|Part of a series on the|
|Culture of Croatia|
Culture of Croatia is usually defined as a blend of Central European, Mediterranean and Balkans cultural circles. Due to its geographic position, these cultural circles meet, intertwine and complement. It has a long roots in history, as Croatian people have been inhabiting the area for fourteen centuries. There are important remnants of the earlier periods preserved until today, with long continuity of urban settlements recorded in Dalmatia.
In term of Croatian national emancipation, the 19th-century Illyrian movement was the most significant period of national cultural history. During this movement, Croatians and saw unprecedented developments in fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures. Most notably, Croatia has a place in the history of Mediterranean architecture and urbanism and clothing as place of origin of the cravat, a precursor of the modern necktie.
Modern and contemporary arts, music, urban, independent and youth culture in Croatia has been exceptionally growing due to numerous festivals and frequent manifestations, as well as (re-)emergence of new cultural infrastructure all over Croatia.
Ancient monuments from the Paleolithic era consist of simple stone and bone objects. Some of the earliest remaining historical features include 100,000-year-old bones of a Neandertal man on Krapina Neanderthal site, in Hrvatsko Zagorje.
The most interesting Copper Age or Eneolithic findings are from Vučedol culture. Out of that culture, the Bronze Age Vinkovci culture (named after the city of Vinkovci) developed, which is recognizable by bronze fibulas that were replacing objects like needles and buttons.
Bronze Age culture of Illyrians, ethnic group with distinct culture and art form started to organize itself in 7th century BC. Numerous monumental sculptures are preserved, as well as walls of citadel, Nezakcij near Pula, one of numerous Istrian cities from Iron Age.
During Greek colonisation period, Greeks from Syracuse arrived to islands of Vis (Issa), Hvar (Pharos), and Korčula (Corcyra Nigra) in 390 BC and founded their city-states on Adriatic parts of modern Croatia, where they lived quite isolated.
While the Greek colonies were flourishing on the island, on the continent, the Illyrians were organizing their centers. Their art was greatly influenced by Greek art, and they have even copied some elements. Illyrians sometimes attacked Greek colonies on Dalmatian islands. One such example was queen Teuta of Ardiaei, whose pirating activities drew the attention of the Roman Republic to Eastern Adriatic Coast in 229 BC. After this initial contact, Rome gradually managed to subdue the Illyrians by the 1st century and Great Iliryan Revolt. These lands were in the meantime organized into Roman provinces of Ilyricum and subsequently Dalmatia and Pannonia, while Ilirians and other native tribes living in these areas gradually became romanized.
The Romans organized the entire coastal territory by transforming citadels to urban cities. There have been at least thirty cities in Istria, Liburnia and Dalmatia with Roman citizenship (civitas). The best-preserved networks of Roman streets (decumanus/cardo) are those in Epetion (Poreč) and Jader (Zadar). The best preserved Roman monuments are in Pola (Pula) including an Amphitheater (an arena) from the 2nd century.
In the 3rd century AD, the city of Salona was the largest (with 40,000 inhabitants) and most important city of Dalmatia. Near the city, emperor Diocletian, born in Salona, built Diocletian's Palace (around year 300 AD), which is the largest and most important monument of late antique architecture in the World. In the 4th century, Salona became the center of Christianity for entire western Balkans. It hade numerous basilicas and necropolises, and even two saints: Domnius (Duje) and Anastasius (Staš).
One of few preserved basilicas in western Europe (beside ones in Ravenna) from the time of early Byzantium is Euphrasian Basilica in Poreč from the 6th century.
The early Middle Ages brought the great migration of the Slavs and this period was perhaps a Dark Age in the cultural sense until the successful formation of the Slavic states which coexisted with Italic cities that remained on the coast, each of them were modelled like Venice.
In the 7th century the Croats, along with other Slavs and Avars, migrated from Eastern Europe to the area of Dalmatian hinterland. Here, the Croats came into contact with Roman art, culture, and most of all with Christianity. In first few centuries following their arrival, Croats adopted Christianity, which had spread from old Roman cities in Dalmatia and as well as by Frankish missionaries. In following centuries both Latin language, Church Slavonic and Glagolitic script were in use in Church liturgy among Croats, while pre-Romanesque period is considered foundational period of Croatian medieval culture. The monuments created in this period are associated with arrival of Benedictine monks to Croatia, who first came from Frankish monasteries and subsequently from Monte Cassino. In later periods, the new monasteries were mostly founded by local monks. The first benedictine monastery in Dalmatia was constructed during the reign of 9th century duke Trpimir in Rižinice between modern day Solin and Klis.
