Television in Croatia was first introduced in 1956. As of 2012, there are 10 nationwide and 21 regional DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial) television channels, and there are more than 30 other channels either produced in the Republic of Croatia or produced for the Croatian market and broadcast via IPTV (Internet Protocol television), cable, or satellite television. The electronic communications market in Croatia is regulated by the Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries (HAKOM), which issues broadcast licenses and monitors the market. The DVB-T and satellite transmission infrastructure is developed and maintained by the state-owned company Odašiljači i veze (OiV).

The first television signal broadcast in Croatia occurred in 1939 during the Zagreb Fair, where Philips showcased its television system. The first regular broadcasts started in 1956, when Television Zagreb was established as the first TV station in the Yugoslav Radio Television system. Color broadcasts began in 1972. Coverage and the number of channels grew steadily, and by the 2000s there were four channels with nationwide coverage in Croatia. DVB-T signal broadcasts began in 2002, and in 2010 a full digital switchover was completed. During that period, the IPTV, cable, and satellite television markets grew considerably, and by 2011 only 60.7 percent of households received DVB-T television only; the remainder were subscribed to IPTV, cable, and satellite TV in addition or as the sole source of TV reception.

As of January 2012, DVB-T is broadcast in three multiplexes, while the territory of Croatia is divided into nine main allotment regions and smaller local allotments corresponding to major cities. High-definition television (HDTV) is broadcast only through IPTV, although HDTV DVB-T test programming was broadcast from 2007 to 2011. A DVB-T2 test broadcast was conducted in 2011.

As of November 2019, all national channels are transmitted via three DVB-T and one DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes. After June 2020, DVB-T MUXes will be switched off, and all channels will be distributed via two DVB-T2 (HEVC/H.265) MUXes.

Television in Croatia, as well as other media in the country, are criticised for lack of balance of global issues and trends on one hand and national topics covered on the other. All major television networks in Croatia are generally thought to be under excessive influence of commercialism. State-owned Croatian Radiotelevision is required to produce and broadcast educational programmes, documentaries, and programmes aimed at the diaspora and national minorities in Croatia. Television in Croatia is considered to be important in avenue for NGOs communicating their concerns to the public and to criticising the Croatian authorities. Television is the primary source of information for 57% of the Croatian population.

Analog television

Introduction of television

Three men sitting on back of Philips truck
Philips demonstrated television at the Zagreb Fair in 1939

See also: Timeline of the introduction of television in countries

Zagreb was one of the first European cities where television pictures were broadcast. Beginning on 26 August 1939, the Zagreb Fair featured a Philips television system, operated for short periods each day of the exhibition (until 4 September). The Philips television, consisting of a transmitter and several receivers, was operated by Eric Klaas de Vries in the Dutch pavilion at the fair. The fair newspaper announced the event as the first, after television broadcasts in London and Berlin. The programming consisted of comedy, opera, music performances, and the first TV news broadcast in Croatia.[1]

The first TV broadcast after the 1939 Zagreb Fair was in 1956.[1] A transmitter was set up on Sljeme in the Tomislavov Dom Hotel, and during the evening of 15 May 1956, Austrian and Italian channels were transmitted (including Rai 1). The first live broadcast produced locally was the transmission of the opening of the Zagreb Fair on 7 September 1956, and Television Zagreb began regular broadcasting on 29 November.[2]


Television Zagreb building: Four-story, curved gray building
Television Zagreb set up its studio in Šubićeva Street in 1962[2]

The Zagreb TV centre became a member of the Yugoslav Radio Television (JRT) (an umbrella organization of television stations in Yugoslavia), acting as Eurovision Technical Centre for the JRT. In 1972, Television Zagreb began broadcasting of its second channel, and switched to airing its programming in color in 1975. The third Television Zagreb channel was introduced in 1988, and teletext service was launched in 1990.

Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Television Zagreb was renamed to Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT) and it became a member of the European Broadcasting Union; however, HRT suffered significant war damage to its infrastructure as 80 percent of its transmitters and 30 relay stations were damaged, destroyed or occupied.

