Gdynia
00 sea towers (April 2018).jpg
Container terminals in Gdynia.jpg
Flag of Gdynia
POL Gdynia COA.svg
Motto(s): 
Uśmiechnij się, jesteś w Gdyni
(Smile, you're in Gdynia)
Gdynia is located in Poland
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Pomeranian Voivodeship
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Europe
Gdynia
Gdynia
Gdynia is located in Baltic Sea
Gdynia
Gdynia
Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°32′E / 54.500°N 18.533°E / 54.500; 18.533
CountryPoland
VoivodeshipPomeranian Voivodeship
Countycity county
City rights10 February 1926
Boroughs22 districts
Government
 • City mayorWojciech Szczurek
Area
 • City391,506 km2 (151,161 sq mi)
Highest elevation
205 m (673 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2020)
 • City244,104 Decrease (12th)[1]
 • Density1,820/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,080,700
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
81-004 to 81-919
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGA
International airportGdańsk (GDN)
Websitehttp://www.gdynia.pl

Gdynia[a] is a city in northern Poland and a seaport on the Baltic Sea coast. With a population of 244,969, it is the 12th-largest city in Poland and the second-largest in the Pomeranian Voivodeship after Gdańsk.[1] Gdynia is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto) with around 1,000,000 inhabitants.

Historically and culturally part of Kashubia and Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia for centuries remained a small fishing village. By the 20th-century it attracted visitors as a seaside resort town. In 1926, Gdynia was granted city rights after which it enjoyed demographic and urban development, with a modernist cityscape. It became a major seaport city of Poland. In 1970, protests in and around Gdynia contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in nearby Gdańsk.

The port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the cruising itinerary of luxury passenger ships and ferries travelling to Scandinavia. Gdynia's downtown, designated a historical monument of Poland in 2015, is an example of building an integrated European community and includes Functionalist architectural forms.[2][3] Its axis is based around 10 Lutego Street and connects the main train station with the Southern Pier. The city is also known for holding the annual Gdynia Film Festival. In 2013, Gdynia was ranked by readers of The News as Poland's best city to live in, and topped the national rankings in the category of "general quality of life".[4] In 2021, the city entered the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and was named UNESCO City of Film.[5]

History

Early history

Medieval St. Michael Archangel Church is the oldest building in Gdynia
Medieval St. Michael Archangel Church is the oldest building in Gdynia

The area of the later city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania). In prehistoric times, it was the center of Oksywie culture; it was later populated by Slavs with some Baltic Prussian influences. In the late 10th century, the region was united with the emerging state of Poland[6] by its first historic ruler Mieszko I. During the reign of Bolesław II, the region seceded from Poland and became independent, to be reunited with Poland in 1116/1121 by Bolesław III.[7] In 1209, the present-day district of Oksywie was first mentioned (Oxhöft). Following the fragmentation of Poland, the region became part of the Duchy of Pomerania (Eastern), which became separate from Poland in 1227, to be reunited in 1282. The first known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian (Kashubian) fishing village dates back to 1253. The first church on this part of the Baltic Sea coast was built there. In 1309–1310, the Teutonic Order invaded and annexed the region from Poland. In 1380, the owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian Order. In 1382, Gdynia became property of the Cistercian abbey in Oliwa. In 1454, King Casimir IV Jagiellon signed the of act of incorporation of the region to the Kingdom of Poland, and the Thirteen Years' War, the longest of all Polish-Teutonic wars, started. It ended in 1466, when the Teutonic Knights recognized the region as part of Poland. Administratively, Gdynia was located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship in the province of Royal Prussia[8] in the Greater Poland Province of the Kingdom of Poland and later of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1772, Gdynia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland. Gdynia, under the Germanized name Gdingen, was included within the newly formed province of West Prussia and was expropriated from the Cistercian Order. In 1789, there were only 21 houses in Gdynia. Around that time Gdynia was so small that it was not marked on many maps of the period: it was about halfway from Oksywie and Mały Kack, now districts of Gdynia. In 1871, the village became part of the German Empire. In the early 20th century Gdynia was not a poor fishing village as it is sometimes described; it had become a popular tourist spot with several guest houses, restaurants, cafés, several brick houses and a small harbour with a pier for small trading ships. The first Kashubian mayor was Jan Radtke.[9] It is estimated that around 1910 the population of Gdynia was 895 people.[10]

Following World War I, in 1918, Poland regained independence, and following the Treaty of Versailles, in 1920, Gdynia was re-integrated with the reborn Polish state. Simultaneously, the nearby city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and surrounding area was declared a free city and put under the League of Nations, though Poland was given economic liberties and requisitioned for matters of foreign representation.