In later period the rule of duke Branimir, in particular, is considered as a time of "cultural blossom" of Croatia due to construction of new churches, reconstruction of already existing churches, as well as five stone inscriptions mentioning Branimir's name which remain preserved until this day.
In second half of 10th century, Croatian queen Helen of Zadar, built a royal mausoleum in church of St. Stephen on the Island in what is today Solin.
Another period of cultural blossom of Croatian kingdom came with the rule of 11th century king Demetruis Zvonimir. Since his rule was relatively stable, he donated many churches and monasteries. The most famous of his donations is recorded in Baška Tablet, 11th century inscription written in Glagolitic script and Croatian language. It was discovered in village of Baška, on the island of Krk. It represents the earliest mention of Croatian royal name and royal title in Croatian language (Zvonimir, kralj hrvatski) for which it has a great significance in study of Croatian language. Original documents issued by Croatian medieval rulers were also written in Latin language and in either Beneventan, Carolingian minuscule or Gothic minuscule script. During the 13th century Croatian provost Dobroslav launched the construction of a romanesque Knin cathedral on a site of the earlier Benedictine menastery in Kapitul near Knin. Upon completion the cathedral became a seat of Knin bishop (previously Croatian bishop) until Ottoman invasions forced high clergy to move their seats elsewhere. During the archeological excavations in the 19th century, this site became a place where ornaments from Trpimirović dynasty were recovered.
Main article: Renaissance in Croatia
The Rennaisance period among Croats was influenced by wars against expanding Ottoman Empire, which slowed down Croatian cultural development. The downfall of the homeland left impression on Croatian writers, who expressed their mood in their writings. Some examples of this are Petar Zoranić in his novel Planine (English: "The Mountains"), Šimun Kožičić Benja in his publication De Corvatiae desolatione (English: "On the desolation of Croatia"), Marko Marulić in his Molitva suprotiva Turkom ("A Prayer Against the Turks") or Brne Karnarutić's Vazetje Sigeta grada (English: "The Taking of the City of Siget").
Main article: Art of Croatia
The altar enclosure and windows of early medieval churches were highly decorated with a transparent shallow string-like ornament that is called Croatian interlace because the strings were threaded and rethreaded through themselves. Sometimes the engravings in early Croatian script–Glagolitic appear. Soon, the Glagolitic writings were replaced with Latin ones on altar boundaries and architraves of old-Croatian churches.
In Croatian Romanesque sculpture, we have a transformation from decorative interlace relief (Croatian interlace) to figurative relief. The best examples of Romanesque sculpture are: the wooden doors of the Split cathedral made by Andrija Buvina (c. 1220) and the stone portal of the Trogir cathedral by the artisan Radovan (c. 1240). Zadar was an independent Venetian city. The most beautiful examples of Gothic humanism in Zadar represent reliefs in gilded metal on Chest of St Simeon, made by artisans from Milan in around 1380.
Most Croatian prominent sculptors of modern include Ivan Meštrović, Antun Augustinčić, Frano Kršinić and others.
Gothic painting is less well-preserved, and the finest works are in Istria such as the fresco-cycle of Vincent from Kastav in the Church of Holy Mary in Škriljinah near Beram, from 1474. From that time are two of the best and most decorated illuminated liturgical books made by monks from Split, Hvals’ Zbornik (today in Zagreb) and the Missal of the Bosnian Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (now in Istanbul).
The most prominent painter from Croatia was Federiko Benković who worked almost his entire life in Italy, while an Italian, Francesco Robba, did the best Baroque sculptures in Croatia.
In Austrian countries at the beginning of the 19th century the Romantic movement in Croatia was sentimental, gentle and subtle. Vlaho Bukovac brought the spirit of impressionism from Paris, and he strongly influenced the young artists (including the authors of "Golden Hall"). On the Millennium Exhibition in Budapest they were able to set aside all other artistic options in Austro-Hungary.
