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The simultaneous PAL transmission of all TV-picture elements and the multiplexed transmission of the TV picture elements with D2-MAC.
625-lines MAC signal. From left to right: digital data, chrominance and luminance. Both fields (odd and even lines) are shown.

Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC) was an analog television standard where luminance and chrominance components were transmitted separately.[1][2] This was an evolution from older color TV systems (such as PAL or SECAM) where there was interference between chrominance and luminance.

MAC was originally proposed in the 1980s[2] for use on a Europe-wide terrestrial HDTV system. Terrestrial transmission tests were conducted in France, although the system was never used for that purpose. Various variants were developed, collectively known as the "MAC/packet" family.[3]

In 1985 MAC was recommended for satellite and cable broadcasts by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), with specific variants for each medium. C-MAC/packet was intended for Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), D-MAC/packet for wide-band cable, and D2-MAC/packet for both for DBS and narrow-band cable.[3][4][5]

History

MAC was originally developed by the Independent Broadcasting Authority[6][7] in the early 1980, as a system for delivering high quality pictures via direct broadcast satellites, that would be independent of European countries' choice of terrestrial colour-coding standard.[8]

In 1982,[6] MAC was adopted as the transmission format for the UK's forthcoming DBS television services,[7] eventually provided by British Satellite Broadcasting. The following year, MAC was adopted by the EBU as the standard for all DBS broadcasts.[3]

By 1986, despite there being two variants (D-MAC and D2-MAC) favoured by different countries, an EU Directive imposed MAC on the national DBS broadcasters. The justification was to provide a stepping stone from analogue formats (PAL and SECAM) the future HD and digital television, placing european TV manufacturers in a privileged position to provide the equipment required.

However, the Astra satellite system was also starting up at this time (the first satellite, Astra 1A, was launched in 1989), operating outside of the EU's MAC requirements, due to being a non-DBS satellite.[9][10]

Despite further pressure from the EU (including a Directive to make MAC compulsory in TV sets, and subsidies to broadcasters using MAC), most broadcasters outside of Scandinavia preferred the lower costs of PAL equipment, and the system had a limited adoption.[11]

In the 2000s, the use of D-MAC and D2-MAC ceased when satellite broadcasts changed to DVB-S format.[12]

Broadcast Variants

A number of broadcast variants exist, according to the way the digital signals are multiplexed with the MAC vision signal.[13]

Studio (non-broadcast) MAC variants

S-MAC or Studio MAC is a non-broadcast variant, used mostly in North America. The main advantages of this variant are:

Technical overview

MAC transmits luminance and chrominance data separately in time[26] rather than separately in frequency (as other analog television formats do, such as composite video). This allows for full separation of the components. The signals are also time-compressed (with ratios of 3:2 for luminance and 3:1 for chrominance) and the two color difference signals are transmitted on alternate lines,[27][26] further increasing compression. The color space was YPbPr,[27] with a luminance component and red blue color difference chrominance components.

Audio and scrambling (selective access)

Technical details

In MAC color is encoded using the YPbPr color space.[27] Luma () is derived from red, green, and blue () after gamma-correction (formula similar to PAL): [27]

Color information is computed based on and differences, generating two compressed and weighted color-difference signals know in older MAC references as and or and .[27] To avoid any confusion, and since the signals are analogue and bi-polar, these terms were replaced by and .[27]

and are used to transmit chrominance. On C-MAC, D-MAC and D2-MAC the following formulas apply:

Luminance signal range is -0.5 to 0.5 volts; color difference signals vary between -0.65 to 0.65 volts.

The following table lists the main technical parameters of the various MAC variants:[28]

B-MAC (525-line) B-MAC (625-line) C-MAC D-MAC D2-MAC
Frame Frequency 29.97 25
Lines per frame 525 625
Aspect Ratio 4:3 / 16:9
Display Gamma 2.2 2.8
Primary chromaticities (x y) Red: 0.67, 0.33; Green: 0.21, 0.71; Blue: 0.14, 0.08
White point (x y) D65: 0.313, 0.329
Luminance
Colour difference

Transmitted chrominance

Sampling frequency (MHz) 14.318 14.219 13.500
Uncompressed bandwidth (MHz) 4.2 5.0 5.6
Luminance clock periods 750 696
Chrominance clock periods 375 348

MAC system innovations

Mathematical:

Broadcast engineering:

Technical challenges

Although the MAC technique is capable of superior video quality, (similar to the improvement of component video over composite in a DVD player), its major drawback was that this quality was only ever realized when the video signals being transmitted remained in component form from source to transmitter. If at any stage the video had to be handled in composite form, the necessary encoding/decoding processes would severely degrade the picture quality.

Countries and territories that used MAC

This is a list of nations that used the MAC standard for television broadcasting:

Technological obsolescence

Since the vast majority of TV stations and similar installations were only wired for composite video, the fitting of a MAC transmitter at the end of the chain had the effect of degrading the transmitted image quality, rather than improving it.

For this and other technical reasons, MAC systems never really caught on with broadcasters. MAC transmission technology was made obsolete by the radically new digital systems (like DVB-T and ATSC) in the late 1990s.