In October 1999, all three nationwide HRT channels started broadcasting around the clock, but in 2002, HRT 3 ceased operations.[2] Nova TV, the first privately owned television station in Croatia, began operating in 2000.[3] It was followed by another privately owned broadcaster, RTL Televizija, on 30 April 2004. Both Nova TV and RTL Televizija aired a single analog TV channel each.[4]

In 2002, Odašiljači i veze d.o.o. was set up as an independent company; it was previously a part of HRT and it was tasked with maintaining the television-transmission infrastructure in Croatia.[2][5] In 2014, there were 26 television stations in Croatia,[6] including the four nationwide channels.

End of analog broadcasting

See also: Digital television transition

The Government of Croatia decided that simulcast (simultaneous analog and digital DVB-T broadcasting of the main channels) was to cease in 2010.[7] The territory of Croatia was split into nine digital-TV allotment regions. The analog broadcast network was switched off gradually (by the digital-TV allotment regions) beginning on 26 January 2010. The process was completed, achieving digital switchover on 5 October 2010, but geographically isolated areas were left with analog broadcasts.[8][9] The last analog TV transmitter in Croatia was shut down on 30 September 2011, as DVB-T coverage was extended to 98.5 percent of households in Croatia and no less than 95 percent of households in each of the allotment regions. Approximately 6,000 households were left with no reception of DVB-T or analog TV broadcasts.[10]

Allotment Switchoff dates in 2010
D05 26 January
D03 3 March
D07 30 March
D09 27 April
D01 25 May
D02 29 June
D06 20 July
D08 7 September
D04 5 October

DVB-T television

Map of Croatia with digital TV regions
DVB-T regions of Croatia

The first trial broadcasts of DVB-T signals began in May 2002 in Zagreb, and in 2008, the government developed the Analogue to Digital Television Broadcasting Switchover Strategy for the Republic of Croatia.[7] In July 2008, this Government of Croatia announced that 106 million kuna (c. 14.1 million euros) were earmarked for the purpose.[11] The government-subsidized purchase of DVB-T receivers, distributing discount coupons worth 75 kuna (c. 10 euros) to subscribers of the HRT.[12] The first two multiplexes (MUX A and MUX B) were introduced in April 2009, with the third (MUX D) introduced in July 2010.

On 5 October 2010, the switch to DVB-T was virtually complete, as all major analog TV transmitters were phased out. The DVB-T transmissions in Croatia are all standard-definition, MPEG-2.[13] MUX A is available to more than 98.5 percent of the population of Croatia, and both MUX A and MUX B are available to more than 95 percent of population in each multiplex-allotment region. MUX D is available to approximately 90 percent of the population of Croatia, and at least 70 percent of the population in each of the allotment regions.[14] There are 897,496 households (60.7 percent) in Croatia receiving DVB-T television only.[15]

The terrestrial television infrastructure in Croatia is operated by Odašiljači i veze d.o.o. (OIV). The company was established as an independent entity in 2002, when a division developing and maintaining electronic communications infrastructure was removed from the HRT corporate system.[2][5] As of January 2012, OIV operates and maintains 222 television transmitters and broadcast relay stations.[16]

There are nine main regions of digital TV allotments (encompassing larger portions of Croatia) and additional, geographically small allotment areas designed for local broadcasters (typically covering a single city). The main DVB-T television allotment regions are assigned markings D1–D9. The D1 region encompasses Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar-Syrmia counties, as well as parts of Brod-Posavina County east of Oprisavci. The D2 region covers the rest of Brod-Posavina County, Požega-Slavonia and Virovitica-Podravina counties and nearly all of Bjelovar-Bilogora County, except for an area north of the city of Bjelovar and part of Sisak-Moslavina County around the town of Novska. The D3 region includes a part of Bjelovar-Bilogora County not encompassed by the D2 region, as well as the territories of Koprivnica-Križevci, Varaždin and Međimurje counties. The D4 region includes Sisak-Moslavina County (except the area around Novska), Krapina-Zagorje and Zagreb counties, the city of Zagreb and the northern part of Karlovac County (including Karlovac and Duga Resa).[16]

Large, low gray building housing Croatian Radiotelevision headquarters in Zagreb
HRT headquarters in Zagreb

