New Guinea in 1943. Mobile machine shop truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts

Machining is a process in which a material (often metal) is cut to a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The methods that have this common theme are collectively called subtractive manufacturing,[1] which utilizes machine tools, in contrast to additive manufacturing (3D printing), which uses controlled addition of material.

Machining is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on other materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composite material.[2] A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop. Much of modern-day machining is carried out by computer numerical control (CNC), in which computers are used to control the movement and operation of mills, lathes, and other cutting machines. This increases efficiency, as the CNC machine runs unmanned, reducing labor costs for machine shops.

History and terminology

The precise meaning of the term machining has evolved over the past one and a half centuries as technology has advanced. In the 18th century, the word machinist meant a person who built or repaired machines. This person's work was primarily done by hand, using processes such as the carving of wood and the writing-forging and hand-filing of metal. At the time, millwrights and builders of new kinds of engines (meaning, more or less, machines of any kind), such as James Watt or John Wilkinson, would fit the definition. The noun machine tool and the verb to machine (machined, machining) did not yet exist.

Around the middle of the 20th century, the latter words were coined as the concepts they described evolved into widespread existence. Therefore, during the Machine Age, machining referred to (what we today might call) the "traditional" machining processes, such as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, shaping, planing, abrasive cutting, reaming, and tapping.[3] In these "traditional" or "conventional" machining processes, machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill presses, or others, are used with a sharp cutting tool to remove material to achieve a desired geometry.[4]

Since the advent of new technologies in the post–World War II era, such as electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, electron beam machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining, the retronym "conventional machining" can be used to differentiate those classic technologies from the newer ones. Currently, "machining" without qualification usually implies the traditional machining processes.

In the decades of the 2000s and 2010s, as additive manufacturing (AM) evolved beyond its earlier laboratory and rapid prototyping contexts and began to become standard throughout all phases of manufacturing, the term subtractive manufacturing became common retronymously in logical contrast with AM, covering essentially any removal processes also previously covered by the term machining. The two terms are effectively synonymous, although the long-established usage of the term machining continues. This is comparable to the idea that the verb sense of contact evolved because of the proliferation of ways to contact someone (telephone, email, IM, SMS, and so on) but did not entirely replace the earlier terms such as call, talk to, or write to.

Machining operations

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Making a shipboard manhole cover in the machine shop of the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.

The three principal machining processes are classified as turning, drilling and milling. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping, planing, boring, broaching, and sawing.[5]

An unfinished workpiece requiring machining must have some material cut away to create a finished product. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. For example, a workpiece may require a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can remove the metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may be used for metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding machines. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking.

As a commercial venture, machining is generally performed in a machine shop, which consists of one or more workrooms containing primary machine tools. Although a machine shop can be a stand-alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops that support the business's specialized needs.

Machining requires attention to many details for a workpiece to meet the specifications in the engineering drawings or blueprints. Besides the obvious problems related to correct dimensions, there is the problem of achieving the right finish or surface smoothness on the workpiece. The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by incorrect clamping, a dull tool, or inappropriate presentation of a device. Frequently, this poor surface finish, known as chatter, is evident by an undulating or irregular finish and waves on the machined surfaces of the workpiece.

Basic machining process.

Overview of machining technology

Machining is any process in which a cutting tool removes small chips of material from the workpiece (the workpiece is often called the "work"). Relative motion is required between the device and the work to perform the operation. This relative motion is achieved in most machining operations using a primary activity called "cutting speed" and a secondary movement called "feed".[7] The shape of the tool and its penetration into the work surface, combined with these motions, produce the desired shape of the resulting work surface.

Machining operations

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There are many kinds of machining operations, each of which is capable of generating a specific part geometry and surface texture.

In turning, a cutting tool with a single cutting edge removes material from a rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape. The primary motion is provided by rotating the workpiece, and the feed motion is achieved by moving the cutting tool slowly in a direction parallel to the workpiece's rotation axis.

Drilling is used to create a round hole. It is accomplished by a rotating tool that typically has two or four helical cutting edges. The device is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation into the workpiece to form the round hole.

In boring, a tool with a single bent pointed tip is advanced into a roughly made hole in a spinning workpiece to enlarge the gap and improve its accuracy slightly. It is a fine-finishing operation used in the final stages of product manufacture.

Reaming is one of the sizing operations that removes a small amount of metal from a drilled hole.