Modern art in Croatia began with the Secession ideas spreading from Vienna and Munich, and post-Impressionism from Paris. Young artists would study the latest trends and integrate them into their own work. Many strove to bring a native cultural identity into their art, for example themes of national history and legends, and some of the artwork during and following the First World War contained a strong political message against the ruling Austro-Hungarian state. As Croatian lands joined the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after the war, a change was noticeable in 1919 with a move to flatter forms, and signs of cubism and expressionism were evident. In the 1920s, the Earth Group sought to reflect reality and social issues in their art, a movement that also saw the development of naive art. By the 1930s there was a return to more simple, classical styles.
Following the Second World War, artists everywhere were searching for meaning and identity, leading to abstract expressionism in the U.S. and art informel in Europe. The early split with the rest of the Eastern Bloc in the new Socialist Yugoslavia which Croatia was a constituent republic of allowed for greater artistic freedom, with socialist realism style never truly taking hold. Bauhaus ideas led to geometric abstraction in paintings and simplified spaces in architecture. In the 1960s, non-conventional forms of visual expression took hold along with a more analytical approach to art, and a move towards new media, such as photography, video, computer art, performance art and installations, focusing more on the artists' process. Art of the 1970s was more conceptual, figurative and expressionist. However, the 1980s brought a return to more traditional painting and images.
Main article: Architecture of Croatia
The oldest preserved examples of architecture in Croatia are the 9th century churches, with the largest and the most representative among them being Donatus of Zadar and Church of Holy Trinity, Split. Some of the first churches build by the Croats were royal sanctuaries, and the influences of Roman art were the strongest in Dalmatia where urbanization was most dense, and there were the largest number of monuments. Along the coast, the architecture is Mediterranean with a strong influence of renaissance architecture in major urban areas best exemplified in works of Venetian Giorgio da Sebenico and Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino. Architecture in Croatia reflects influences of bordering nations. Austrian and Hungarian influence is visible in public spaces and buildings in the north and in the central regions. Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Varaždin and Karlovac. Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture.
Main article: Music of Croatia
Music in Croatia has two major influences: Central European, present in the central and northern parts of the country including Slavonia, and Mediterranean, particularly present in the coastal regions of Dalmatia and Istria.
In Croatia, both pop and rock are popular, and often incorporates Dalmatian or Slavonian folk elements. Since the mid-20th century, schlagers and chanson-inspired music have formed the backbone of the Croatian popular music. During 1990's marked by Croatian War of Independence; Cro dance, or Cro trash music dominated in Croatian nightclubs. In recent times, the most popular music genre (especially among young Croatians) became Turbo folk.  According to the 2018 sociological research conducted on high school students in six Croatian cities, the most common consumers of Turbo folk are students with right wing leaning and conservative values. It is more popular among females as well as among those enrolled in lower level educational programs.
Traditional humorous folk song of eastern Croatian region of Slavonia is called bećarac. It was recorded for the first time in 18th century by Croatian Enlightment author Matija Antun Relković. Since 2011, it is listed on UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List.
Porin is Croatian music award, named after Vatroslav Lisinski's opera of the same name and inspired by an American Grammy award. It has been awarded each year since 1994. Croatian national television usually also organizes national song contest - Dora, whose winnter represents Croatia on Eurovision. This contest was named after Croatian first, distinguished female composer Dora Pejačević.
Main article: Theatre in Croatia
Croatian theatre dates back at least as far as the Middle Ages, with a combination of religious liturgical dramas, and secular performances of travelling entertainers. During the Renaissance, there was a flowering of dramatic writing and performances in Dalmatia, especially in Dubrovnik and on the island of Hvar. Notable playwrights of the time were Marin Držić and Hanibal Lucić.
In other parts of Croatia, theatres started to appear in the late 18th, early 19th century in cities such as Split, Dubrovnik, Šibenik, Zadar, Osijek, Varaždin, Pula, Rijeka, and Zagreb. The development of a Croatian National Theatre evolved from Zagreb's first city theatre on St Mark's Square. Beginning in the 1860s, performances were increasingly written and given in Croatian.
Today, Croatia boasts a strong tradition of theatres and theatrical companies all round the country. Performances range from dramas and musicals for adults or children, youth theatre and puppet theatre. Croatia is also home to the world's oldest Theatre of the Blind. Festivals are held in several locations in the summer.
See also: Croatian National Theatre
Main article: Croatian literature
The first known printed book in Croatian language is Missale Romanum Glagolitice (Misal po zakonu rimskog dvora) from 1483. It was printed in Glagolitic script.
