Infrared satellite image of Anatol over Northern Europe, 3 December 1999 at 1625 UTC

Anatol is the name given by the Free University of Berlin (the Danish TV2 channel named it "Adam"[1] also often referred to as århundredets orkan (storm of the century) or Decemberorkanen (December Storm) in Denmark, and commonly as Carolastormen or Orkan Carola (Storm Carol) in Sweden) to a powerful winter storm that hit Denmark, Southwest Sweden, and Northern Germany on December 3, 1999. The storm had sustained winds of 146 km/h and wind gusts of up to 184 km/h, equivalent to an intense category 1 hurricane, which is unusually strong for storms in northern Europe. The storm caused 20 fatalities;[2] in Denmark alone 7 died and more than 800 were injured.[3]

According to the Danish Meteorological Institute, the storm is estimated to have caused damage in Denmark of DKK 13 billion (c. US$2 billion).[3] In addition to wind damage, it caused major floods in coastal regions of the southeastern North Sea, reaching a high point of c. 5.5 m (18 ft) above normal sea level in southwestern Jutland, despite peaking during low tide. This is the second-highest ever recorded in the region (after the Burchardi flood of 1634) and had it peaked during high tide instead, it would likely have reached 6.5–7 m (21–23 ft), which by far would have been the highest ever recorded and near the top of the dikes protecting the town of Ribe.[4]

The storm is referred to as an "orkan" in Scandinavia and Germany, which is a word commonly used for strong storms, also including hurricanes, that reach 12 on the Beaufort scale.[5] Cyclone Anatol was a European windstorm.

See also



  1. ^ Cappelen, John. "Orkaner på vore breddegrader (hurricanes at our latitude)" (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  2. ^ Tatge, Yörn. "Looking Back, Looking Forward: Anatol, Lothar and Martin Ten Years Later". Air-Worldwide. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Decemberorkanen 1999". Danish Meteorological Institute. 25 June 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  4. ^ "De 5 største stormfloder i Vadehavet". Naturstyrelsen (Denmark's Ministry of Environment). Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  5. ^ "Orkaner". Danish Meteorological Institute. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2023.