In milling, a rotating tool with multiple cutting edges is moved slowly relative to the material to generate a plane or straight surface. The direction of the feed motion is perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation. The rotating milling cutter provides speed motion. The two primary forms of milling are:

Other conventional machining operations include shaping, planing, broaching, and sawing. Also, grinding and similar abrasive operations are often included within the category of machining.

Cutting tool

Main article: Cutting tool (machining)

A "numerical controlled machining cell machinist" monitors a B-1B aircraft part being manufactured.

A cutting tool has one or more sharp cutting edges and is made of a harder material than the work material. The cutting edge serves to separate the chip from the parent work material. Connected to the cutting edge are the two surfaces of the tool:

The rake face, which directs the flow of the newly formed chip, is oriented at a certain angle and is called the rake angle "α." It is measured relative to the plane perpendicular to the work surface. The rake angle can be positive or negative. The flank of the tool provides a clearance between the tool and the newly formed work surface, thus protecting the surface from abrasion, which would degrade the finish. This angle between the work and flank surfaces is called the relief angle. There are two basic types of cutting tools:

A single-point tool has one cutting edge for turning, boring, and planning. During machining, the device's point penetrates below the work part's original work surface. The fact is sometimes rounded to a certain radius, called the nose radius.

Multiple cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually achieve their motion relative to the work part by rotating. Drilling and milling use turning multiple-cutting-edge tools. Although the shapes of these tools are different from a single-point device, many elements of tool geometry are similar.

Cutting conditions

Relative motion is required between the tool and work to perform a machining operation. The primary action is at a specific cutting speed. In addition, the device must be moved laterally across the work. This is a much slower motion called the feed. The remaining dimension of the cut is the penetration of the cutting tool below the original work surface, reaching the cut's depth. Speed, feed, and depth of cut are called the cutting conditions.[8] They form the three dimensions of the machining process, and for certain operations, their product can be used to obtain the material removal rate for the process:


Note: All units must be converted to the corresponding decimal (or USCU) units.

Stages in metal cutting

Machining operations usually divide into two categories, distinguished by purpose and cutting conditions:

Roughing cuts are used to remove a large amount of material from the starting work part as rapidly as possible, i.e., with a significant Material Removal Rate (MRR), to produce a shape close to the desired form but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation. Finishing cuts complete the part and achieve the final dimension, tolerances, and surface finish. In production machining jobs, one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work, followed by one or two finishing cuts. Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths – feeds of 0.4–1.25  mm/rev (0.015–0.050 in/rev) and depths of 2.5–20 mm (0.100–0.750 in) are typical, but actual values depend on the workpiece materials. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths – dinners of 0.0125–0.04  mm/rev (0.0005–0.0015 in/rev) and depths of 0.75–2.0 mm (0.030–0.075 in) are typical.[citation needed] Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing.

A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used and, if so, choosing the proper cutting fluid is usually included within the scope of the cutting condition.

Today other forms of metal cutting are becoming increasingly popular. An example of this is water jet cutting. Water jet cutting involves pressurized water over 620 MPa (90 000 psi) and can cut metal and have a finished product. This process is called cold cutting, which eliminates the damage caused by a heat-affected zone, as opposed to laser and plasma cutting.

Relationship of subtractive and additive techniques

With the recent proliferation of additive manufacturing technologies, conventional machining has been retronymously classified, in thought and language, as a subtractive manufacturing method. In narrow contexts, additive and subtractive methods may compete with each other. In the broad context of entire industries, their Relationship is complementary. Each method has its advantages over the other. While additive manufacturing methods can produce very intricate prototype designs impossible to replicate by machining, strength and material selection may be limited.[9]

See also


This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Machining" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (November 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
  1. ^ "MAS.863/4.140J-P7". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  2. ^ "Machining Page". Archived from the original on 2018-09-08. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  3. ^ Machining: An Introduction
  4. ^ Additive Manufacturing Advances Another Step
  5. ^ Kalpakjian & Schmid (2008). Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th Ed. University of Notre Dame. p. 33 – via ((cite book)): External link in |via= (help)
  6. ^ Fu, Guoyu; Huo, Dehong; Shyha, Islam; Pancholi, Ketan; Saharudin, Mohd Shahneel (July 2019). "Experimental Investigation on Micro Milling of Polyester/Halloysite Nano-Clay Nanocomposites". Nanomaterials. 9 (7): 917. doi:10.3390/nano9070917. ISSN 2079-4991. PMC 6669872. PMID 31247963.
  7. ^ "Machining". Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  8. ^ "Speeds and Feeds". Retrieved 2016-08-22.


Further reading