Construction of the seaport

Gdynia Seaport in 1935
Gdynia Seaport in 1935

The decision to build a major seaport at Gdynia village was made by the Polish government in winter 1920,[11] in the midst of the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1920).[12] The authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Danzig felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war. German dockworkers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies sent from the West to aid the Polish army,[12] and Poland realized the need for a port city it was in complete control of, economically and politically.[citation needed]

Museum of the Navy in Gdynia
Museum of the Navy in Gdynia

Construction of Gdynia seaport started in 1921[12] but, because of financial difficulties, it was conducted slowly and with interruptions. It was accelerated after the Sejm (Polish parliament) passed the Gdynia Seaport Construction Act on 23 September 1922. By 1923 a 550-metre pier, 175 metres (574 feet) of a wooden tide breaker, and a small harbour had been constructed. Ceremonial inauguration of Gdynia as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter took place on 23 April 1923. The first major seagoing ship arrived on 13 August 1923.[citation needed]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950103,458—    
1960147,625+42.7%
1970191,500+29.7%
1980236,432+23.5%
1990251,498+6.4%
2000253,387+0.8%
2010247,324−2.4%
2020244,969−1.0%
source [13]
MS Pilsudski in Gdynia, 1935
MS Pilsudski in Gdynia, 1935

To speed up the construction works, the Polish government in November 1924 signed a contract with the French-Polish Consortium for Gdynia Seaport Construction. By the end of 1925, they had built a small seven-metre-deep harbour, the south pier, part of the north pier, a railway, and had ordered the trans-shipment equipment. The works were going more slowly than expected, however. They accelerated only after May 1926, because of an increase in Polish exports by sea, economic prosperity, the outbreak of the German–Polish trade war which reverted most Polish international trade to sea routes, and thanks to the personal engagement of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, Polish Minister of Industry and Trade (also responsible for the construction of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy). By the end of 1930 docks, piers, breakwaters, and many auxiliary and industrial installations were constructed (such as depots, trans-shipment equipment, and a rice processing factory) or started (such as a large cold store).[citation needed]

Trans-shipments rose from 10,000 tons (1924) to 2,923,000 tons (1929). At this time Gdynia was the only transit and special seaport designed for coal exports.[citation needed]

In the years 1931–1939 Gdynia harbour was further extended to become a universal seaport. In 1938 Gdynia was the largest and most modern seaport on the Baltic Sea, as well as the tenth biggest in Europe. The trans-shipments rose to 8.7 million tons, which was 46% of Polish foreign trade. In 1938 the Gdynia shipyard started to build its first full-sea ship, the Olza.[14]

Construction of the city

The city was constructed later than the seaport. In 1925 a special committee was inaugurated to build the city; city expansion plans were designed and city rights were granted in 1926, and tax privileges were granted for investors in 1927. The city started to grow significantly after 1928.

A new railway station and the Post Office were completed. The State railways extended their lines, built bridges and also constructed a group of houses for their employees. Within a few years houses were built along some 10 miles (16 km) of road leading northward from the Free City of Danzig to Gdynia and beyond. Public institutions and private employers helped their staff to build houses.
In 1933 a plan of development providing for a population of 250,000 was worked out by a special commission appointed by a government committee, in collaboration with the municipal authorities. By 1939 the population had grown to over 120,000.[15]

Gdynia during World War II (1939–1945)

Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939. The photo was taken in Kolibki district of Gdynia, next to the border with Zoppot.
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939. The photo was taken in Kolibki district of Gdynia, next to the border with Zoppot.