The D5 region covers Istria County and Primorje-Gorski Kotar County (except parts of the county east of Ravna Gora and the area around Novalja on the island of Pag), but it includes the coastal areas of Lika-Senj County opposite the islands of Krk and Rab. The D6 region encompasses parts of Primorje-Gorski Kotar and Lika-Senj counties outside the D4 and D5 regions, except for parts of the latter (south of Lovinac) and coastal parts of the same county opposite the island of Pag. Those two areas are a part of the D7 region, along with Zadar and Šibenik-Knin counties. The D8 region includes the entire Split-Dalmatia County as well as parts of Dubrovnik-Neretva County around Ploče and Metković, a part of Pelješac peninsula west of Dubrava and the islands of Korčula and Lastovo. The D9 region encompasses the rest of Dubrovnik-Neretva County.[16]

Small photo of unused TV studio, with cameras covered
HRT's Anton Marti studio

There are also 12 local DVB-T television allotment regions, covering specific cities and their immediate surroundings. Those are d11 in Osijek, d21 in Slavonski Brod, d31 covering Varaždin and Čakovec, d44 encompassing Zagreb and Velika Gorica, d45 in Jastrebarsko, d46 covering Karlovac and Duga Resa, d53 encompassing Rijeka, Crikvenica, Novi Vinodolski and most of the island of Krk, d54 in Pula and Rovinj, d71 in Zadar, d72 in Šibenik, d82 covering Split, Trogir, Omiš, the island of Šolta and a large part of the island of Brač, and d91 in Dubrovnik.[16] A local multiplex named "L-ZA" started in 2015 on UHF 41 in the town of Sveta Nedelja, transmitting local channel TV Zapad.

When DVB-T broadcasting started in Italy in December 2010, interference was observed in northwest parts of Istria, and later in areas around Zadar and Šibenik. The interference was caused by the use of frequencies assigned to Croatia by Italian transmitters and excessive transmitter power. A complaint was filed by the Croatian regulator of the DVB-T market, the Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries (HAKOM), with the Italian authorities.[17][18] OIV installed additional transmitters in the affected areas to strengthen its signal coverage and reduce interference by February 2011 at a cost of 1 million kuna (c. 133,000 euros).[19] Although Italian Minister of Economic Development Paolo Romani announced in August 2011 that the problems should be resolved shortly (a transmitter causing interference was shut down and the power of several others was reduced),[20] the situation was not completely resolved throughout 2011 and the International Telecommunication Union's Radio Regulations Board became involved in the process.[21] In the meantime, other technical solutions were devised and implemented (in addition to the emergency transmitters) in order to improve digital-television-signal reception.[22]

Nationwide channels

Croatian morning-show studio, with woman seated on sofa and man behind her standing at counter
Studio set of HRT's morning show Dobro jutro Hrvatska in February 2008

As of May 2014, there are eleven nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels, with HRT's four channels, RTL Televizija operating three, Nova TV operating two and the remaining two operated by the Croatian Olympic Committee and Author d.o.o. companies and the government's Central State Administrative Office for e-Croatia. All ten DVB-T television channels are free-to-air and privately owned, except for HRT's channels and the Moja uprava channel (which are publicly owned broadcasters).[23] Doma TV is part of the Nova TV group.[24] Since 2007 television audience measurement is conducted by the Nielsen Company using 1,086 peoplemeters, and it is applied to terrestrial, cable and satellite TV. As of January 2012 HRT, RTL Televizija and Nova TV are using the service.[25][26]

HRT 1, Nova TV and RTL Televizija channels' programmes are not specialized and comprise news, a variety of scripted and unscripted entertainment, as well as documentaries. HRT2, Doma TV and RTL 2 channels, carry similar type of programmes, except for absence of news.[27] In addition, Croatian Radiotelevision is legally required to produce and broadcast programmes covering education of youths, aimed at the Croatian diaspora, national minorities in Croatia, preservation of cultural and natural heritage, protection of the environment, promotion of democracy and civil society, and support national production of films, television programme and music.[28] Other nationwide channels are specialized providing informational programmes, covering sports or music.[29]