See also: Science fiction in Croatia
Main article: Media in Croatia
Main article: Cinema of Croatia
First Croatian production company was called "Croatia" and in 1917, this company produced first Croatian feature film called Brcko in Zagreb. This film, as well as all other films made in Zagreb in interwar period are lost to this day. First film screening in Zagreb was held on 8 October 1896, when Lumiere brothers films were shown.
From 1960's to 1990's Croatian production company Jadran Film became one of the largest film producers in Central Europe, for which it was called "Croatian Hollywood". Some of well known international movie productions filmed in Croatia in that time were: Austerlitz, The Valley of Death, Death Train etc. However, Croatian war of Independence, and subsequent bad privatization led to company's downfall, as Croatia lost the competitive advantage it had over other socialist block countries during Cold War. The sixties in particular are known as a "golden age" of film in Croatia.
In 1989/1990 and 1999/2000 One Song a Day Takes Mischief Away was proclaimed as best Croatian feature film of all time. However, in 2020, a 1958 movie H-8 was proclaimed as best Croatian feature film of all time. The same election proclaimed Oscar winning Surogat as best Croatian animated film of all time, while Od 3 do 22 was proclaimed the best Croatian documentary film of all times. Since 1992, Croatian society of film critics gives annual award "Okatavijan", named after Croatian film pioneer Oktavijan Miletić.
Modern film production in Croatia is subsidized by Croatian Audiovisual Center (HAVC). Some of the well known film festivals held in Croatia are: Pula Film festival, Zagreb Film Festival, Vukovar Film Festival, Motovun Film Festival, Animafest Zagreb or ZagrebDox.
In recent years, indie cinemas of Zagreb started closing down. Out of 24 indie cinemas which used to operate in Zagreb, only 6 remained opened by 2018. First multiplex cinema in Croatia was opened in 2003 by German company CineStar. During summer period in Zagreb, outdoor cinema in Tuškanac forest is open. This cinema was originally opened back in 1954. After it was shut down for several decades after 1970, it was again refurbished and reopened in 2012.
Main article: Television in Croatia
Television in Croatia was first introduced in 1956. As of 2012 there are 10 nationwide and 21 regional DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial) television channels, and more than 30 other channels either produced in the Republic of Croatia or produced for the Croatian market and broadcast via IPTV (Internet Protocol television), cable or satellite television. The electronic communications market in Croatia is regulated by the Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries (HAKOM), which issues broadcast licenses and monitors the market. The DVB-T and satellite transmission infrastructure is developed and maintained by the state-owned company Odašiljači i veze (OiV).
The first television signal broadcast in Croatia occurred in 1939 during the Zagreb Fair, where Philips showcased its television system. The first regular broadcasts started in 1956, when Television Zagreb was established as the first TV station in the Yugoslav Radio Television system. Color broadcasts began in 1972. Coverage and number of channels grew steadily, and by the 2000s there were four channels with nationwide coverage in Croatia. DVB-T signal broadcasts began in 2002, and in 2010 a full digital switchover was completed. During that period the IPTV, cable and satellite television markets grew considerably, and by 2011 only 60.7 percent of households received DVB-T television only; the remainder were subscribed to IPTV, cable and satellite TV in addition, or as the sole source of TV reception. As of January 2012 DVB-T is broadcast in three multiplexes, while the territory of Croatia is divided into nine main allotment regions and smaller local allotments corresponding to major cities. High-definition television (HDTV) is broadcast only through IPTV, although HDTV DVB-T test programming was broadcast from 2007 to 2011. A DVB-T2 test broadcast was conducted in 2011.
As of November 2019 all national channels are transmitted via three DVB-T and one DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes. After June 2020 DVB-T MUXes will be switched off and all channels will be distributed via two DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes.
Television in Croatia, as all other media in the country are criticised for lack of balance of global issues and trends on one hand and national topics covered on the other. All major television networks in Croatia are generally thought to be under excessive influence of commercialism. State owned Croatian Radiotelevision is required to produce and broadcast educational programmes, documentaries, and programmes aimed at the diaspora and national minorities in Croatia. The television in Croatia is considered to be important in avenue for non-governmental organizations communicating their concerns to the public and to criticising the authorities. Television is the primary source of information for 57% of the population of Croatia.