During the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939, Gdynia was the site of fierce Polish defense. On 13 September 1939, the Germans carried out first arrests of local Poles in the southern part of the city, while the Polish defense was still ongoing in the northern part.[16] On 14 September 1939, the Germans captured the entire city, and then occupied it until 1945. On 15–16 September, the Germans carried out further mass arrests of 7,000 Poles, while Polish soldiers still fought in nearby Kępa Oksywska.[16] The German police surrounded the city and carried out mass searches of weapons.[16] Arrested Poles were held and interrogated in churches, cinemas and halls, and then around 3,000 people were released until 18 September.[16] The occupiers established several prisons and camps for Polish people, who were afterwards either deported to concentration camps or executed.[17] Some Poles from Gdynia were executed by the Germans near Starogard Gdański in September 1939.[18] In October and November 1939, the Germans carried out public executions

of 52 Poles, including activists, bank directors and priests, in various parts of the city.[19] In November 1939, the occupiers also murdered hundreds of Poles from Gdynia during the massacres in Piaśnica committed nearby as part of the Intelligenzaktion. Among the victims were policemen, officials, civil defenders of Gdynia, judges, court employees, the director and employees of the National Bank of Poland, merchants, priests, school principals, teachers,[20] and students of local high schools.[21] On the night of 10–11 November, the German security police carried out mass arrests of over 1,500 Poles in the Obłuże district, and then murdered 23 young men aged 16-20, in retaliation for breaking windows at the headquarters of the German security police.[22]

Poles arrested by the Germans in Gdynia in September 1939
Poles arrested by the Germans in Gdynia in September 1939

On 11 November, a German gendarme shot and killed two Polish boys who were collecting Polish books from the street, which were thrown out of the windows by new German settlers in the Oksywie district.[23] The Germans renamed the city to Gotenhafen after the Goths, an ancient Germanic tribe, who had lived in the area. 10 Poles from Gdynia were also murdered by the Russians in the large Katyn massacre in April–May 1940.[24]

Some 50,000 Polish citizens, who moved to Gdynia after 1920, were expelled to the General Government (German-occupied central Poland) to make space for new German settlers in accordance with the Lebensraum policy. Local Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were also arrested and executed. The German gauleiter Albert Forster considered Kashubians of "low value" and did not support any attempts to create a Kashubian nationality. Despite such circumstances, local Poles, including Kashubians, organized Polish resistance groups, Kashubian Griffin (later Pomeranian Griffin), and the exiled "Związek Pomorski" in the United Kingdom. In 1943, local Poles managed to save some kidnapped Polish children from the Zamość region, by buying them from the Germans at the local train station.[25]

ORP Błyskawica, Polish destroyer which served in World War II, now a museum ship
ORP Błyskawica, Polish destroyer which served in World War II, now a museum ship

The harbour was transformed into a German naval base. The shipyard was expanded in 1940 and became a branch of the Kiel shipyard (Deutsche Werke Kiel A.G.). The city became an important base, due to its being relatively distant from the war theater, and many German large ships—battleships and heavy cruisers—were anchored there. During 1942, Dr Joseph Goebbels authorized relocation of Cap Arcona to Gotenhafen Harbour as a stand-in for RMS Titanic during filming of the German-produced movie Titanic, directed by Herbert Selpin.

The city was the location of two subcamps of the Stutthof concentration camp.[26] The first subcamp was located in the Orłowo district in 1941–1942, the second, named Gotenhafen, was located at the shipyard in 1944–1945.[26]

The seaport and the shipyard both witnessed several air raids by the Allies from 1943 onwards, but suffered little damage. Gdynia was used during winter 1944–45 to evacuate German troops and refugees trapped by the Red Army. Some of the ships were hit by torpedoes from Soviet submarines in the Baltic Sea on the route west. The ship Wilhelm Gustloff sank, taking about 9,400 people with her – the worst loss of life in a single sinking in maritime history. The seaport area was largely destroyed by withdrawing German troops and millions of encircled refugees in 1945 being bombarded by the Soviet military (90% of the buildings and equipment were destroyed) and the harbour entrance was blocked by the German battleship Gneisenau that had been brought to Gotenhafen for major repairs.

