A round manhole and its cover

A manhole cover or maintenance hole cover is a removable plate forming the lid over the opening of a manhole, an opening large enough for a person to pass through that is used as an access point for an underground vault or pipe. It is designed to prevent anyone or anything from falling in, and to keep out unauthorized persons and material.

Ancient Roman sewer grate made out of lime sandstone, 1st century AD, excavated at Vindobona (present-day Vienna)

Manhole covers date back at least to the era of ancient Rome, which had sewer grates made from stone.


Manhole covers are often made out of cast iron, concrete or a combination of the two. This makes them inexpensive, strong, and heavy, usually weighing more than 113 kilograms (249 lb) [citation needed]. The weight helps to keep them in place when traffic passes over them, and makes it difficult for unauthorized people without suitable tools to remove them.

Manhole covers may also be made from glass-reinforced plastic or other composite material (especially in Europe, or where cover theft is of concern). Because of law restricting acceptable manual handling weights, Europe has seen a move towards lighter weight composite manhole cover materials, which also have the benefits of greater slip resistance and electrical insulating properties.

A manhole cover sits on a metal base, with a smaller inset rim which fits the cover. The base and cover are sometimes called "castings", because they are usually made by a casting process, typically sand-casting techniques.[1]

Pick holes in manhole cover, Palo Alto, California, USA
Manhole valve made in 2022

The covers usually feature "pick holes", into which a hook handle tool is inserted to lift them. Pick holes can be concealed for a more watertight lid, or can allow light to shine through. A manhole pick or hook is typically used to lift them, though other tools can be used as well, including electromagnets.

Painted manhole cover in Osaka, Japan

Although the covers are too large to be easily collectible, their ubiquity and the many patterns and descriptions printed on them has led some people to collect pictures of covers from around the world. According to Remo Camerota, the author of a book on the subject titled Drainspotting, 95% of Japanese municipalities have their own cover design, often with colorful inlaid paint.[2]

Despite their weight and cumbersome nature, manhole covers are sometimes stolen, usually for resale as scrap, particularly when metal prices rise.[3][4][5][6]

Manhole covers may be marked to indicate what sort of services exist under them and what group maintains those services, such as the local water system, telecommunications firm, subway or train services, or natural gas firm.

The name "manhole" is sometimes changed to make it gender neutral. The city of Berkeley, California, for example, changed the official term to "maintenance hole" in 2019.[7]



The question of why manhole covers are typically round (in some countries) was made famous by Microsoft when they began asking it as a job-interview question.[8] Originally meant as a psychological assessment of how one approaches a question with more than one correct answer, the problem has produced a number of alternative explanations, from the tautological ("Manhole covers are round because manholes are round")[8] to the philosophical.

Reasons for the shape might include:


Scrapped manholes and covers of various shapes at a road work in Brastad, Sweden

Other manhole shapes can be found, usually squares or rectangles. For example, in the United Kingdom nearly all manhole covers are square or rectangular and very occasionally triangular, but almost never circular. Nashua, New Hampshire, is unusual for having triangular manhole covers that point in the direction of the underlying flow. In 2011, the city began gradually phasing out the triangles,[9] which were made by a local foundry, because they were not large enough to meet modern safety standards and a manufacturer for larger triangles could not be found.[10] Some manhole covers in Hamilton, Bermuda, are triangular, and hinged. Some triangular water-main covers also exist in San Francisco.[11]

A robotics research paper in 2011 suggested that robots could examine the shapes of specific manhole covers and use them to calculate their geographic position, as a double-check on GPS data.[12]

Security and safety

See also: Urban exploration and Stray voltage

In urban areas, stray voltage issues have become a significant concern for utilities. On January 16, 2004, Jodie S. Lane was electrocuted after stepping on a metal manhole cover, while walking her dog in New York City.[13] As result of this and other incidents, increased attention has been focused on these hazards, including technical conferences on stray voltage detection and prevention.[14] Insulation failures can be caused by road salt, age, rats biting the wires, or vibrations from traffic.[15]

Electrical arcing can ignite insulation, leaking natural gas, methane from decaying organic matter, fumes from smouldering insulation,[15] or even gasoline poured down the toilet.[16] This can cause a fire, power outages, and in some cases, an explosion.[15] In the United States, they are most common in New York City, with 3,369 "manhole events", including 32 explosions recorded in 2014.[17] They were most common in summer due to increased electricity use. Chicago reported fewer than 10 events with no explosions, despite also using road salt in the winter.[17]

