg
Philip I 1445
First son of Wolrad I and Barbara of Wertheim
1475 County of Waldeck Joanne of Nassau-Siegen
16 August 1452 or
14 October 1464
one child
aged 29-30
Children of Wolrad I. Philip I died months after his father, and Philip II ruled as regent of his nephew.
Philip II 3 March 1453
Second son of Wolrad I and Barbara of Wertheim
1475 – 16 October 1524 County of Eisenberg Catherine of Solms-Lich
(1458-12 December 1492)
3 November 1478
six children

Catherine of Querfurt
(1450-22 February 1521)
no children
16 October 1524
aged 71
Regency of Philip II, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1475-1486)
Henry VIII[13] 1465
Son of Philip I and Joanne of Nassau-Siegen
1475 – 28 May 1513 County of Waldeck

County of Wildungen
Anastasia of Runkel
(d.24 April 1503)
Aft. 8 January 1492
three children
28 May 1513
aged 47-48
Philip IV[14] 1493
Bad Wildungen
Son of Henry VIII and Anastasia of Runkel
28 May 1513 – 30 November 1574 County of Wildungen Margaret of East Frisia
17 February 1523
nine children

Catherine of Hatzfeld
no children

Jutta of Isenburg-Grenzau
6 October 1554
two children
30 November 1574
aged 80-81
Philip associated his eldest surviving son, Samuel, in a co-rulership after his marriage. However, Samuel didn't survive his father.
Samuel 2 May 1528
Second son of Philip IV and Margaret of East Frisia
8 October 1554 – 6 January 1570 County of Wildungen
(at Friedrichstein)
Anna Maria of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(7 December 1538 - 11 August 1583)
8 October 1554
seven children
6 January 1570
aged 46
Philip III the Elder 9 December 1486
Son of Philip II and Catherine of Solms-Lich
16 October 1524 – 20 June 1539 County of Eisenberg Adelaide of Hoya
20 November 1503
Bad Wildungen
four children

Anna of Cleves
22 January 1519
four children
20 June 1539
Bad Arolsen
aged 52
Otto V 1504
First son of Philip III and Adelaide of Hoya
20 June 1539 – 1539[15] County of Eisenberg Unmarried 8 March 1541
aged 36-37
Children of Philip III, divided the land, by mediation of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse: the elder children kept Waldeck, while the younger ones inherited Landau. For the children who are usually said that did not reign (Otto, Philip and Francis), they are sometimes treated as Waldeck-Eisenberg (for Otto) and Waldeck-Landau (for Philip V and Francis), which are the parts the called reigning brothers actually ruled. This may imply a level of co-regency between each group of brothers.
Wolrad II the Scholar 27 March 1509

Second son of Philip III and Adelaide of Hoya
20 June 1539 – 15 April 1575 Anastasia Günthera of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(31 March 1526 – 1 April 1570)
6 June 1546
thirteen children
15 April 1575
aged 66
Philip V the Dove 1519
First son of Philip III and Anna of Cleves
20 June 1539 – c.1544?[16] County of Landau Elisabeth von Elsen
(d. 12 June 1584)
27 June 1576
no children
5 March 1584
aged 64-65
John I the Pious 1521
Second son of Philip III and Anna of Cleves
20 June 1539 – 9 April 1567 Anna of Lippe
1 October 1550
eight children
9 April 1567
aged 45-46
Francis II[17] 1526
Third son of Philip III and Anna of Cleves
20 June 1539 – c.1540?[18] Maria Gogreve
no children
29 July 1574
aged 47-48
Philip VI the Younger 4 October 1551
First son of John I and Anna of Lippe
9 April 1567 – 9 November 1579 County of Landau Unmarried 9 November 1579
aged 28
Children of John I, ruled jointly. As neither of them left descendants, Landau was reabsorbed in Eisenberg.
Francis III[19] 27 June 1553
Second son of John I and Anna of Lippe
9 April 1567 – 12 March 1597 12 March 1597
aged 43
Landau was reabsorbed into Eisenberg
Daniel 1 August 1530
Third son of Philip IV and Margaret of East Frisia
30 November 1574 – 7 June 1577 County of Wildungen Barbara of Hesse
11 November 1568
no children
7 June 1577
aged 46
Left no heirs, and was succeeded by his brother Henry.
Josias I 18 March 1554
First son of Wolrad II and Anastasia Günthera of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
15 April 1575 – 6 August 1588 County of Eisenberg Maria of Barby-Mühlingen
8 March 1582
four children
6 August 1588
aged 34
Children of Wolrad II, ruled jointly.
Wolrad III 16 June 1563
Second son of Wolrad II and Anastasia Günthera of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
15 April 1575 – 12 November 1587 Unmarried 12 November 1587
aged 24
Henry IX[20] 10 December 1531
Fourth son of Philip IV and Margaret of East Frisia
7 June – 3 October 1577 County of Wildungen Anna of Viermund-Nordenbeck
19 December 1563
no children
3 October 1577
aged 45
Died shortly after his brother, and didn't have children as well.
Günther 19 June 1557
Son of Samuel and Anna Maria of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
3 October 1577 – 23 May 1585 County of Wildungen
(at Friedrichstein since 1570)
Margaret of Waldeck-Landau
(1559-20 October 1580)
15 December 1578
Bad Wildungen
no children