After World War II

Solidarity election rally in Gdynia, 1989
Solidarity election rally in Gdynia, 1989

On 28 March 1945, the city was captured by the Soviets and restored to Poland. The Soviets installed a communist regime, which stayed in power until the Fall of Communism in the 1989. Its historic name was restored, and it was assigned to the Gdańsk Voivodeship. The post-war period saw an influx of settlers from Warsaw which was destroyed by Germany, and other parts of the country as well as Poles from the cities of Wilno (now Vilnius) and Lwów (now Lviv) from the Soviet-annexed former eastern Poland. Also Greeks, refugees of the Greek Civil War, settled in the city.[27] The port of Gdynia was one of the three Polish ports through which refugees of the Greek Civil War reached Poland.[28]

On December 17th, 1970, worker demonstrations took place at Gdynia Shipyard. Workers were fired upon by the police. Janek Wiśniewski was one of 40 killed, and was commemorated in a song by Mieczysław Cholewa, Pieśń o Janku z Gdyni. One of Gdynia's important streets is named after Janek Wiśniewski. The event was also portrayed in Andrzej Wajda's movie Man of Iron.

On 4 December 1999, a storm destroyed a huge crane in a shipyard.

Geography

Climate

The climate of Gdynia is an oceanic climate owing to its position of the Baltic Sea, which moderates the temperatures, compared to the interior of Poland. The climate is cool throughout the year and there is a somewhat uniform precipitation throughout the year. Typical of Northern Europe, there is little sunshine during the year.

Climate data for Gdynia (1981-2010, extremes 1951–2015)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
22.9
(73.2)
28.9
(84.0)
30.3
(86.5)
33.2
(91.8)
35.5
(95.9)
33.4
(92.1)
30.7
(87.3)
26.9
(80.4)
19.8
(67.6)
13.7
(56.7)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
2.9
(37.2)
5.6
(42.1)
9.8
(49.6)
15.0
(59.0)
18.4
(65.1)
21.1
(70.0)
21.2
(70.2)
17.2
(63.0)
12.5
(54.5)
6.9
(44.4)
3.6
(38.5)
11.4
(52.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
0.7
(33.3)
2.9
(37.2)
6.5
(43.7)
11.6
(52.9)
15.1
(59.2)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
14.2
(57.6)
9.7
(49.5)
4.8
(40.6)
1.6
(34.9)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.6
(33.1)
3.8
(38.8)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
15.1
(59.2)
15.1
(59.2)
11.6
(52.9)
7.3
(45.1)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.1
(43.0)
Record low °C (°F) −19.7
(−3.5)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−13.8
(7.2)
−4.9
(23.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.8
(38.8)
8.1
(46.6)
7.0
(44.6)
2.1
(35.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
−11.7
(10.9)
−17.8
(0.0)
−23.8
(−10.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.5
(1.24)
21.4
(0.84)
30.6
(1.20)
28.5
(1.12)
53.3
(2.10)
56.8
(2.24)
60.8
(2.39)
63.7
(2.51)
62.8
(2.47)
46.2
(1.82)
43.9
(1.73)
37.7
(1.48)
537.0
(21.14)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.4 15.2 14.7 12.2 11.7 13.8 13.2 13.2 14.0 14.1 16.3 18.3 173.9
Average relative humidity (%) 81.7 81.5 79.5 77.7 77.0 76.5 77.1 77.7 79.1 80.7 83.4 83.6 79.6
Source: Meteomodel.pl[29]

Districts

Gdynia is divided into smaller divisions: dzielnicas and osiedles. Gdynia's dzielnicas include: Babie Doły, Chwarzno-Wiczlino, Chylonia, Cisowa, Dąbrowa, Działki Leśne, Grabówek, Kamienna Góra, Karwiny, Leszczynki, Mały Kack, Obłuże, Oksywie, Orłowo, Pogórze, Pustki Cisowskie-Demptowo, Redłowo, Śródmieście, Wielki Kack, Witomino-Leśniczówka, Witomino-Radiostacja, Wzgórze Św. Maksymiliana.

Osiedles: Bernadowo, Brzozowa Góra, Chwarzno, Dąbrówka, Demptowo, Dębowa Góra, Fikakowo, Gołębiewo, Kacze Buki, Kolibki, Kolonia Chwaszczyno, Kolonia Rybacka, Krykulec, Marszewo, Międzytorze, Niemotowo, Osada Kolejowa, Osada Rybacka, Osiedle Bernadowo, Port, Pustki Cisowskie, Tasza, Wiczlino, Wielka Rola, Witomino, Wysoka, Zielenisz.

Cityscape

View from Kościuszko Square; Dar Pomorza on the left, Sea Towers on the right
View from Kościuszko Square; Dar Pomorza on the left, Sea Towers on the right
Gdynia's main boardwalk in Orłowo
Gdynia's main boardwalk in Orłowo

Gdynia is a relatively modern city.[30][failed verification] Its architecture includes the 13th century St. Michael the Archangel's Church in Oksywie, the oldest building in Gdynia, and the 17th century neo-Gothic manor house located on Folwarczna Street in Orłowo.

