The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Polish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-pl)), ((IPAc-pl)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

IPA Polish Example English approximation
b b audio speaker iconbardzo bike
ɕ ś, s(i)[2] audio speaker iconJaś she
d d audio speaker icondawno door
d͡z[3] dz audio speaker icondzban beds
d͡ʑ[3] dź, dz(i)[2] audio speaker icondziadek jeep[4]
d͡ʐ[3] audio speaker iconakarta jug[4]
f f audio speaker iconfoka feist
ɡ g audio speaker icongrać girl
ɡʲ g(i)[2] audio speaker iconGiewont argue
ɣ ch, h niechby Spanish amigo
j j, i[2] audio speaker iconjak yes
[5] ń audio speaker iconkoń point
k k audio speaker iconkrowa scam
k(i)[2] audio speaker iconkierowca skew
l l audio speaker iconlampa lion
m m[6] audio speaker iconmorze mile
n n[6] audio speaker iconnad Nile
ɲ ń, n(i)[6][2] audio speaker iconnie canyon
ŋ[7] n[6] audio speaker iconmango doing
p p audio speaker iconpolicja spike
r r audio speaker iconróżowy American English atom
s s audio speaker iconsmak sign
ʂ sz audio speaker iconszybko shore[4]
t t audio speaker icontak stow
t͡ɕ[3] ć, c(i)[2] audio speaker iconcierpki cheer[4]
t͡s[3] c audio speaker iconcałkiem cats
t͡ʂ[3] cz audio speaker iconczy child[4]
v w audio speaker iconwartość vile
w ł audio speaker iconładny way
x ch, h audio speaker iconchleb Scottish loch
ch(i), h(i)[2] audio speaker iconhiacynt huge
z z audio speaker iconzebra zebra
ʑ ź, z(i)[2] audio speaker iconziarno vision, azure[4]
ʐ ż, rz audio speaker iconrzadko
IPA Polish Example English approximation
a a audio speaker icontam father
ɛ e audio speaker iconkrem bet
ɛ̃ ę[6] audio speaker iconczęść French vin
i i[2] audio speaker iconpiwo eat
ɨ y audio speaker iconmy mill
ɔ o audio speaker iconrok off
ɔ̃ ą[6] audio speaker iconwąż croissant
u u, ó audio speaker iconduży boot
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
ˌ Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
. Syllable break.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ All voiced obstruents /b, d, ɡ, v, z, ʐ, ʑ, d͡ʐ, d͡ʑ/ are devoiced to [p, t, k, f, s, ʂ, ɕ, t͡ʂ, t͡ɕ] respectively at the ends of words and in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents. Voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming [ɣ], etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ʐ/, which are then themselves devoiced.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ⟨i⟩, when it is followed by a vowel, represents a pronunciation like a ⟨j⟩ or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt *pjes). It has the same effect as an acute accent on alveolar consonants (⟨s⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨dz⟩, ⟨n⟩) so się, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt *śę, *ćos, *ńańa. A following ⟨i⟩ also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel: zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if they were spelled *źima, *ći, *dźiśaj.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish contrasts affricates /t͡s, d͡z, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/ with stop–fricative clusters: for example, czysta audio speaker icon[ˈt͡ʂɨsta] "clean" versus trzysta audio speaker icon[ˈtʂɨsta] "three hundred".
  4. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes a distinction between retroflex and alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound roughly like the English postalveolars /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, and the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of an ⟨ee⟩ sound to them.
  5. ^ Allophone of /ɲ/ in coda position or before fricatives.
  6. ^ a b c d e f The letters ⟨ą⟩ and ⟨ę⟩ represent the nasal vowels /ɔ̃, ɛ̃/ except when they are followed by a stop or affricate, in which case they represent oral vowels /ɔ, ɛ/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following stop or affricate: kąt [ˈkɔnt], gęba [ˈɡɛmba], ręka [ˈrɛŋka], piszący [piˈʂɔnt͡sɨ], pieniądze [pjɛˈɲɔnd͡zɛ], pięć [ˈpjɛɲt͡ɕ], jęczy [ˈjɛnt͡ʂɨ] (as if spelled *kont, *gemba, *renka, *piszoncy, *pieńondze, *pieńć, *jenczy).
  7. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a velar /ɡ, k, x/ in some cases.

Further reading