See also

TV transmission systems:

References

  1. ^ ITU Radiocommunication Assembly (1992). RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BO.650-2 - Standards for conventional television systems for satellite broadcasting in the channels defined by Appendix 30 of the Radio Regulations (PDF). p. 18.
  2. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (8 October 2009). "D2-MAC [1 record] - TERMIUM Plus® — Search - TERMIUM Plus®". www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca.
  3. ^ a b c Mertens, Henri; Wood, David (1 February 1986). "Standards proposed by the EBU for satellite broadcasting and cable distribution". Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers. 56 (2): 53–61. doi:10.1049/jiere.1986.0020 – via digital-library.theiet.org.
  4. ^ Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (8 October 2009). "D2-MAC [1 record] - TERMIUM Plus® — Search - TERMIUM Plus®". www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca.
  5. ^ "Glossary and acronyms". Europe's Information Society. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  6. ^ a b Robson, T.S. (19 September 1982). "Why IBA says MAC for Europe". Electronics and Power. 28 (9): 578–580. doi:10.1049/ep.1982.0302 – via IEEE Xplore.
  7. ^ a b c J.N., Slater (1991). Modern Television Systems : To HDTV and Beyond (PDF). p. 60. ISBN 0-203-26370-7.
  8. ^ "World Analogue Television Standards and Waveforms - Colour Standards". www.pembers.freeserve.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
  9. ^ Kleinsteuber, Hans (2 November 2016). "New Media Technologies in Europe: the Politics of Satellite, HDTV and DAB". Irish Communication Review. 5 (1). doi:10.21427/D7FB12. ISSN 0791-0010.
  10. ^ Krieger, Jörn; Forrester, Chris (2011), Forrester, Chris (ed.), "07 Astra Cracks the German Market", High Above: The untold story of Astra, Europe's leading satellite company, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 100–107, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12009-1_7, ISBN 978-3-642-12009-1, retrieved 19 March 2023
  11. ^ Pauchon, B. (1992). "Analogue HDTV In Europe - What are the key issues with analogue HDTV/EDTV systems ?" (PDF). EBU Technical Review. Autumn 1992: 7.
  12. ^ High Above Broadgate Publications (April, 2010).
  13. ^ Report 1074-1 - Satellite transmission of multiplexed analogue component (MAC) vision signals (PDF). ITU. 1990. p. 48.
  14. ^ Conradie, D.G. (19 June 1988). "The SABC's TV/radio satellite distribution system". COMSIG 88@m_Southern African Conference on Communications and Signal Processing. Proceedings. pp. 51–55. doi:10.1109/COMSIG.1988.49301. ISBN 0-87942-709-4. S2CID 131163463 – via IEEE Xplore.
  15. ^ "8.3 Multiplexed Analogue Components Transmissions". happy.emu.id.au.
  16. ^ a b c d e Buiting, J. (1990). "Introduction to Duobinary Encoding and Decoding" (PDF). Elektor Electronics. January 1990: 50–52.
  17. ^ a b c RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BO.650-2 - Standards for conventional television systems for satellite broadcasting in the channels defined by Appendix 30 of the Radio Regulations (PDF). ITU. 1992. p. 5.
  18. ^ Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (8 October 2009). "D2-MAC [1 record] - TERMIUM Plus® — Search - TERMIUM Plus®". www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca.
  19. ^ "Glossary and acronyms". Europe's Information Society. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  20. ^ "NORDIC SATELLITES : 5E - 1W". www.sat-net.com. 1998. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  21. ^ "THE NORDEN SAT-TV FREQUENCIES". SAT-CODEZ. 1997. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  22. ^ fu, mali (1 September 1989). "D2-Mac ist kein Luxus-Whopper". Die Tageszeitung: taz (in German). p. 20. ISSN 0931-9085. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  23. ^ Vulser, Nicole; Marti, Régis (16 December 1991). "TVHD: l'Allemagne tentée de lâcher la France sur le D2 MAC". Les Echos.
  24. ^ "Fast ein Geschenk". Der Spiegel (in German). 28 October 1990. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  25. ^ Fox, Barry (7 July 1990). "Technology: Europe's high-definition TV catches the match". New Scientist.
  26. ^ a b ITU (1990). Report 1074-1 Satellite transmission of multiplexed analogue component (MAC) vision signals (PDF).
  27. ^ a b c d e f Slater, Jim (1991). Modern Television Systems to HDTV and beyond (PDF). pp. 62–65. ISBN 0-203-26370-7.
  28. ^ RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BO.650-2 - Standards for conventional television systems for satellite broadcasting in the channels defined by Appendix 30 of the Radio Regulations (PDF). ITU. 1992. p. 10.
  29. ^ Conradie, D.G. (19 June 1988). "The SABC's TV/radio satellite distribution system". COMSIG 88@m_Southern African Conference on Communications and Signal Processing. Proceedings. pp. 51–55. doi:10.1109/COMSIG.1988.49301. ISBN 0-87942-709-4. S2CID 131163463 – via IEEE Xplore.
  30. ^ "8.3 Multiplexed Analogue Components Transmissions". happy.emu.id.au.
  31. ^ Robson, T.S. (19 September 1982). "Why IBA says MAC for Europe". Electronics and Power. 28 (9): 578–580. doi:10.1049/ep.1982.0302 – via IEEE Xplore.
  32. ^ Government of Canada, Public Works and Government Services Canada (8 October 2009). "D2-MAC [1 record] - TERMIUM Plus® — Search - TERMIUM Plus®". www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca.
  33. ^ a b c Mertens, Henri; Wood, David (1 February 1986). "Standards proposed by the EBU for satellite broadcasting and cable distribution". Journal of the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers. 56 (2): 53–61. doi:10.1049/jiere.1986.0020 – via digital-library.theiet.org.