Kerman
Persian: کرمان
Kārmānia, Boutiā, Carmānia, Karmana
City
Official seal of Kerman
Nickname(s): 
ديار كريمان (Persian for "Land of Karimans"), The City of Stars
Kerman is located in Iran
Kerman
Kerman
Coordinates: 30°17′28″N 57°04′04″E / 30.29111°N 57.06778°E / 30.29111; 57.06778[1]
CountryIran
ProvinceKerman
CountyKerman
DistrictCentral
Foundedc. 3rd century AD
Government
 • MayorSaeed Shaarbaf [2][3]
Area
 • City220 km2 (92.22 sq mi)
Elevation
1,755 m (5,758 ft)
Population
 (2016)[5]
 • City537,718
 • Urban
738,374 [4]
 • Population Rank in Iran
10th
DemonymKermani
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Postal code
761
Area code+98 343
Main language(s)Persian
ClimateBWk
Websitekermancity.ir

Kerman (Persian: كرمان, romanizedKermân [kʲeɾˈmɒːn] ; also romanized as Kermun and Karmana), known in ancient times as the satrapy of Carmania,[6] is a city in the Central District of Kerman County, Kerman province, Iran, and serves as the capital of the province, county and district.

At the 2006 National Census, its population was 496,684 in 127,806 households.[7] The following census in 2011 counted 534,441 people in 147,922 households.[8] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 537,718 people in 162,677 households.[5]

It is the largest and most developed city in the province and one of the most important cities in southeastern Iran. It is also one of the largest cities of Iran in terms of area. Kerman is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritage.[9] The city is home to many historic mosques and Zoroastrian fire temples. Kerman has been the capital city of Iranian dynasties several times during its history. It is located on a large, flat plain, 800 km (500 mi) south-east of Tehran, the capital of Iran.[10]

History

See also: Timeline of Kerman

Kerman was founded as a defensive outpost, with the name Veh-Ardashir, by Ardashir I, founder of the Sasanian Empire, in the 3rd century AD.[11] After the Battle of Nahāvand in 642, the city came under Muslim rule. At first the city's relative isolation allowed Kharijites and Zoroastrians to thrive there, but the Kharijites were wiped out in 698, and the population was mostly Muslim by 725. Already in the eighth century the city was famous for its manufacture of cashmere wool shawls and other textiles. The Abbasid Caliphate's authority over the region was weak, and power passed in the tenth century to the Buyid emirs. The region and city fell to Mahmud of Ghazni in the late tenth century. The name Kerman was adopted at some point in the tenth century.[12]

Dirham of Abbasid caliph al-Mahdi ibn al-Mansur, 8th century. Silver 2.95 g
The Rayen Castle, the second largest brick building in the world

Under the rule of the Seljuk Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries, Kerman remained virtually independent, conquering Oman and Fars.[13] When Marco Polo visited Kerman in 1271, it had become a major trade emporium linking the Persian Gulf with Khorasan and Central Asia.[14] Subsequently, however, the city was sacked many times by various invaders. Kerman expanded rapidly during the Safavid dynasty. Carpets and rugs were exported to England and Germany during this period.[15]

In 1793 Lotf Ali Khan defeated the Qajars, and in 1794 he captured Kerman. But soon after he was besieged in Kerman for six months by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. When the city fell to Agha Mohammad Khan, angered by the popular support that Lotf Ali Khan had received,[clarification needed] many of the male inhabitants were killed or blinded, and a pile was made out of 20,000 detached eyeballs and poured in front of the victorious Agha Mohammad Khan.[16] Many women and children were sold into slavery, and in 90 days the city turned into ruins. However, the Zoroastrians of Kerman who had been strong supporters of Lotf Ali Khan suffered the wrath of the founder of Qajar dynasty the most during this period.

The Masjid gate through which Agha Mohammad Khan entered the city

The present city of Kerman was rebuilt in the 19th century to the northwest of the old city, but the city did not return to its former size until the 20th century.

Economy

Main article: Kerman carpet

A Kerman carpet

The economy of Kerman is mostly based on farming, notably nut farming and also mining.Pistachios are an important part of the economy in Kerman.

Carpet weaving is one of the main industries of the city, and the carpets produced there are renowned internationally.[14] Carpet weaving is a very old tradition in Kerman. The oldest carpet discovered in Kerman, dates from about 500 years ago.[17] Cotton textiles and goats-wool shawls are also manufactured.[18]

A number of modern establishments such as textile mills and brickworks also have been constructed. The province's mineral wealth includes copper and coal.[14]

Culture

Tiled dome of the Shrine of Shah Nematollah Vali, in Mahan, 20 mi (32 km) outside of Kerman

The only Iranian anthropology museum dedicated to Zoroastrianism is located in the Kerman's Fire Temple, showcasing the ancient history of Zoroastrians. The idea of launching the museum along with the library of Kerman's Zoroastrian Society came to light in 1983, when the head of the society, Parviz Vakhashouri, and the former head of the library, Mehran Gheibi, collected cultural heritage artifacts of Kerman's Zoroastrian community. These two officials added many other objects to this collection. The museum was officially inaugurated during Jashn-e Tirgan in 2005 by Iran's Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO).

