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A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both.[1] Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids e.g. Powder coatings.

Paints and lacquers are coatings that mostly have dual uses of protecting the substrate and being decorative, although some artists paints are only for decoration, and the paint on large industrial pipes is for preventing corrosion and identification e.g. blue for process water, red for fire-fighting control etc. Functional coatings may be applied to change the surface properties of the substrate, such as adhesion, wettability, corrosion resistance, or wear resistance.[2] In other cases, e.g. semiconductor device fabrication (where the substrate is a wafer), the coating adds a completely new property, such as a magnetic response or electrical conductivity, and forms an essential part of the finished product.

A major consideration for most coating processes is that the coating is to be applied at a controlled thickness, and a number of different processes are in use to achieve this control, ranging from a simple brush for painting a wall, to some very expensive machinery applying coatings in the electronics industry. A further consideration for 'non-all-over' coatings is that control is needed as to where the coating is to be applied. A number of these non-all-over coating processes are printing processes. Many industrial coating processes involve the application of a thin film of functional material to a substrate, such as paper, fabric, film, foil, or sheet stock. If the substrate starts and ends the process wound up in a roll, the process may be termed "roll-to-roll" or "web-based" coating. A roll of substrate, when wound through the coating machine, is typically called a web.

Functions of coatings

Coating analysis and characterization

Numerous destructive and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods exist for characterizing coatings. The most common destructive method is microscopy of a mounted cross-section of the coating and its substrate. The most common non-destructive techniques include ultrasonic thickness measurement, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and micro hardness indentation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is also a classical characterization method to investigate the chemical composition of the nanometer thick surface layer of a material. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX, or SEM-EDS) allows to visualize the surface texture and to probe its elementary chemical composition. Other characterization methods include transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS).

Coating formulation

The formulation of the coating depends primarily on the function of the coating and also on aesthetics required such as color and gloss. The four primary ingredients are the resin (or binder), solvent which maybe water (or solventless), pigment(s) and additives.[8][9]

Coating processes

Coating processes may be classified as follows:

Vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition

Main article: Chemical vapor deposition

Physical vapor deposition

Main article: Physical vapor deposition

Chemical and electrochemical techniques

Spraying

Roll-to-roll coating processes

Common roll-to-roll coating processes include:

Physical coating processes

See also

References

  1. ^ Howarth, G A; Manock, H L (July 1997). "Water-borne polyurethane dispersions and their use in functional coatings". Surface Coatings International. 80 (7): 324–328. doi:10.1007/bf02692680. ISSN 1356-0751. S2CID 137433262.
  2. ^ Howarth G.A "Synthesis of a legislation compliant corrosion protection coating system based on urethane, oxazolidine and waterborne epoxy technology" Master of Science Thesis April 1997 Imperial College London
  3. ^ S. Grainger and J. Blunt, Engineering Coatings: Design and Application, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, UK, 2nd ed., 1998, ISBN 978-1-85573-369-5
  4. ^ Mutyala, Kalyan C.; Singh, Harpal; Evans, R. D.; Doll, G. L. (23 June 2016). "Effect of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Ball Bearing Performance in Normal, Oil-Starved, and Debris-Damaged Conditions". Tribology Transactions. 59 (6): 1039–1047. doi:10.1080/10402004.2015.1131349. S2CID 138874627.
  5. ^ Mutyala, Kalyan C.; Ghanbari, E.; Doll, G.L. (August 2017). "Effect of deposition method on tribological performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of Cr x N coatings deposited by physical vapor deposition". Thin Solid Films. 636: 232–239. Bibcode:2017TSF...636..232M. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2017.06.013. ISSN 0040-6090.
  6. ^ Gite, Vikas V., et al. "Microencapsulation of quinoline as a corrosion inhibitor in polyurea microcapsules for application in anticorrosive PU coatings." Progress in Organic Coatings 83 (2015): 11-18.
  7. ^ Glass flakes
  8. ^ Müller, Bodo (2006). Coatings formulation : an international textbook. Urlich Poth. Hannover: Vincentz. p. 19. ISBN 3-87870-177-2. OCLC 76886114.
  9. ^ "CoatingsTech - Novel Natural Additives for Surface Coatings". www.coatingstech-digital.org. Retrieved 2022-07-07.
  10. ^ Fristad, W. E. (2000). "Epoxy Coatings for Automotive Corrosion Protection". SAE Technical Paper Series. Vol. 1. doi:10.4271/2000-01-0617.
  11. ^ US 2681294, "Method of coating strip material", issued 1951-08-23 
  12. ^ Beeker, L.Y. (March 2018). "Open-source parametric 3-D printed slot die system for thin film semiconductor processing" (PDF). Additive Manufacturing. 20: 90–100. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2017.12.004. ISSN 2214-8604.
  13. ^ "Slot Die Coating - nTact". nTact. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  14. ^ "Open Source 3D printing cuts cost from $4,000 to only $0.25 says new study - 3D Printing Industry". 3dprintingindustry.com. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  15. ^ "What and why: Langmuir-Blodgett films" (PDF).[permanent dead link]