The Boston area experienced 62 "events" in 2021 (down from 212 in 2018). As of 2022, local utility company Eversource is replacing 38,000 maintenance hole covers, starting in high-traffic areas, with a safer design. A rail allows the cover to lift up to 4 inches (100 mm) and let gases escape, but prevents it from flying into the air and damaging buildings or cars or injuring pedestrians. In some places where road salt is not a concern, the covers have vents to let gases escape. To prevent and mitigate safety problems, the company is also installing monitoring equipment to detect dangerous gases and fires, and increasing inspection frequency.[15]

Because of their aerodynamic design, some modern racing cars create enough vacuum to lift a manhole cover off its recess. During races on city streets, manhole covers must therefore be welded or locked down to prevent injury. In 1990, during the Group C World Sportscar Championship race at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve (located in a public park in Montreal, Quebec), a Brun Motorsport Porsche 962 struck a manhole cover that was lifted by the ground effect of the car he was following, a Courage C24 Porsche. This caused the trailing Porsche to catch fire, and safety issues ended the race shortly afterwards.[citation needed]


Further information: Ketan Kadam § Invention

The theft of manhole covers often increases when scrap metal prices are high.[18][19]

Manhole cover theft can be a serious problem in China, where missing manhole covers caused at least eight deaths in 2004.[20] According to China's Xinhua News Agency, about "240,000 manhole and street-drain covers were stolen in Beijing in 2004."[21]

In China Shakes the World, James Kynge describes the phenomenon:

...in the several weeks beginning in mid-February 2004, when, slowly at first but with mounting velocity, manhole covers started to disappear from roads and pavements around the world. As Chinese demand drove up the price of scrap metal to record levels, thieves almost everywhere had the same idea. As darkness fell, they levered up the iron covers and sold them to local merchants, who cut them up and loaded them onto ships to China. The first displacements were felt in Taiwan, the island country just off China's southeast coast. The next were in other neighbors such as Mongolia and Kyrgyzstan... Wherever the sun set, pilferers worked to satisfy China's hunger. More than 150 covers disappeared during one month in Chicago. Scotland's "great drain robbery" saw more than a hundred vanish in a few days. From Montreal to Gloucester to Kuala Lumpur, unsuspecting pedestrians stumbled into holes.

In Newham, East London, nearly 200 grates and covers were stolen in 2004.[22] A manhole cover designed by artist Antony Gormley was stolen in 2013, ten years after its installation.[23]

In the city of Kolkata, India more than 10,000 manhole covers were taken in two months in 2004. These were replaced with concrete covers, but these were also stolen, this time for the rebar inside them.[24]

In March and April 2012, Ajax, Ontario and Niagara Falls, Ontario[25] had dozens of manhole covers stolen.

In December 2021, Chatham County, Georgia[26] reported 30 manhole covers stolen in a single day.

1957 Operation Plumbbob nuclear test

A manhole cover was accidentally launched from its shaft during an underground nuclear test in 1957. During the Operation Plumbbob nuclear tests, a 900-kilogram (1,984 lb) steel plate cap was blasted off the test shaft at an unknown speed and appeared as a blur on a single frame of film of the test. It was never recovered, but it likely burned up in the atmosphere due to friction. If the manhole cover had made it into space, it would have been the first known man-made object in space, as it pre-dated the launch of Sputnik 1 by 38 days. A calculation before the event gave a predicted speed of six times Earth escape velocity. After the event, Dr. Robert R. Brownlee described the best estimate of the cover's speed from the photographic evidence as "going like a bat out of hell!"[27][28][29]

Loading classification

The European norm EN 124 of 1994 applies to manhole and storm drain tops with a clear opening up to 1 m for areas subjected to pedestrian or vehicular traffic (covers with a clear opening over 1 m are specified in the British Standard BS9124 for example).[30] EN 124 specifies several weight classes depending on the application and is also being used in some countries outside the European Union. The lightest class A15 (cast iron) manhole cover can withstand a maximum weight of 1.5 tonnes. It would typically be restricted to light duty applications in pedestrian areas, gardens, patios, driveways and similar. By contrast, the heaviest class F900 manhole cover can withstand a maximum weight of 90 tons, making it suitable for docks, airports, and other extreme heavy-duty applications.[31]

EN 124 does not apply for gratings of prefabricated drainage channels (according to EN 1433) or floor and roof gullies in buildings (specified in EN 1253-1).[30]

The Fabricated Access Covers Trade Association (FACTA) provides its own specification which came into effect in 2013. It has a similar scope as the EN 124, focuses on wheel loadings and is based on the European standards for structural steelwork. The FACTA specification applies to solid top covers, recessed covers designed for structural or non-structural infill and surface drainage products.[30]

As art

In Japan, a number of manhole covers have been featuring artistic designs since the 1980s. There is enough interest in them to allow merchandise and conventions, with an estimated 12,000 designs spread across Japan by 2019.[32] These could be found in nearly all cities and towns in the country.[33] Popular media franchises, such as Gundam and Pokémon, have also been featured in the covers with hundreds of Pokémon-themed manhole covers across Japan.[34]