The surrounding hills and the coastline attract many nature lovers. A leisure pier and a cliff-like coastline in Kępa Redłowska, as well as the surrounding Nature Reserve, are also popular locations. In the harbour, there are two anchored museum ships, the destroyer ORP Błyskawica and the tall ship frigate Dar Pomorza.[31] A 1.5-kilometre (0.93 mi)-long promenade leads from the marina in the city center, to the beach in Redłowo.[32]

Most of Gdynia can be seen from Kamienna Góra[33] (54 metres (177 feet) asl) or the viewing point near Chwaszczyno. There are also two viewing towers, one at Góra Donas, the other at Kolibki.

In 2015 the Emigration Museum opened in the city. Other museums include the Gdynia Aquarium, Experyment Science Center, Abraham's house, Żeromski's house, Gdynia Automotive Museum, Naval Museum, and Gdynia City Museum.

Modernist Center

Main article: Modernist Center of Gdynia

Gdynia holds many examples of early 20th-century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism, and modernism.[34] Historic Urban Layout of the City Center was drafted by Adam Kuncewicz and Roman Feliński in 1926.[3] The central axis of Gdynia is built around 10 Lutego Street, Kosciuszka Square and the Southern Pier.[2] The structure of the city is designed to emphasize the connection of Gdynia and Poland with the Baltic Sea. Examples of modernist architecture are the buildings of the Bank of Poland and many tenement houses (kamienice). Another good example of modernism is PLO Building situated at 10 Lutego Street.

The architecture of central Gdynia was inspired by the work of European architects such as Erich Mendelssohn and is sometimes compared to the White City of Tel Aviv.[35] The center of Gdynia has become a symbol of modernity, but was included in the list of historical monuments of Poland and is a candidate for the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Culture

Open'er Festival in 2019

Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival. The International Random Film Festival was hosted in Gdynia in November 2014. Since 2003 Gdynia has been hosting the Open'er Festival, one of the biggest contemporary music festivals in Europe. The festival welcomes many foreign hip-hop, rock and electronic music artists every year. In record-high 2018 it was attended by over 140,000 people, who enjoyed the lineup headlined by Bruno Mars, Gorillaz, Arctic Monkeys, and Depeche Mode.[36] Another important summer event in Gdynia is the Viva Beach Party, which is a large two-day techno party made on Gdynia's Public Beach and a summer-welcoming concerts CudaWianki. Gdynia also hosts events for the annual Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival.
In the summer of 2014 Gdynia hosted Red Bull Air Race World Championship.

Cultural references

In 2008, Gdynia made it onto the Monopoly Here and Now World Edition board after being voted by fans through the Internet. Gdynia occupies the space traditionally held by Mediterranean Avenue, being the lowest voted city to make it onto the Monopoly Here and Now board, but also the smallest city to make it in the game. All of the other cities are large and widely known ones, the second smallest being Riga. The unexpected success of Gdynia can be attributed to a mobilization of the town's population to vote for it on the Internet.

An abandoned factory district in Gdynia was the scene for the survival series Man vs Wild, season 6, episode 12. The host, Bear Grylls, manages to escape the district after blowing up a door and crawling through miles of sewer.

Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the supervillain in the James Bond novels, was born in Gdynia on 28 May 1908, according to Thunderball.

Gdynia is sometimes called "Polish Roswell" due to the alleged UFO crash on 21 January 1959.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

Notable people

Prominent people from Gdynia, clockwise from upper left: Jacek Fedorowicz, Joanna Senyszyn, Klaudia Jans-Ignacik and Olek Czyż

Sport

Fictional characters

Sports

Municipal Stadium in Gdynia

Main article: Sport in Tricity

National Rugby Stadium
National Rugby Stadium

Sport teams

International events

Economy and infrastructure

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)

Notable companies that have their headquarters or regional offices in Gdynia:

Former:

Pesa Atribo SA133 of the Tricity Fast Urban Railways (SKM) departing from Gdynia

Transport

Gdynia Główna, the city's main railway station
Gdynia Główna, the city's main railway station

Port of Gdynia

Main article: Port of Gdynia

In 2007, 364,202 passengers, 17,025,000 tons of cargo and 614,373 TEU containers passed through the port. Regular car ferry service operates between Gdynia and Karlskrona, Sweden.

