The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Wu Chinese pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see ((IPA-wuu)) and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants

In the Romanization schemes of Wu Chinese:

i denotes 吴语协会拼音
ii denotes 吴语学堂拼音
iii denotes 吴语拉丁式注音法, also known as 法吴
iv denotes Qian Nairong's 上海话拼音方案 in 2006, also known as 钱拼[1]
Example characters correspond to the Shanghainese dialect
IPA Romanization schemes Characters English Approximation
i ii iii iv
p p p b 巴百 spin
ph ph p 怕捧 pin
b b b bh 旁别 big
m m m mh 没母 might
ˀm m m 闷美 lamb, with glottalization
m 姆亩 rhythm
f f f f 夫反 find
v v v fh 佛犯 vase
ˀv v v [2] leave, with glottalization
t t t d 多德 stop
th th t 体通 top
d d d dh 地同 dash
n n n nh, -n 纳努 night
ˀn ng 囡呢 ton, with glottalization
ȵ[3] ny gn nh 尼女 canyon
ˀȵ[3] gn n 研妞 canyon, with glottalization
n n button
l l l lh 勒路 lip
ˀl l l 拎了 pull, with glottalization
ts ts ts z 子张 cats
tsʰ tsh tsh c 超参 cats head
s s s s 书三 sea
z z z sh 传食 zoo
c c j 居尖 cheap
tɕʰ ch ch q 曲青 catch him
j j jh 求极 jeep
ɕ sh sh x 需血 sheep
ʑ zh zh xh 谢墙 vision
k k k g 工各 scan
kh kh k 苦客 can
ɡ g g gh 共搞 get
ŋ ng ng nhg-, -ng 鹅牙 bring
ˀŋ ng ng 我砑 sing, with glottalization
ŋ̍ ng ng 五鱼 No English equivalent
ɦ gh gh hh 红合 behind
ɻ er -r (er) 而尔 right
ʔ -h -q -k Pause in uh-oh!

Vowels

IPA† Romanization schemes † E.g. English Approximation
i ii iii iv
i -i, -i-, y-, yh- 西谢 beat
ɿ[3] y -y 资处 American better
o/u -o, -u, w- -u, -u-, w-, wh- 多坏 boot
y iu yu, -u[4], -u-, yhu- 须卷 RP cute, but the vowel is more front
[3] a, ia a (ia, ua) 拉写 father, but the vowel is more front
o~ʊ o o (o, ong, iong) 沙画 between go and push
[3] e e (e, ue) 海难 play
ɔ au ao (ao, iao) 少表 off
ɤ eu ou (ou, iu[5]) 头流 foot, but with unrounded lips
ø oen, oe oe (uoe, yoe) 看完 RP fur, but the vowel is more front and with rounded lips
ə en, er e (en, un[5], er) 登而 about
ã an an (ian, uan) 长横 sang
ɑ̃ aon ang (ang, iang, uang) 刚光 Similar to song
Vowels with glottal stops
ᴀʔ aq ak (ak, iak, uak) 白脚 but, with glottalization
əʔ eq ek (ek, uek) 合活 comma, with glottalisation
oʔ~ʊʔ oq ok (ok, iok) 角肉 between go and push, with glottalisaton
iɪʔ eq ik 笔吃 beat, but the vowel is more open and with glottalization
yɪʔ ioq, iuiq yuik 血月 RP cute, but the vowel is more front and with glottalization

See also

References

  1. ^ Qian, Nairong (2006-12-06). "首届国际上海方言学术研讨会审定上海话拼音方案". 北大中文论坛 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2021-02-16.
  2. ^ 出现在三个或以上音节的语音词的第一个音节。
  3. ^ a b c d e [ɿ ᴀ ᴇ ȵ] are IPA used exclusively among Sinologists-linguists, not accepted by the general IPA community.
  4. ^ yu开头的韵母与除nl外的声母相拼时省去y, 如qyuoe(“券”)写作quoe
  5. ^ a b iouuen与声母相拼时分别省去oe,作iuun