Margaret of Gleichen
(28 May 1556 – 14 January 1619)
20 May 1582
one child
23 May 1585
aged 27
His second marriage brought the county of Bad Pyrmont back to Waldeck control.
Regency of Margaret of Gleichen (1585-1598) His death determined the extinction of the main branch of the House of Waldeck.
William Ernest 8 June 1584
Son of Günther and Margaret of Gleichen
23 May 1585 – 16 September 1598 County of Wildungen Unmarried 16 September 1598
aged 14
Wildungen briefly annexed to Eisenberg
Christian 25 December 1585
First son of Josias I and Maria of Barby-Mühlingen
6 August 1588 – 31 December 1637 County of Wildungen
(in Eisenberg in co-rulership until 1607)
Elisabeth of Nassau-Siegen
18 November 1604
Bad Wildungen
fifteen children
31 December 1637
aged 52
Children of Josias I, divided their inheritance in 1607.
Wolrad IV the Pious 7 June 1588
Second son of Josias I and Maria of Barby-Mühlingen
6 August 1588 – 6 October 1640 County of Eisenberg Anna of Baden-Durlach
8 September 1607
ten children
6 October 1640
Bad Arolsen
aged 52
Philip VII 25 November 1613
Second son of Christian and Elisabeth of Nassau-Siegen
31 December 1637 – 24 February 1645 County of Wildungen Anna Catharina of Sayn-Wittgenstein
26 October 1634
Frankfurt am Main
six children
24 February 1645
aged 31
Children of Christian, divided their inheritance
John II 7 November 1623
Fourth son of Christian and Elisabeth of Nassau-Siegen
31 December 1637 – 10 October 1668 County of Landau Alexandrine Maria of Vehlen-Meggen
(d.27 February 1662)
17 December 1644
no children

Henriette Dorothea of Hesse-Darmstadt
10 November 1667
no children
10 October 1668
aged 44
Landau reannexed to Wildungen
Philip Theodore 2 November 1614
Bad Arolsen
Second son of Wolrad IV and Anna of Baden-Durlach
6 October 1640 – 7 December 1645 County of Eisenberg Maria Magdalena of Nassau-Siegen
25 August 1639
two children
7 December 1645
aged 31
Regency of George Frederick, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1645-1659) Left no heirs, and was succeeded by his uncle and previous regent.
Henry Wolrad 28 March 1642
Son of Wolrad IV and Anna of Baden-Durlach
7 December 1645 – 15 July 1664 County of Eisenberg Juliane Elisabeth of Waldeck-Wildungen
27 January 1660
no children
15 July 1664
aged 22
Regencies of Anna Catherine of Sayn-Wittgenstein (1645-1660) and Henry Wolrad, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1659-1660) Children of Philip VII, ruled jointly.
Christian Louis 29 July 1635
First son of Philip VII and Anna Catharina of Sayn-Wittgenstein
24 February 1645 – 12 December 1706 County of Wildungen

County of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Anna Elisabeth of Rappoltstein
(7 March 1644 – 6 December 1676)
2 July 1658
fifteen children

Johanna of Nassau-Idstein
(14 September 1657 – 14 March 1733)
6 June 1680
ten children
12 December 1706
Bad Arolsen
aged 71
Josias II 2 July 1636
Bad Wildungen
Second son of Philip VII and Anna Catharina of Sayn-Wittgenstein
24 February 1645 – 8 August 1669 Wilhelmine Christine of Nassau-Siegen
26 January 1660
Bad Arolsen
seven children
8 August 1669
aged 33
George Frederick 31 January 1620
Bad Arolsen
Third son of Wolrad IV and Anna of Baden-Durlach
15 July 1664 – 19 November 1692 County of Eisenberg