Airport

The conurbation's main airport, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, lays approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-west of central Gdynia, and has connections to approximately 55 destinations. It is the third largest airport in Poland.[44] A second General Aviation terminal was scheduled to be opened by May 2012, which will increase the airport's capacity to 5mln passengers per year.

Another local airport, (Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport) is situated partly in the village of Kosakowo, just to the north of the city, and partly in Gdynia. This has been a military airport since the World War II, but it has been decided in 2006 that the airport will be used to serve civilians.[45] Work was well in progress and was due to be ready for 2012 when the project collapsed following a February 2014 EU decision regarding Gdynia city funding as constituting unfair competition to Gdańsk airport. In March 2014, the airport management company filed for bankruptcy, this being formally announced in May that year. The fate of some PLN 100 million of public funds from Gdynia remain unaccounted for with documents not being released, despite repeated requests for such from residents to the city president, Wojciech Szczurek.

Road transport

Trasa Kwiatkowskiego links Port of Gdynia and the city with Obwodnica Trójmiejska, and therefore A1 motorway. National road 6 connects Tricity with Słupsk, Koszalin and Szczecin agglomeration.

Railways

The principal station in Gdynia is Gdynia Główna railway station, and Gdynia has five other railway stations. Local services are provided by the 'Fast Urban Railway,' Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) operating frequent trains covering the Tricity area including Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. Long-distance trains from Warsaw via Gdańsk terminate at Gdynia, and there are direct trains to Szczecin, Poznań, Katowice, Lublin and other major cities. In 2011-2015 the Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia route is undergoing a major upgrading costing $3 billion, partly funded by the European Investment Bank, including track replacement, realignment of curves and relocation of sections of track to allow speeds up to 200 km/h (124 mph), modernization of stations, and installation of the most modern ETCS signalling system, which is to be completed in June 2015. In December 2014 new Alstom Pendolino high-speed trains were put into service between Gdynia, Warsaw and Kraków reducing rail travel times to Gdynia by 2 hours.[46][47]

Education

Gdynia Maritime University in the building from 1937 as example of prewar Polish modern architecture.
Gdynia Maritime University in the building from 1937 as example of prewar Polish modern architecture.

There are currently 8 universities and institutions of higher education based in Gdynia. Many students from Gdynia also attend universities located in the Tricity.

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland

Gdynia is twinned with:[49]

Former twin towns:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ /ɡəˈdɪniə/ gə-DIN-ee-ə
    Polish: [ˈɡdɨɲa] (listen)
    German: Gdingen [ˈɡdɪŋən] (listen), (1939–1945) Gotenhafen [ˌɡoːtn̩ˈhaːfn̩] (listen)
    Kashubian: Gdiniô, Gdinnô, Gdina, Gdinam