Nationwide free-to-air DVB-T television channels in Croatia[23]
Name Owner Programming Type Ratings (4+) Year MUX
HRT 1 Hrvatska radiotelevizija General Public broadcaster 17,83% 1956* A
HRT 2 Hrvatska radiotelevizija General Public broadcaster 6,05% 1972* A
HRT 3 Hrvatska radiotelevizija Scientific Documentary Culture Public broadcaster 1,78% 1988* B
HRT 4 Hrvatska radiotelevizija News Public broadcaster 3,41% 2012* B
Nova TV Nova TV General Private channel 23,26% 2000 A
RTL RTL Hrvatska General Private channel 13,40% 2004 A
Doma TV Nova TV Series Private channel 5,48% 2011 B
RTL 2 RTL Hrvatska Series Private channel 4,29% 2011 B
SPTV HOO TV Sport Private channel 0% 2011 D
RTL Kockica RTL Hrvatska Kids and Family Private channel 2,70% 2014 D
CMC Author Music Private channel 1,42% 2011 D
*Note: Until 1990 as JRT Television Zagreb[2]

Regional and local channels

Orange, red and white TV studio, with blue chairs and gray camera
An RTL talk show studio

There are 21 regional (or local) DVB-T television channels operating in Croatia in MUX D. The number of channels broadcasting in individual regions varies from one to four, while some local DVB-T television local-allotment regions are vacant as of December 2011. Four regional (or local) television channels are broadcast in more than one allotment region. All regional and local channels are free-to-air.[23] As of January 2012 Z1 televizija is measuring its audience with the Nielsen Company's peoplemeters for terrestrial, cable and satellite TV.[25][26]

Regional and local free-to-air DVB-T television channels in Croatia[23]
Name Region Programming Type Year
Plava Vinkovačka D1 Regional Private broadcaster 201?
Televizija Slavonije i Baranje (STV) D1 Regional Private broadcaster 1992
Osječka televizija D1 Regional Private broadcaster 2007
Slavonskobrodska televizija (SBTV) D2 Regional Private broadcaster 200?
Plava TV D2 Regional Private broadcaster 2017
Varaždinska televizija (VTV Varaždin) D3 Regional Private broadcaster 1999
OTV D4 Regional Private broadcaster 1989
Mreža TV D4 Regional Private broadcaster 20??
Z1 Televizija (Z1) D4 Regional Private broadcaster 2002
Trend TV d44, d45, d46 Local Private broadcaster 2003
Laudato TV d44, d45, d46 Local Private broadcaster 2015
Kanal RI D5 Regional Private broadcaster 1999
TV Nova D5 Regional Private broadcaster 1996
Diadora TV D7 Regional Private broadcaster 2018
TV Jadran D8 Regional Private broadcaster 2001
Libertas TV D9 Regional Private broadcaster 2018
Televizija Zapad L-ZA Local Private broadcaster 2009


TV director's console, with many monitors on wall
Television director's desk at HRT

Experimental high-definition television (HDTV) broadcasting began in Zagreb in March 2007; it was expanded to Split, Rijeka and Osijek in 2008. Experimental broadcasting in HD ended in February 2011.[30] There were two experimental HDTV channels, operated by Croatian Radiotelevision and Nova TV. Pursuant to the digital television switchover developed by the Government of Croatia, broadcasting of DVB-T HDTV channels was conducted in MPEG-4.[31][32] On 11 October 2011 experimental DVB-T2 broadcasting began in Zagreb, using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC coding and a conditional access system.[33]


There are three active multiplexes (MUX) in Croatia. MUX A and MUX B are reserved for nationwide channels, and MUX D is used for local and nationwide channels. MUX A broadcasts HRT 1, HRT 2, RTL and Nova TV channels. MUX B broadcasts HRT 3, HRT 4, RTL 2 and Doma TV. MUX D broadcasts three nationwide channels Sportska televizija (SPTV), RTL Kockica and Croatian Music Channel (CMC) in addition to local TV channels.[23]

Competition for two channels in MUX B was announced in July 2010, and HAKOM received offers for the following channels: RTL 2, Doma TV, OBN and KN. Finally, licenses were given to RTL 2 and Doma TV.[34] RTL2 and Doma TV began broadcasting on 2 January 2011. Licences for broadcasting in the national segment of Mux D were given to Croatian Music Channel (CMC), Sportska Televizija (owned by the Croatian Olympic Committee) and KN in December 2010. They started broadcasting in late March and early April 2011.[23]