Jashn-e Tirgan or Tiregan is an ancient Iranian rain festival observed on July 1. The festivity refers to archangel Tir (literally meaning arrow) or Tishtar (lightning), who appear in the sky to generate thunder and lightning for providing much needed rain.

The Sadeh ceremony is celebrated every year in Kerman.

Also, the archeological ancient areas of Jiroft and Tappe Yahya Baft are located south of Kerman. Rayen Castle is also located in Rayen town, southeast of Kerman.

Some of the handicrafts and souvenirs of the province of Kerman are traditional embroidery known as pateh, carpets, rugs, jajeems, kilims (a coarse carpet), satchels, and other hand woven articles. Caraway seeds and pistachios from Rafsanjan, Zarand, and Kerman are best of the main items of this province.[19]

Demographics

The people of Kerman are Persians, and most are Shia Muslim. Kerman is a religious conservative city. Kerman has a small Zoroastrian minority.

The population of the city in 1996 was 385,000 and in 2006 was 515,414; the 2013 population was 621,374, including 312,873 male and 308,501 female.[20]

Population development

Some of these figures are estimates only, official census results are indicated with (¹).[21]

Year Population
1896 ¹ 40,228
1906 55,000
1916 ¹ 52,154
1926 ¹ 55,048
1936 75,000
1946 ¹ 97,363
1956 ¹ 101,716
1966 ¹ 140,761
1976 ¹ 254,786
1986 310,000
1991 350,000
1996 ¹ 384,991
Year Population
2001 450,000
2006 ¹ 515,414
2011 ¹ 734,442

¹ official census results

Government

Politics in Kerman are influenced by the former President Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, his brother and Vice President Mohammad Hashemi Rafsanjani and Hossein Marashi, both from nearby Rafsanjan. Mohammad Javad Bahonar was born in Kerman. He was an Iranian scholar, Shiite theologian and politician who served as the Prime minister of Iran from 15 to 30 August 1981 when he was assassinated by Mujahedin-e-Khalq (MEK).

Colleges and universities

Sport

The city is home to athletic teams representing different sports. Mes Kerman is the major football team of the city. It was promoted to Iran's top league, the Persian Gulf Pro League, in the 2005–06 season. The team is named after and sponsored by Kerman's copper industries. This team has a history of participating in the AFC Champions League. The team now competes in the Azadegan League.

Kerman sport venues

Media

Kerman is the media hub of the Kerman Province. Newspapers are published in the city, such as Kerman Emruz (Kerman Today) and Bidari. Hadis–Pasargad is a weekly newspaper. Kerman has a 24-hour TV channel known as the Kerman Channel or Channel 5. The city also has a radio station.[citation needed]

Transportation

Kerman's Adineh bus terminus
Boeing 747–400 of Iranian airline, Mahan Air

Kerman is on the Tehran, Bandar Abbas and Zahedan route. Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani Airport is considered one of Iran's main airports. It has daily and weekly flights to Tehran, Ahwaz, Yazd, Esfahan, Bandar Abbas, Mashhad and Shiraz.[15] Also, the Trans-Iranian Railway passes through this city.[15] Kerman's newly built bus terminus, Adineh, opened in May 2013.

Metro and Tram

Kerman's Metro had been approved by the government cabinet and was meant to cover large parts of the metropolitan area in Kerman, but the project's operations were cancelled due to several issues.[citation needed]

Chabahar–Zahedan Railway

In May 2016, during Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's trip to Iran, agreement was signed to develop two berths at Port of Chabahar and to build new Chabahar–Zahedan railway, as part of North–South Transport Corridor, by Indian Railways' public sector unit Ircon International.[28]

Health

The city has hospitals.[citation needed]

Geography

Kerman is located on a high margin of Kavir-e Lut (Lut Desert) in the south-central part of Iran. The city is surrounded by mountains. Kerman is also located along the Saheb Al Zaman mountain. The city is 1,755 m (5,758 ft) above sea level, making it third in elevation among provincial capitals in Iran. Winter brings very cold nights to Kerman. Mountains in the south and southeast Jftan Joopar and Plvar and Kerman[clarification needed] have snow all year round. Kerman is located at latitude 30.29 and longitude 57.06.[29][30]

Climate

Kerman has a cold desert climate (BWk, according to the Köppen climate classification), with hot summers and cool to cold winters. Precipitation is scarce throughout the year.

The city's many districts are surrounded by mountains. The northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate.

