Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain
Coat of arms or logo
HousesHouse of Lords
House of Commons
Established1 May 1707
Disbanded31 December 1800
Preceded byParliament of England
Parliament of Scotland
Succeeded byParliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Lord Loughborough
since 1793
Henry Addington
since 1789
House of Commons political groups
Final composition of the British House of Commons:
519 Seats
  Tories: 424 seats
  Whigs: 95 seats
Ennoblement by the Sovereign or inheritance of a peerage
First-past-the-post with limited suffrage
Meeting place
Palace of Westminster, London
See also:
Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in May 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts ratified the treaty of Union which created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and created the parliament of Great Britain located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.


Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, Acts of Union ratifying the Treaty were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain.[1][2] The Acts paved the way for the enactment of the treaty of Union which created a new parliament, referred to as the 'Parliament of Great Britain', based in the home of the former English parliament. All of the traditions, procedures, and standing orders of the English parliament were retained, although there is no provision for this within the treaty; furthermore, the incumbent officers and members representing England comprised the overwhelming majority of the new body. It was not even considered necessary to hold a new general election. While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, new legislation was thereafter to be enacted by the new parliament, with the exception of that pertaining to private right which could only legislated on for the "evident utility" of the people.[3] England's de facto prominence in the new parliament was, and remains, a contentious issue.[citation needed]

After the Hanoverian King George I ascended the British throne in 1714 through the Act of Settlement of 1701, real power continued to shift away from the monarchy. George was a German ruler, spoke poor English, and remained interested in governing his dominions in continental Europe rather than in Britain. He thus entrusted power to a group of his ministers, the foremost of whom was Sir Robert Walpole, and by the end of his reign in 1727 the position of the ministers – who had to rely on Parliament for support – was cemented. George I's successor, his son George II, continued to follow through with his father's domestic policies and made little effort to re-establish monarchical control over the government which was now in firm control by Parliament. By the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which was dominated by the English aristocracy, by means of patronage, but had ceased to exert direct power: for instance, the last occasion on which royal assent was withheld was in 1708 by Queen Anne, even this being done only at the request of her ministers.[4] At general elections the vote was restricted to freeholders and landowners, in constituencies that had changed little since the Middle Ages, so that in many "rotten" and "pocket" boroughs seats could be bought, while major cities remained unrepresented, except by the Knights of the Shire representing whole counties. Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the British government became repressive against dissent and progress towards reform was stalled.[citation needed]

The Palace of Westminster's layout from John Rocque's Map of London, Westminster, and Southwark, 1746

George II's successor, George III, sought to restore royal supremacy and absolute monarchy, but by the end of his reign the position of the king's ministers – who discovered that they needed the support of Parliament to enact any major changes – had become central to the role of British governance, and would remain so ever after.[citation needed]

During the first half of George III's reign, the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which itself was dominated by the patronage and influence of the English nobility. Most candidates for the House of Commons were identified as Whigs or Tories, but once elected they formed shifting coalitions of interests rather than dividing along clear party lines. At general elections the vote was restricted in most places to property owners, in constituencies which were out of date and did not reflect the growing importance of manufacturing towns or shifts of population, so that in the rotten and pocket boroughs seats in parliament could be bought from the rich landowners who controlled them, while major cities remained unrepresented. Reformers like William Beckford and Radicals beginning with John Wilkes called for reform of the system. In 1780, a draft programme of reform was drawn up by Charles James Fox and Thomas Brand Hollis and put forward by a sub-committee of the electors of Westminster. This included calls for the six points later adopted by the Chartists.[citation needed]

The American War of Independence ended in defeat for a foreign policy that sought to prevent the thirteen American colonies from breaking away and forming their own independent nation, something which George III had fervently advocated, and in March 1782 the king was forced to appoint an administration led by his opponents which sought to curb royal patronage. In November of 1783, he took the opportunity to use his influence in the House of Lords to defeat a bill to reform the Honourable East India Company, dismissed the government of the day, and appointed William Pitt the Younger to form a new government. Pitt had previously called for Parliament to begin to reform itself, but he did not press for long for reforms the king did not like. Proposals Pitt made in April 1785 to redistribute seats from the "rotten boroughs" to London and the counties were defeated in the House of Commons by 248 votes to 174.[citation needed]

In the wake of the French Revolution of 1789, Radical organisations such as the London Corresponding Society sprang up to press for parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the government took extensive repressive measures against feared domestic unrest aping the democratic and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution and progress toward reform was stalled for decades.[citation needed]

Parliament of the United Kingdom

In 1801, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was created when the Kingdom of Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800.[citation needed]

Membership by constituent country

Key to categories in the following tables: BC – Borough/Burgh constituencies, CC – County constituencies, UC – University constituencies, Total C – Total constituencies, BMP – Borough/Burgh Members of Parliament, CMP – County Members of Parliament, UMP – University Members of Parliament.

Monmouthshire (One County constituency with two members and one single member Borough constituency) is included in Wales in these tables. Sources for this period may include the county in England.

Table 1: Constituencies and Members, by type and country[5]

Country BC CC UC Total C BMP CMP UMP Total Members Population (1700) People per MP
 England 202 39 2 243 404 78 4 486 5.1 million[6] ~10,500
 Wales 13 13 0 26 13 14 0 27 400,000[6] ~21,000
 Scotland 15 30 0 45 15 30 0 45 1 million[7] ~22,000
 Total 230 82 2 314 432 122 4 558 6.5 million ~12,000

Table 2: Number of seats per constituency, by type and country

Country BC×1 BC×2 BC×4 CC×1 CC×2 UC×2 Total C
 England 4 196 2 0 39 2 243
 Wales 13 0 0 12 1 0 26
 Scotland 15 0 0 30 0 0 45
 Total 32 196 2 42 40 2 314

See also

Painting of c. 1708–14 of Queen Anne addressing the House of Lords.
The political raree-show: or a picture of parties and politics, during and at the close of the last session of Parliament, June 1779 (1779 etching)


  1. ^ "Uniting the kingdom?". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Making the Act of Union 1707" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  3. ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 1
  4. ^ Black, Jeremy (2004). Parliament and Foreign Policy in the Eighteenth Century. England: Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-521-83331-0.
  5. ^ British Historical Facts 1760–1830, by Chris Cook and John Stevenson (The Macmillan Press 1980).
  6. ^ a b Marshall, John (25 August 1838). "A Geographical and Statistical Display ... of Each Country ... of the British Empire ...: With a Like Display ... of the Several Provinces and Districts of Russia, Prussia, France, the Netherlands, Germany" – via Google Books.
  7. ^ "History of the Union - Part two: 1707 - 1783". 11 December 2007.

Parliament of Great Britain Preceded byParliament of Englandc. 1215–1707Parliament of Scotlandc. 1235–1707 Parliament of Great Britain 1707–1800 Succeeded byParliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland1801–1927Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland1927–present

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