KN was originally broadcast in MUX B; as holder of a license for a testing period, they won an experimental 6-month period license (and later switched to MUX D, which carries both local and nationwide services simultaneously). MUX B also carries two new channels—HRT 3 and HRT 4. The two are expected to begin broadcasting by the end of 2012.[35]

IPTV, cable and satellite television

T-Hrvatski Telekom headquarters, a tall building with a red T on the side
Headquarters of T-Hrvatski Telekom (T-HT), the largest IPTV provider in Croatia

IPTV is recording rapid market growth; between 2009 and 2010, the number of households subscribed to an IPTV service grew by 23 percent to nearly 300,000. In terms of IPTV density Croatia is the fifth-ranked market in the world, trailing only Singapore, Hong Kong, Cyprus and Estonia.[37] The number rose further by the third quarter of 2011 to a total of 349,138 households, representing 23.6 percent of Croatian households. At the same time there were 144,439 households with cable television connections and 104,635 households with satellite television reception (representing 9.8 and 7.1 percent of households in Croatia, respectively).[15] The leading IPTV provider in Croatia is T-Hrvatski Telekom (T-HT) with its MaxTV service, while A1 Hrvatska (until 1 October 2018 Vipnet)-owned is the leading cable-television provider in the country (since 1 October 2018 has become part of A1 IPTV).[38] Since 2009, some providers offer HDTV reception of IPTV channels.[39] Other IPTV providers include Optima, Iskon (owned by T-HT), Amis etc. The IPTV and satellite-TV (Maxtv SAT, A1 SAT, Total TV etc.) providers normally carry all channels otherwise available in DVB-T, with additional channels (produced in Croatia and abroad) available through various subscription plans. A significant proportion of the foreign channels are localized through dubbing (rarely) or subtitles. The two largest IPTV and cable TV providers offer 31 channels produced in Croatia (or specifically for Croatia), in addition to those broadcasting in DVB-T.[40][41][42] Viewership of cable and satellite TV channels broadcast by HRT, RTL, Nova TV and Z1 Televizija is measured by Nielsen Company peoplemeters.[25][26]

Croatian IPTV/cable/satellite TV
only channels:[40][41][42][43]
Name Programming
Arena Sport 1 Sport
Arena Sport 2 Sport
Arena Sport 3 Sport
Arena Sport 4 Sport
Arena Sport 5 Sport
Arena Sport 6 Sport
Arena Sport 7 Sport
Arena Sport 8 Sport
Arena Sport 9 Sport
Arena Sport 10 Sport
GP1 Sport
Fight Channel Sport
Jugoton TV Music
DMC TV Music
Kino TV Movie
Cinestar Action and Thriller Entertainment & Lifestyle
Cinestar Premiere 1 & 2 Movie
CineStar TV Entertainment & Lifestyle
Full TV Business
Hit TV Music
Kanal 5 Regional
Klasik TV Entertainment & Lifestyle Documentary
Mini Nova Children
Orlando TV Children
Orlando Kids Children
Narodna Televizija Music
RTL Crime Series
RTL Passion Series
RTL Living Series
Saborska televizija Parliament TV
Top Shop TV Infomercial
Več News
Zdrava TV-7 Entertainment & Lifestyle
Viasat History Documentaries
N1 News
Viasat Explore Documentaries
Viasat Nature Documentaries
National Geographic Documentaries
History 1 and 2 Documentaries
National Geographic Wild Documentaries
RT News
CNN News
Klasik TV Old Yugoslav Movies
TV 1000 Movies
Euronews News
FOX Movies
HBO Movies
Nickelodeon Childrens
MTV Music

Dedicated satellite channels

Light-colored satellite dishes on the HRT building in Zagreb
Satellite dishes at the HRT building in Zagreb

HRT broadcasts dedicated satellite channels for Europe and the Middle East, North and South America, Australia and New Zealand; viewing the channels requires a subscription.[44] Channels broadcast to Europe and the Middle East via the Eutelsat 16A satellite (using Viaccess conditional access) are HRT 1, HRT 2, HRT 3 and HRT 4. The satellite channels are also used to transmit three free-to-air radio channels produced by HRT.[45]