The city of Kerman has a moderate climate. The average annual rainfall is 148 mm. Otherwise, its climate is relatively cool (by Iranian standards).[15]

Climate data for Kerman – Altitude: 1753.8 m (1951–2010, records 1951–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
29.4
(84.9)
32.9
(91.2)
35.0
(95.0)
38.8
(101.8)
41.6
(106.9)
42.0
(107.6)
41.6
(106.9)
39.0
(102.2)
35.0
(95.0)
31.1
(88.0)
28.0
(82.4)
42.0
(107.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
14.9
(58.8)
19.0
(66.2)
24.4
(75.9)
30.1
(86.2)
35.0
(95.0)
35.8
(96.4)
34.4
(93.9)
31.5
(88.7)
26.1
(79.0)
19.6
(67.3)
14.4
(57.9)
24.8
(76.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
7.3
(45.1)
11.4
(52.5)
16.4
(61.5)
21.2
(70.2)
25.6
(78.1)
26.8
(80.2)
24.6
(76.3)
21.1
(70.0)
15.9
(60.6)
10.0
(50.0)
5.9
(42.6)
15.9
(60.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.8
(38.8)
8.3
(46.9)
12.4
(54.3)
16.2
(61.2)
17.8
(64.0)
14.8
(58.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.7
(42.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
7.0
(44.6)
Record low °C (°F) −30.0
(−22.0)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−10.2
(13.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
1.0
(33.8)
7.0
(44.6)
8.0
(46.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−10.0
(14.0)
−15.0
(5.0)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−30.0
(−22.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 28.8
(1.13)
25.2
(0.99)
33.1
(1.30)
18.7
(0.74)
10.8
(0.43)
1.1
(0.04)
1.4
(0.06)
0.5
(0.02)
0.3
(0.01)
1.5
(0.06)
5.6
(0.22)
21.0
(0.83)
148
(5.83)
Average precipitation days 5.0 4.2 5.7 4.0 2.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.4 1.5 3.8 27.8
Average snowy days 2.2 1.0 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1.0 4.7
Average relative humidity (%) 53 46 41 34 26 19 19 20 21 28 37 48 33
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 200.0 223.5 237.5 298.0 323.6 339.1 337.5 310.3 283.9 241.9 206.4 3,200.1
Source: [31]

Geological characteristics

For Iranian paleontologists, Kerman has always been considered a fossil paradise. The discovery of new dinosaur footprints in 2005 renewed hopes for better understanding the history of this area.[32][33]

Notable people

See also: List of people from Kerman

Gallery

Surrounding municipalities

See also

References

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  2. ^ "معرفی شهردار". Archived from the original on 2019-03-02. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  3. ^ "The mayor of Kerman was elected". Archived from the original on 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2019-12-27.
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  6. ^ Kerman can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3070237" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
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  8. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 08. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  9. ^ "Kerman Historical-Cultural Structure". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  10. ^ "جدیدتخبار کرمان | خبرگزاری باشگاه خبرنگاران". خبرگزاری باشگاه خبرنگاران | آخرین اخبار ایران و جهان | YJC (in Persian). Retrieved 2022-03-27.
  11. ^ Xavier de Planhol and Bernard Hourcade, "KERMAN ii. Historical Geography," Encyclopædia Iranica, XVI/3, pp. 251–265 [1] Archived 2019-02-09 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ A.H.T. Levi, "Kerman," in International Dictionary of Historic Places, ed. Trudy Ring, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1995–1996, vol. 4, p. 413.
  13. ^ "Kerman". Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). Columbia University Press. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
  14. ^ a b c Pourshariati, Parvaneh. "Kerman". Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Gale Group. Archived from the original on 2018-03-21. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
  15. ^ a b c d "Iran Chamber Society: Iranian Cities". Iranchamber.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-07. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  16. ^ Hasan Pir Nia, A. Eghbal Ashtiani, History of Persia (Tarikh-i Iran), ISBN 964-6895-16-6, Tehran, 2003, p.655
  17. ^ "Kerman Rug (Iran): History". Caroun.com. Archived from the original on 2019-07-15. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  18. ^ "Travel in Kerman – Iran – History – WorldTravelGate.net®". Mideasttravelling.net. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  19. ^ "Handicrafts and Souvenirs in Kerman, [Iran Tourism & Touring Organization]". Itto.org. Archived from the original on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  20. ^ "Cities in Iran: 2005 Population Estimates". Mongabay.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  21. ^ "Population development". Kermancity.kr.ir. August 16, 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  22. ^ "Kerman Azad University". Archived from the original on 2022-07-27. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  23. ^ "دانشكده فني شهيدچمران كرمان نسخه 8.75 __ چهارشنبه ۴ اسفند ۱۳۸۹". chamran-edu.ir. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". pnu.kr.ir. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی کرمان". Archived from the original on 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2006-01-14.
  26. ^ "Kkhecnewindex". Kkhec.ac.ir. Archived from the original on 18 December 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  27. ^ "Kerman Baseball". Mehrnews.com. March 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  28. ^ "India eyes Iran's energy resources, commits over Rs 1 lakh crore investment in Chabahar". Firstpost.com. 23 May 2016. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  29. ^ "Geographic coordinates of Kerman. Latitude, longitude, and elevation above sea level of Kerman, Iran". dateandtime.info. Archived from the original on 2022-09-03. Retrieved 2022-09-03.
  30. ^ Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Archived from the original on 2021-05-06. Retrieved 2022-09-03.
  31. ^ "Iranian Meteorology". Archived from the original on 2015-06-17. Retrieved 2023-05-05.
  32. ^ "Dinosaur Footprints Moulded In Kerman". Payvand.com. Archived from the original on 2020-08-02. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  33. ^ "Iran Daily". 17 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-17. Retrieved 30 June 2022.

Bibliography