Principality of Eisenberg
Elisabeth Charlotte of Nassau-Siegen
29 November 1643
nine children
19 November 1692
Bad Arolsen
aged 72
In 1682, he received the title of Prince. Left no surviving male heirs. The principality was inherited by Wildungen, which was kept as a county until a few years later.
Eisenberg (except Culemborg) was definitely annexed to Wildungen
Louise Anna 18 April 1653
Daughter of George Frederick and Elisabeth Charlotte of Nassau-Siegen
19 November 1692 – 30 June 1714 County of Eisenberg
(at Culemborg)
George IV, Count of Erbach-Fürstenau
22 August 1671
four children
30 June 1714
Bad Arolsen
aged 61
Kept the lordship of Culemborg. As she survived all her children, the lordship was inherited, after her death, by her nephew, Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Culemborg was inherited by Saxe-Hildburghausen
Frederick Anton Ulrich 26 November 1676
Son of Christian Louis and Anna Elisabeth of Rappoltstein
12 December 1706 – 1 January 1728 County of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Louise of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
22 October 1700
eleven children
1 January 1728
Bad Arolsen
aged 51
Children of Christian Louis. Frederick Anton was elevated in 1712 to hereditary prince by Emperor Charles VI. On 30 September 1695, their father had changed the primogeniture house law of the Waldeck house, which he had enacted in 1685 and modified in 1687, insofar as he issued a paragium under the established suzerainty of the ruling line of the house, consisting of the three villages of Bergheim, Königshagen and Welle. This paragium, or vassal line, was inherited by Christian Louis' second son, Josias I.
Josias I 20 August 1696
Bad Arolsen
Son of Christian Louis and Johanna of Nassau-Idstein
12 December 1706 – 2 February 1763 County of Bergheim Dorothea Sophia of Solms-Rödelheim
(27 January 1698 – 6 February 1774)
17 January 1825
seven children
2 February 1763
aged 66
Christian Philip 13 October 1701
First son of Frederick Anton Ulrich and Louise of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
1 January – 17 May 1728 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Unmarried 17 May 1728
aged 26
Survived his father for a few months, and left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Charles August 24 September 1704
Second son of Frederick Anton Ulrich and Louise of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
17 May 1728 – 29 August 1763 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Christiane Henriette of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
19 August 1741
seven children
29 August 1763
Bad Arolsen
aged 58
Frederick Charles August 25 October 1743
Second son of Charles August and Christiane Henriette of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
29 August 1763 – 24 September 1812 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Unmarried 24 September 1812
Bad Arolsen
aged 68
Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
George 20 July 1732
Second son of Josias I and Dorothea Sophia of Solms-Rödelheim
2 February 1763 – 9 April 1771 County of Bergheim Christine of Isenburg-Meerholz
(22 November 1742 – 20 March 1808)
31 August 1766
no children
9 April 1771
aged 38
Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
Josias II 16 October 1733
Third son of Josias I and Dorothea Sophia of Solms-Rödelheim
9 April 1771 – 4 January 1788 County of Bergheim Christine Wilhelmine of Isenburg-Büdingen
(24 June 1756 – 13 November 1826)
5 March 1772
no children
4 January 1788
aged 54
Josias III 13 May 1774
First son of Josias II and Christine Wilhelmine of Isenburg-Büdingen
4 January 1788 – 9 June 1829 County of Bergheim Wilhelmine of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg
(23 April 1774 – 25 June 1817)
10 January 1802
no children
9 June 1829
aged 55
Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
George I 6 May 1747
Bad Arolsen
Third son of Charles August and Christiane Henriette of Palatinate-Birkenfeld
24 September 1812 – 9 September 1813 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Augusta of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
12 September 1784
three children
9 September 1813
aged 66
George II 20 September 1789
Weil am Rhein
Son of George I and Augusta of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
9 September 1813 – 15 May 1845 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
26 June 1823
five children
15 May 1845
Bad Arolsen
aged 55
Charles 17 November 1778
Fourth son of Josias II and Christine Wilhelmine of Isenburg-Büdingen
9 June 1829 – 21 January 1849 County of Bergheim Karoline Schilling von Canstatt
(2 February 1798 – 7 October 1866)
25 April 1819
six children
21 January 1849
aged 70
Regency of Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1845-1858)
George Victor 14 January 1831
Bad Arolsen
Son of George II and Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
15 May 1845 – 12 May 1893 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Helena of Nassau
26 September 1853
seven children