Croatian satellite channels:[45][46][47]
Name Programming Area Encryption Satellite
HRT 1 General Europe and Middle East FTA/Viaccess 3.0 Eutelsat 16A
HRT 2 General Europe and Middle East Viaccess 3.0 Eutelsat 16A
HRT 3 Scientific Documentary Culture Europe and Middle East Viaccess 3.0 Eutelsat 16A
HRT 4 News Europe and Middle East FTA/Viaccess 3.0 Eutelsat 16A

Market regulation

The television industry in Croatia is regulated by the Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries (HAKOM). HAKOM was established by the Electronic Communications Act of 26 June 2008; pursuant to Article 5 of the act, HAKOM is tasked with promoting and safeguarding market competition and the interests of service users in the field of electronic communication services and infrastructure, while contributing to the development of the internal market of the European Union.[48] HAKOM's goals include ensuring sustainable development of the electronic communications market at affordable prices for consumers, providing fair conditions for return on investment in the market and contributing to the quality of life in Croatia.[49] Further regulation of the television is performed by the Electronic Media Council, which enacts mandatory regulation applying to both state-run and privately owned broadcasters based in Croatia. One such regulation, aimed at protection of minors, restricts depictions of violence, sexual intercourse, profanity, use of intoxicating substances and tobacco and other scenes which may be harmful to development of minors between seven in the morning and nine, ten or eleven in the evening, depending on rating of specific programme—advising that the programme is not suitable for persons under 12, 15 or 18 years of age respectively. The restriction does not apply to educational, documentary, science or news programming.[50]

HAKOM grants, evaluates and revokes broadcast licenses for all forms of electronic communications in Croatia, approves mergers of communications-industry companies, imposes fines on those who are found to be in breach of applicable regulation and conducts constant supervision of the industry.[48]

Language localisation

National legislation requires that all television programmes broadcasts in Croatia are made in Croatian or with appropriate translations either using dubbing or subtitling. In general, all foreign programming is subtitled, except for cartoons and narrated parts of documentaries and similar programmes. An attempt to change this was made by Nova TV in 2006, when a soap opera was dubbed, but the move provoked negative response from viewers and critics, causing the experiment to be abandoned.[51] The legislation does not provide for mutually intelligible languages. That led to formal requests made by the Electronic Media Council demanding language localisation of television programmes made in Serbian.[52] Ultimately, that issue was resolved through subtitling using teletext service normally used for closed captioning.[53]

Social impact

Television in Croatia, as all other media in the country are criticized for lack of balance of global issues and trends on one hand and national topics covered on the other. All major television networks in Croatia are generally thought to be under excessive influence of commercialism. This is viewed through international ownership structures of the privately owned television broadcasters having little regard for promotion of national culture and social issues, as well as through efforts of the state-run HRT to attract advertisers through programming that is thought to appeal to the viewers the best in spite of regulation of programming content and restricted advertising at HRT.[54][55] The HRT is limited by a special legislation regulating that broadcaster to four minutes of advertising in prime time period between 6 and 10 in the evening.[28] On the other hand, HRT receives income from a fee charged to owners of television sets in Croatia in the amount of 1.5% of average monthly net wage in Croatia.[56] In 2012, the fee charged is 80 kunas (c. 10.60 Euros).[57] In 2010, annual income of HRT generated by the fee amounted to 1.2 billion kunas (c. 160 million Euros).[58]

Even though social impact of television in Croatia is considered to be imperfect and that of variable quality, television is important in the society because it offers a way for non-governmental organizations to communicate their concerns to the public and to criticize the government and other aspects of politics of Croatia.[55] Television is the most widespread source of information in Croatia—on average 57% of the population of Croatia uses television as their primary source of information. That percentage varies significantly by geographic region—from 43% in Zagreb and areas surrounding the capital to 79% in Slavonia—but in every region it surpasses all other sources of information, the second most widely used source of information being the Internet averaging at 19%.[59] In 2014 there were 1.755 million registered television sets in the country.[60]

Population using television as their primary source of information[59]
Geographic region Population percentage
Slavonia 79%
Lika, Kordun, Banovina 63%
Northern Croatia 61%
Northern Croatian Littoral 59%
Dalmatia 47%
Zagreb and surrounding areas 43%
Average 57%