Main article: Croatian radio
Croatian Radio (Croatian: Hrvatski radio) is the official broadcasting service of Croatia. Founded on May 15, 1926 as Zagreb Radio, it was the first radio station in Southeast Europe, now part of Croatian Radiotelevision.
The broadcast, which began with just one channel that could be listened to only in Zagreb and northern Croatia, today makes 16 radio channels sent out on short wave, medium wave, FM, satellite and the Internet.
On May 25, 2012, the television and radio program archive and a collection of music production were given the status of Croatia's cultural heritage.
Main category: Video games developed in Croatia
Some video games created by Croatian developers include: Serious Sam franchise, Talos Principle, Gas Guzzlers Extreme, Doodle Jump, I Hate Running Backwards, SEUM: Speedrunners from Hell, Inked, The Ward, etc. According to 2023 research results published in Croatian daily Jutarnji list; 92% of Croatian citizens play video games.
Main article: Education in Croatia
People in Croatia enjoy free government-sponsored education at the primary and secondary level, and partially free university education. There are over 800 primary schools and over 400 secondary schools in the country.
The higher education is also government-sponsored, and mostly free for students who enroll with better results. There are thirty two various polytechnic schools, as well as seven universities in seven larger cities: Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik, and Pula. Each of the universities in Croatia is composed of many independent "faculties" (Croatian fakultet, meaning college or department), which focus on specific areas of learning: Natural Sciences, Philosophy, Law, Engineering, Economy, Architecture, Medicine, and so on.
There are also a number of other educational and scientific institutions, such as institutes (most notably the Ruđer Bošković Institute) or the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, a learned society promoting language, culture, and science from its first conception in 1866.
The Roman Catholic Church was instrumental in the founding of many educational facilities in Croatia. The Catholic Church in Croatia continues to maintain numerous seminaries and theological faculties in the country, as well as the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome for Croatian students in Rome.
Between 1964 and 1974 Praxis School of Marxist philosophy used to exist inside Socialist Republic of Croatia as well as wider Socialist Yugoslavia. During its existence, the movement organized a Summer school on island of Korčula.
The UNESCO has marked seven places in Croatia as World Heritage Sites:
Regarding conservation and natural beauty, Croatia has eight national parks, mostly situated along the Adriatic coast.
See also: Croatian national costume
According to Dubravka Prpić Znaor, main editor of ItGirl.hr magazine, modern Croatians do not have its own unique dressing style, but instead combine elements of Italian, American, Japanese and French style. According global survey results published by US news, Croatia is 45th most fashionable country in the world.
Some of the festivities held in Croatia include:
Main article: Croatian cuisine
Croatian cuisine is heterogeneous, and is therefore known as "the cuisine of regions". Its modern roots date back to proto-Slavic and ancient periods and the differences in the selection of foodstuffs and forms of cooking are most notable between those on the mainland and those in coastal regions. Mainland cuisine is more characterized by the earlier proto-Slavic and the more recent contacts with the more famous gastronomic orders of today, Hungarian, Viennese and Turkish, while the coastal region bears the influences of the Greek, Roman and Illyrian, as well as of the later Mediterranean cuisine, including Italian and French.
A large body of books bears witness to the high level of gastronomic culture in Croatia, which in European terms dealt with food in the distant past, such as the Gazophylacium by Belostenec, a Latin-Kajkavian dictionary dating from 1740 that preceded a similar French dictionary. There is also Beletristic literature by Marulić, Hektorović, Držić and other writers, down to the work written by Ivan Bierling in 1813 containing recipes for the preparation of 554 various dishes (translated from the German original), and which is considered to be the first Croatian cookbook.
Main article: Croatian wine
Croatian wine (vino, pl. vina) has a history dating back to the Ancient Greek settlers, and their wine production on the southern Dalmatian islands of Vis, Hvar and Korčula some 2,500 years ago.< Like other old world wine producers, many traditional grape varieties still survive in Croatia, perfectly suited to their local wine hills. Modern wine-production methods have taken over in the larger wineries and EU-style wine regulations  have been adopted, guaranteeing the quality of the wine.
There are currently over 300 geographically defined wine regions and a strict classification system to ensure quality and origin. The majority of Croatian wine is white, with most of the remainder being red and only a small percentage being rosé wines. In 2014, Croatia ranked 32nd in wine production by country with an estimated 45,272 tonnes.