Louise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
29 April 1891
one child
12 May 1893
Mariánské Lázně
aged 62
Adalbert I 19 February 1833
Son of Charles and Karoline Schilling von Canstatt
21 January 1849 – 24 July 1893 County of Bergheim Agnes Caroline of Sayn-Hohenstein
(18 April 1834 – 18 February 1886)
3 August 1858
seven children

Ida Charlotte of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
(25 February 1837 – 7 May 1922)
18 October 1887
no children
24 July 1893
aged 60
Frederick 20 January 1865
Bad Arolsen
Son of George Victor and Helena of Nassau
12 May 1893 – 13 November 1918 Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont Bathildis of Schaumburg-Lippe
9 August 1895
four children
26 May 1946
Bad Arolsen
aged 81
Brother of Queen Emma of the Netherlands. Abolition of the monarchy in 1918.
Adalbert II 6 January 1863
Son of Adalbert I and Agnes Caroline of Sayn-Hohenstein
24 July 1893 – 13 November 1918 County of Bergheim Unmarried 23 February 1934
aged 71
Abolition of the monarchy in 1918.

See also


  1. ^ A Pictorial Geography of the World: Comprising a System of Universal Geography, Popular and Scientific. Boston: C.D. Strong. 1848. p. 762.
  2. ^ Johann Adolph Theodor Ludwig Varnhagen: Grundlagen der Waldeckischen Regentengeschichte, vol. 1. Göttingen 1824, No. 88.
  3. ^ Thomas Brückner, Lehnsauftragung. Inaugural-Dissertation. Juristische Fakultät der Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg 2002, p. 68.
  4. ^ Akzessionsvertrag Waldecks zum Rheinbund, 18. April 1807
  5. ^ Stenographische Berichte über die Verhandlungen des Preußischen Hauses der Abgeordneten: 1877/78, Vol. 2, Part 123, p. 1025
  6. ^ Frank-Lothar Kroll, Geschichte Hessens. C. H. Beck, München 2006, ISBN 3-406-53606-9, p. 77.
  7. ^ Staatsvertrag zwischen Preußen und Waldeck-Pyrmont über die Vereinigung des Gebietsteils Pyrmont mit Preußen of 29 November 1921 (Preuß. GS [de] 1922, p. 37, Waldeckisches Regierungsblatt. 1922, p. 55, Sammlung des bereinigten niedersächsischen Rechts, Vol. II, p. 7).
  8. ^ Numbered III because, despite being the second ruler named Henry, traditional genealogies numbered another Henry, son of Count Henry I, and a canon at Paderborn (1211-1288) as Henry II. This Henry II never ruled.
  9. ^ Actually the third ruler named Henry.
  10. ^ This numbering taks in account Henry I, Count of Sternberg as Henry I of Schwalenberg
  11. ^ Numbered VI because, despite being the fourth ruler named Henry, traditional genealogies numbered another Henry, son of Count Henry IV, and a dean at Minden (d.1349) as Henry V. This Henry V never ruled.
  12. ^ Despite never missing any number from this point on, the numbering of the Henrys is irredeemably compromised (because of Henry II and Henry V, who never ruled). So, despite the total counting of 9 Henrys, only 7 actually ruled. Henry VII was the fifth ruler named Henry.
  13. ^ Henry VIII was the sixth ruler named Henry.
  14. ^ Despite succeeding first, he was numbered IV, probably because he was born after the then-still-heir Philip III of Eisenberg
  15. ^ Otto joined the Order of St. John in 1539, and abdicated in the same year of his father's death, which seems to imply that he reigned in that year. See Haarmann (2014), p. 21.
  16. ^ Philip V, like Otto, may have reigned, even if for only a few months, in Landau, together with his brother John I. Also, at the time of the division, Philip was not exercising any clerical position (was canon at Mainz in 1530, and then reappears as canon in Cologne in 1544), which would possibly extend a co-rulership that ended with Philip resuming his religious life at Cologne. See Haarmann (2014), p. 21; and Blankertz, Wilhelm, Schloß Hückeswagen Sonderdruck einer Artikelserie des „Bergischer Volksbote" (Burscheider Zeitung) July 1940, PDF, retrieved 14 December 2014.
  17. ^ Counted II because Francis I was a son of Count Philip II, and counted as I, despite never ruling, and that was bishop of Münster and Osnabrück (r.1532-1553).
  18. ^ He was taken by Anne of Cleves to England in 1540. Given that he is documented starting his religious career only in 1549, nothing seems to oppose a brief co-rulership of Francis in 1539–40, before his trip to England.
  19. ^ In fact he was the second Francis ruling.
  20. ^ Henry IX was the seventh and final ruler named Henry.