Former Channels

Velebit TV - Gospić along from Čakovec

TVI - Pazin

K5 - Split

See also


  1. ^ a b Ivana Rimac; Ivana Živko (26 August 2008). "1939. prva TV slika u Hrvatskoj" [The first TV image in Croatia in 1939] (in Croatian). Jutarnji list. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "The Evolution of Croatian Radio and Television". Croatian Radiotelevision. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  3. ^ "O nama" [About us] (in Croatian). Nova TV (Croatia). Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  4. ^ "RTL počeo emitirati program" [RTL program starts airing] (in Croatian). 30 April 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  5. ^ a b "About us". Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  6. ^ Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). "Culture and arts". Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). Vol. 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 543. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  7. ^ a b "Strategies and Studies". Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  8. ^ "Karta gašenja analognog signala" [Map of analog signal shutdown]. Vlada Republike Hrvatske –službeni web portal (in Croatian). Government of Croatia. 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  9. ^ "Rokovi gašenja analogne TV" [Deadlines for analog TV shutdown] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 8 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  10. ^ "DIGITALNI PROBLEMI Milna na Braču - crna TV rupa" [Digital problems: Milna on the island of Brač - a black TV hole]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). 7 October 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Croatia to convert to digital broadcasting in 2011". Government of Croatia. 31 July 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  12. ^ "Kupon za popust pri kupnji digitalnog prijamnika – tijek realizacije od podjele kupona do isplate trgovcima" [Digital receiver purchase discount coupons – implementation from distribution of the coupons to reimbursement of retailers] (in Croatian). Government of Croatia. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  13. ^ "DVB-T – Television of the New Era". Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  14. ^ "DTV – Plan and status". Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  15. ^ a b "Tromjesečni usporedni podaci tržišta elektroničkih komunikacija u Republici Hrvatskoj, treće tromjesečje 2011. godine" [Quarterly comparative data on electronic communications market in the Republic of Croatia, Third quarter of 2011] (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  16. ^ a b c d "Odašiljači digitalne televizije" [Digital television transmitters] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  17. ^ "HAKOM intenzivno radi na uklanjanju smetnji u digitalnom TV signalu na području Istre" [HAKOM strives to remedy interference of digital TV signal in Istria]. Nacional (weekly) (in Croatian). 16 December 2010. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  18. ^ Sanja Stapić (9 February 2011). "Nećemo dopustiti da Dalmacija i Istra gledaju samo talijanske programe" [We shall not leave Dalmatia and Istria to receive only Italian channels]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  19. ^ "Priopćenje uprave OIV-a na probleme u prijemu DVB-T signala zbog smetnji iz Italije" [Communique of OIV management regarding problems in DVB-T signal reception caused by interference from Italy] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  20. ^ "Riješen problem ometanja digitalnog signala hrvatskih televizija iz odašiljača s područja Italije" [Problem caused by interference of Croatian television digital signal by Italy based transmitters resolved]. Novi list (in Croatian). 26 August 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  21. ^ "Smetnje u Istri – rješenje na vidiku?" [Interference in Istria – resolution at hand?]. Croatian Radiotelevision. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  22. ^ "Vodič do boljeg TV signala" [A guide to a better TV signal]. Glas Istre (in Croatian). 22 August 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Popis programa i servisa digitalne televizije" [List of Digital Television Programmes and Services] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  24. ^ "O name" [About us] (in Croatian). Doma TV. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  25. ^ a b c "Mjerač gledanosti programa" [Program audience meter]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 12 July 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  26. ^ a b c "TAM Overview". Nielsen Company. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  27. ^ "Što nam donosi jesen na televiziji?" [What will autumn bring on the TV?] (in Croatian). 27 August 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  28. ^ a b "Prihvaćen Zakon o HRT-u" [HRT Act passed] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  29. ^ Božena Matijević; Andro Bernardić; Damir Mrvec (16 December 2010). "Ništa novo na pet novih programa" [Nothing new on five new channels]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  30. ^ "DVB-T – Television of the New Era". Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  31. ^ "DVB-T odašiljanje u HDTV kvaliteti" [DVB-T transmitting in HDTV quality] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  32. ^ "Produkcija Nove TV u posljednjem kriku HD tehnologije" [Nova TV production using the latest HD technology] (in Croatian). Nova TV (Croatia). 