The utilization of manhole covers as street art has also been done in Taiwan and Vietnam.[35][36]

See also


  1. ^ "enotes.com: How Products are Made - Manhole Cover". Archived from the original on 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-18.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. ^ "Japanese manhole covers", Governing Magazine, September 29, 2011, archived from the original (website) on 2018-08-27, retrieved 2016-01-09
  3. ^ Liu Shinan. "Severely punish theft of manhole covers". China Daily, December 21, 2005. Accessed December 19, 2008.
  4. ^ Mickle, Bryn. "Hundreds of manhole covers stolen around Genesee County" Archived 2008-08-29 at the Wayback Machine. Flint Journal, July 14, 2008. Accessed December 19, 2008.
  5. ^ "Time Warner Cable News". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-13.
  6. ^ "$15,000 in Manhole Covers Stolen in Va". 10 March 2014.
  7. ^ ABC News: "Berkeley switches manhole to maintenance hole
  8. ^ a b Poundstone, William (2003). How Would You Move Mount Fuji? Microsoft's Cult of the Puzzle – How the World's Smartest Company Selects the Most Creative Thinkers. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-91916-0.
  9. ^ "City inevitably must replace unique triangular manhole covers | News, Sports, Jobs - The Nashua Telegraph". www.nashuatelegraph.com. No. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  10. ^ Brooks, David (August 21, 2011). "Nashua's triangular covers historic and unique". Nashua Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  11. ^ "picture of triangular water-main in San Francisco". Maa.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
  12. ^ Marks, Paul (2011-02-08). "I, for one, welcome our manhole-seeking overlords". New Scientist. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
  13. ^ Ramirez, Anthony (January 19, 2004). "East Village Woman Was Electrocuted on Street With Metal Plate, Medical Examiner Says". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  14. ^ "(Homepage)". Jodie S. Lane Public Safety Foundation. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  15. ^ a b c d Alexander Thompson (August 10, 2022). "The solution to Boston's manhole explosions is an engineering 'game changer'". The Boston Globe.
  16. ^ After manhole explosions near U, Met Council warns not to flush gas down the toilet
  17. ^ a b "Real Flying Saucers: Why Manhole Covers Take Flight in Summer". NBC News. 19 August 2015. Archived from the original on 2022-12-06.
  18. ^ Ryan, Susan (2012-06-10). "Manhole covers and memorial plaques: what's being stolen in the recession?". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  19. ^ "Woman falls down sewer after thieves steal drain cover". The Telegraph. 16 Nov 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  20. ^ "China manhole thefts prove deadly". BBC Online. 2004-01-29.
  21. ^ "Putting a lid on rampant manhole theft". CNN. Beijing. Mar 15, 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-03-20.
  22. ^ Muir, Hugh (25 October 2004). "Manhole covers vanish in the night". The Guardian. guardian.co.uk.
  23. ^ "Gormless: someone has stolen the Anthony Gormley manhole cover!". December 4, 2013. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014.
  24. ^ "10,000 manhole covers vanish - Fingers pointed at Growing craze for Drugs, SNAP lottery". The Telegraph (Kolkata). September 7, 2004. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004.
  25. ^ Tony Ricciuto. "Stolen manhole covers put 'lives at risk'". niagarafallsreview.ca.
  26. ^ "Chatham County police ask for help after dozens of manhole covers stolen". FOX 5 Atlanta. January 7, 2022.
  27. ^ "Learning to Contain Underground Nuclear Explosions By Dr. Robert R. Brownlee - June 2002". Radiochemistry.org. Retrieved 2011-04-08.
  28. ^ "Operation Plumbob at the Nuclear Weapon Archive". Retrieved 2011-04-08.
  29. ^ Harrington, Rebecca. "The fastest object ever launched was a manhole cover — here's the story from the guy who shot it into space". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  30. ^ a b c Brochure "Manholes", pages 6ff, Kent Stainless, Ireland
  31. ^ Manhole Cover Sizes and Applications, June 13, 2017, archived from the original (website) on 2017-12-05, retrieved 2017-06-21
  32. ^ "Manhole Mania: Exploring Japan's Trendy Manhole Cover Art! | LIVE JAPAN travel guide". LIVE JAPAN. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  33. ^ "Street art: Japanese manhole covers". CBS News. 17 May 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  34. ^ "Just What Japan Needs: More Gundam Manholes". Kotaku. 20 July 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  35. ^ "Foreigners praise Taiwan 'street art' painted on manhole". The China Post. 24 December 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  36. ^ "Young Saigoneers Turn Manhole Covers Into Street Art | Saigoneer". saigoneer.com. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2021.

Further reading

Collections of photos