References

  1. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2 February 2022. Data for territorial unit 2262000.
  2. ^ a b Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Modernist Centre of Gdynia — the example of building an integrated community". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Gdynia - Historic Urban Layout of the City Centre - Zabytek.pl". zabytek.pl. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  4. ^ "Gdynia rated Poland's best city". TheNews.pl. 22 November 2013. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  5. ^ "Gdynia – Miastem Filmu UNESCO" (in Polish). Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  6. ^ André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Routledge, 2000, p.: 1163, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1 link
  7. ^ James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p.375, ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7
  8. ^ Daniel Stone,A History of East Central Europe, University of Washington Press, 2001, p. 30, ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5 Google Books
  9. ^ "Map of Danzig and around in 1899, showing Gdingen".
  10. ^ A. Jelonek (red.), Dokumentacja geograficzna. Liczba ludności miast i osiedli w Polsce 1810-1955, Warszawa 1956, p. 28
  11. ^ "Port of Gdynia". worldportsource.com.
  12. ^ a b c Robert Michael Citino. The path to blitzkrieg: doctrine and training in the German Army, 1920–1939. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1999. p. 173.
  13. ^ "Gdynia (Pomorskie) » mapy, nieruchomości, GUS, noclegi, szkoły, regon, atrakcje, kody pocztowe, wypadki drogowe, bezrobocie, wynagrodzenie, zarobki, tabele, edukacja, demografia".
  14. ^ Szabados, Stephen (27 August 2016). Polish Immigration to America: When, Where, Why and How. Stephen Szabados.
  15. ^ (ed) Michael Murray, Poland's Progress 1919–1939, John Murray, 1944, London pp 64–6
  16. ^ a b c d Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 105.
  17. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 106
  18. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 108
  19. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 156
  20. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 106, 146–148
  21. ^ Drywa, Danuta (2020). "Germanizacja dzieci i młodzieży polskiej na Pomorzu Gdańskim z uwzględnieniem roli obozu koncentracyjnego Stutthof". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 181.
  22. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 156–157
  23. ^ Kołakowski, Andrzej (2020). "Zbrodnia bez kary: eksterminacja dzieci polskich w okresie okupacji niemieckiej w latach 1939-1945". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 75.
  24. ^ "Pamiętamy o ofiarach zbrodni katyńskiej". Gdynia.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  25. ^ Kozaczyńska, Beata (2020). "Gdy zabrakło łez... Tragizm losu polskich dzieci wysiedlonych z Zamojszczyzny (1942-1943)". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 123.
  26. ^ a b Gliński, Mirosław. "Podobozy i większe komanda zewnętrzne obozu Stutthof (1939–1945)". Stutthof. Zeszyty Muzeum (in Polish). 3: 168, 180. ISSN 0137-5377.
  27. ^ Kubasiewicz, Izabela (2013). "Emigranci z Grecji w Polsce Ludowej. Wybrane aspekty z życia mniejszości". In Dworaczek, Kamil; Kamiński, Łukasz (eds.). Letnia Szkoła Historii Najnowszej 2012. Referaty (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 117.
  28. ^ Kubasiewicz, p. 114
  29. ^ "Średnie i sumy miesięczne" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  30. ^ "About the city — Modernism in Europe — Modernism in Gdynia". Gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  31. ^ "ORP "Błyskawica" - Muzeum Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Redłowo - Mapa Gdynia, plan miasta, dzielnice w Gdyni - E-turysta". Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Kolejka na Kamienną Górę ruszyła". 4 July 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  34. ^ "Tourism — Gdynia cultural". Gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  35. ^ ""Gdynia - Tel Aviv" - a temporary exhibition | Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich POLIN w Warszawie". polin.pl. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  36. ^ "History - Open'er Festival". opener.pl. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  37. ^ Booth, B. J. "Poland UFO Crashes, UFO Casebook Files". ufocasebook.com.
  38. ^ Gross, Patrick. "URECAT-000112 — January 21, 1959, Gdynia, Gdanskie, Poland, beach guards and doctors". UFOs at close sight.
  39. ^ "UFO nad Gdynią, czyli… polskie Roswell". TVP.pl. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011.
  40. ^ Katka, Krzysztof (6 September 2013). "Gdynia polskim Roswell? Legendy o UFO i tajnych broniach III Rzeszy". Wyborcza.pl. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  41. ^ Cielebiaś, Piotr (7 July 2013). "UFO rozbiło się w Polsce". StrefaTajemnic.onet.pl. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
  42. ^ "Katastrofa UFO w Gdyni. Czy to polskie Roswell?". niewiarygodne.pl. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014.
  43. ^ "Historia Rugby Club Arka Gdynia". Arkarugby.pl. 26 May 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  44. ^ "Historia lotniska". Airport.Gdansk.pl. Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport. Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  45. ^ "About airport". Airport.Gdynia.pl. Port Lotniczy Gdynia-Kosakowo. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  46. ^ "Polish Pendolino launches 200 km/h operation". Railway Gazette International. 15 December 2014.
  47. ^ "Pendolino z Trójmiasta do Warszawy" [Pendolino from Tri-city to Warsaw]. Trojmiasto.pl (in Polish). 30 July 2013.
  48. ^ WSB University in Gdańsk Archived 14 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine - WSB Universities
  49. ^ "Współpraca z miastami siostrzanymi". gdynia.pl (in Polish). Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej Urzędu Miasta Gdyni. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  50. ^ "GDYNIA DO PRZEGLĄDU: Umowy partnerskie do kasacji - raz, dwa...? Felieton Zygmunta Zmudy Trzebiatowskiego" (in Polish). 6 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.

Further reading