6 August 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  33. ^ "DVB-T2 experimental broadcasting". Odašiljači i veze. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  34. ^ Božena Matijević; Antonio Mandir (28 December 2010). "Na dvije nove televizije u početku tek tri nove domaće emisije" [Two new television channels with only three new nationally produced shows]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  35. ^ "Programska mjesta HRT3 i HRT4 u mreži MUX B" [HRT3 and HRT4 channel slots in MUX B network] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  36. ^ "Popis programa i servisa digitalne televizije" [List of digital television programmes and services] (in Croatian). Odašiljači i veze. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  37. ^ Marinko Petković (27 February 2011). "Telekomi u minusu zbog smanjene potrošnje korisnika" [Telecom operators in red due to reduced user spending]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  38. ^ Merita Arslani (8 June 2011). "Udar na HT: Vipnet kupio za 93 milijuna eura i ušao na novo tržište" [Action against HT: Vipnet buys for 93 million euro and enters a new market]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  39. ^ "Započinje komercijalno korištenje MAXtv HD usluge" [Commercial use of MAXtv HD service starts] (in Croatian). PC Chip. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  40. ^ a b "Osnovni Extra paket" [Basic Extra Package] (in Croatian). T-Hrvatski Telekom. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  41. ^ a b "Sportski paket" [Sports Package] (in Croatian). T-Hrvatski Telekom. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  42. ^ a b "Ponuda programa" [Programming available] (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  43. ^ "OIDC Form_Post Response". Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  44. ^ "HRT broadcasting via satellite". Croatian Radiotelevision. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  45. ^ a b "Broadcasting via satellite for Europe and Middle East". Croatian Radiotelevision. 1 January 2012.
  46. ^ "Broadcasting HRT programmes via satellite for Australia and New Zealand". Croatian Radiotelevision. 1 January 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  47. ^ "Broadcasting HRT programmes via satellite for North America". Croatian Radiotelevision. 1 January 2012.
  48. ^ a b "Zakon o elektroničkim komunikacijama" [Electronic Communications Act]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 26 June 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  49. ^ "Mission, values, goals". Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  50. ^ "Pravilnik o zaštiti maloljetnika" [Regulation on protection of minors] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  51. ^ Siniša Pavić (7 December 2006). "Švarci (ne)će "šprehati" hrvatski" [Schwarzie will (not) "sprechen" Croatian]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  52. ^ Milena Zajović (27 January 2012). "'Ko nas bre prevodi?' – Vijeće zna da je zakon loš, ali ga ipak provodi" ["Who's translating us?" - The Council knows that the legislation is poor, but it enforces it anyway]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  53. ^ "Eureka! HRT našao rješenje za sporno titlovanje srpskih filmova" [Eureka! Croatian Radiotelevision finds solution to disputed subtitling of Serbian films]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). 2 February 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  54. ^ Stjepan Malović (2005). "Odnos masovnih medija i kulture" [Relationship of mass media and culture]. Kolo (in Croatian) (2). Matica hrvatska. ISSN 1331-0992. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  55. ^ a b Ivana Čerkez (March 2009). "Osnovna obilježja medijske komunikacije u demokratskoj kulturi" [The basic characteristics of media communications in a democratic culture]. Socijalna Ekologija: Journal for Environmental Thought and Sociological Research (in Croatian). 18 (1). Croatian Sociological Society, Institute of Sociology at Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb: 28–45. ISSN 1330-0113. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  56. ^ "Zakon o Hrvatskoj radioteleviziji" [Croatian Radiotelevision Act] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. 19 February 2003. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  57. ^ "Odobreni veći prosvjedi; Milanović: Brodogradnja će opstati; HRT ostaje na 80 kn" [Larger protests approved; Milanović: Shipbuilding shall survive; HRT remains at 80 kuna]. Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). 15 March 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  58. ^ Lidija Kiseljak (17 October 2010). "Država HRT-u dala više nego što su svi drugi zaradili na oglasima" [The state gave HRT more than everyone else earned through advertising]. Večernji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  59. ^ a b "Hrvati najviše koriste televiziju kao izvor informiranja" [Croats most often use television as a source of information] (in Croatian). Poslovni dnevnik. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  60. ^ Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2015). "Culture and arts". Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 [Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia 2015] (PDF). Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English). Vol. 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. p. 544. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 27 December 2015.