Wine is a popular drink in Croatia, and locals traditionally like to drink wine with their meals. Quite often, the wine is diluted with either still or sparkling water—producing a drinks known as gemišt (a combination of white wine and carbonated water) and bevanda (a combination of red wine and still water).
Drinking coffee is a ritual and a mean of socialising for Croatians. If they want to socialise with someone, they invite this person for a coffee. This is the reason why in Croatian towns coffee bar terraces can always be seen crawling with locals drinking their cappuccino and hanging out. Average coffee drinking time among Croatians tends to extend to between 40 and 45 minutes. According to the research done by Gfk Agency, 80% of Croatians older that 15 drink coffee on a daily basis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 44% of Croatian citizens reported that they miss drinking coffee in their caffe bars. Among Dalmatians, 65% reported that the first thing they will do when the lockdown ends is go to their coffee bar and order coffee. In Croatian culture, the person who invites for a coffee usually pays the bill. Exception is if another person wants to make a nice gesture and pays instead.
Main article: Sport in Croatia
Since independence Croatia has been a fairly successful sporting country. The most popular team sports have been association football (soccer). The Croatian Football Federation (Croatian: Hrvatski nogometni savez) has more than 118,000 registered players, and it is the largest sporting association in the country. Since its existence, Croatian male national football team achieved notable results on worldwide scale by winning 3rd place in Fifa 1998 World Cup, 2nd place in Fifa 2018 World Cup and 3rd place in Fifa 2022 World Cup. 
Croatian male handball team also achieved some notable successes by winning gold medal on summer Olympics in 1996 and 2004, gold medal on 2003 World Championship and silver medal on 2008, 2010 and 2020 European Championship.
Other popular sports are basketball and to some extent water polo. The most popular sports played mainly by individuals are tennis, skiing, swimming, and to some extent table tennis and chess. The nation's arenas are primarily used for handball and basketball games.
Some notable Croatian martial artists include Mirko "Cro Cop" Filipović, Željko Mavrović, Mate Parlov, Branko Cikatić, Ana Zaninović, Lucija Zaninović, Ivana Habazin and Maša Martinović.
Kroz obrazovni proces podučava se da se Hrvatska nalazi na razmeđi triju kulturno-civilizacijskih krugova: Srednje Europe (Mitteleuropa), Jugoistočne Europe (Balkan) i Južne Europe (Mediteran). U njemu se naglašavaju dominantni i intenzivni utjecaji srednjoeuropskoga kulturno-civilizacijskog kruga, te najslabiji "utjecaj jugoistočnoeuropskog kulturno-civilizacijskog kruga".
Hrvatski animozitet prema Balkanu traje od stvaranja Jugoslavije, no unatoč odbijanju, Hrvati moraju priznati, sviđalo im se to ili ne, da uz neke druge odrednice - srednja Europa i Mediteran - dobrim dijelom pripadaju i balkanskom društvenom i kulturološkom krugu
U obrazovnom procesu podučava se da se Hrvatska nalazi na razmeđi triju kulturno-civilizacijskih krugova - srednje Europe, Balkana i Mediterana, ali ispitanici pripadnost vide drugačije.
Rimljani su osvojili sve više područja naseljenih Ilirima. Iliri su definitivno skršeni god. 6–9 (→ batonski rat) i otad počinje njihova romanizacija, koja je, međutim, aktivnije zahvatila samo okolicu upravnih središta, garnizona, vojnih uporišta i postaja na cestama. Otada Iliri ulaze u rimsku vojsku, stječu različite položaje u upravi, a neki od njih postaju i carevi (Aurelijan, Prob, Dioklecijan i dr.).
((cite journal)): Cite journal requires
((cite journal)): Cite journal requires
With the festival attracting attendance from Spain, Finland, Italy, Poland, Belgium, the US, Slovenia, the UK and Croatia, it has always been a rich mix of experience.
Dvadeset i jedan hrvatski filmski kritičar i gotovo stotinu i pedeset hrvatskih filmova raspoređenih u osam kategorija najkraći je brojčani opis tradicionalne filmske nagrade Oktavijan koja se dodjeljuje najboljim hrvatskim filmovima i njihovim autorima. Hrvatsko je društvo filmskih kritičara ustanovilo nagradu 1992. godine a ime je dobila po našem proslavljenom filmskom autoru, scenaristu, snimatelju i redatelju Oktavijanu Miletiću.