Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system that uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high or enhanced definition. "Standard" refers to offering a similar resolution to the analog broadcast systems used when it was introduced.
The two SDTV signal types are 576i (with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems), and 480i (with 480 interlaced lines of resolution, based on the American NTSC system). SDTV refresh rates are 25, 29.97 and 30 frames per second, again based on the analog systems mentioned.
SDTV originated from the need for a standard to digitize analog TV (defined in BT.601) and is now used for digital TV broadcasts and home appliances such as game consoles and DVD disc players.
Standards that support digital SDTV broadcast include DVB, ATSC, and ISDB. The last two were originally developed for HDTV, but are also used for their ability to deliver multiple SD video and audio streams via multiplexing.
Digital SDTV broadcast eliminates the ghosting and noisy images associated with analog systems. However, if the reception has interference or is poor, where the error correction cannot compensate one will encounter various other artifacts such as image freezing, stuttering, or dropouts from missing intra-frames or blockiness from missing macroblocks.[a]
In North America, digital SDTV is broadcast in the same 4:3 aspect ratio as NTSC signals, with widescreen content often being center cut.
In other parts of the world that used the PAL or SECAM color systems, digital standard-definition television is now usually shown with a 16:9 aspect ratio, with the transition occurring between the mid-1990s and late-2000s depending on the region. Older programs with a 4:3 aspect ratio are broadcast with a flag that switches the display to 4:3.[b]
The table below summarizes pixel aspect ratios for the scaling of various kinds of SDTV video lines.
|Video format||Display aspect ratio (DAR)||Resolution||Pixel aspect ratio (PAR)||After horizontal scaling|
|480i||4:3||704 × 480 (horizontal blanking cropped)||10:11||640 × 480|
|720 × 480 (full frame)||655 × 480|
|480i||16:9||704 × 480 (horizontal blanking cropped)||40:33||854 × 480|
|720 × 480 (full frame)||873 × 480|
|576i||4:3||704 × 576 (horizontal blanking cropped)||12:11||768 × 576|
|720 × 576 (full frame)||788 × 576|
|576i||16:9||704 × 576 (horizontal blanking cropped)||16:11||1024 × 576|
|720 × 576 (full frame)||1050 × 576|
The pixel aspect ratio is the same for 720- and 704-pixel resolutions because the visible image (be it 4:3 or 16:9) is contained in the center 704 horizontal pixels of the digital frame. In the case of a digital video line having 720 horizontal pixels (including horizontal blanking), only the center 704 pixels contain the actual 4:3 or 16:9 image, and the 8-pixel-wide stripes on either side are called nominal analog blanking or horizontal blanking and should be discarded when displaying the image. Nominal analog blanking should not be confused with overscan, as overscan areas are part of the actual 4:3 or 16:9 image.
For SMPTE 259M-C compliance, an SDTV broadcast image is scaled to 720 pixels wide[c] for every 480 NTSC (or 576 PAL) lines of the image with the amount of non-proportional line scaling dependent on either the display or pixel aspect ratio. The display ratio for broadcast widescreen is commonly 16:9,[d] the display ratio for a traditional or letterboxed broadcast is 4:3.[e]
An SDTV image outside the constraints of the SMPTE standards requires no non-proportional scaling with 640 pixels[f] for every line of the image. The display and pixel aspect ratio is generally not required with the line height defining the aspect. For widescreen 16:9, 360 lines define a widescreen image and for traditional 4:3, 480 lines define an image.