Asphalt road in Norway

A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been surfaced or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse. Roads have been adapted to a large range of structures and types in order to achieve a common goal of transportation under a large and wide range of conditions. The specific purpose, mode of transport, material[1][2] and location of a road determine the characteristics it must have in order to maximize its usefulness. Following is one classification scheme.

Taxonomy of Road

Marohn distinguishes between roads that are designed for mobility which he terms "roads" and those that function to "build a place", build community wealth and provide access to land. He argues the value of a road in terms of both community wealth and mobility is maximised when the road speed is either low or high, but not at midpoints such as 45mph. He refers to this low-value midpoint of speed and land access as a stroad.[3]: 69 

Types of roads

See also: List of road types by features, Hierarchy of roads, Road § Terminology, and List of longest ring roads

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (May 2019)

Lower capacity roads

Tree tunnel in Florida

Street

Main article: Street

See also: Street or road name § Street type designations, and Street suffix

Primitive roads

Hollow way on the side of La Meauffe, witness of the battle of the hedges in 1944)

Main article: Primitive road

Large roads

E20 highway, Denmark

See also: Geography of toll roads

Highway A7 during rush-hour

Private roads

Glenbervie House driveway

See also: List of military roads

Intersecting roads

Roundabout

Material type

Roads also may be classified based on their pavement material types. For instance, the Long-Term Pavement Performance database includes more than 30 types of pavement types for roads in the US and Canada.[2][4][5] However, a more generic classification of roads based on material type is as follows.[5][6]

Other thoroughfares

Road types by features

In this list, roads names are used in different areas and the features of the roads varies. So this table address the differences in that usage when needed.

Name Country subdivision Access type Speed Cross traffic Divided Notes
2+1 road Ireland High No Yes
2+1 road North America High No Optional
2+1 road Sweden Junction (roundabout) High No Yes
2+2 road High No Yes Type of dual carriageway
Alley Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Arterial road High No Optional
Autobahn Germany Interchange High No Yes
Autocesta Interchange High No Yes
Autopista Interchange High No Yes
Autoroute Interchange High No Yes
Autoroute Canada Interchange High No Yes expressway is synonymous with freeway or autoroute depending on the province
Autostrada Italy Interchange High No Yes
Autostrasse Interchange High No Yes
Autoestrada Portugal Interchange High No Yes
Avtomagistral (variously translated) Russia High Yes Designated so according to the communication importance; features vary
Boulevard Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Business route Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Collector/distributor road High No Optional
Cul-de-sac Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Distributor road High No Optional
Divided highway High No Optional
Driveway Uncontrolled Low Yes Optional
Dual carriageway Ireland intersection High Yes Yes
Dual carriageway Singapore intersection High Yes Yes
Dual carriageway UK Uncontrolled Any Yes Yes
Express-collector High No Optional
Expressway Partial Varies Limited Varies General definition
Expressway US Partial Varies Limited Yes General US definition[10]
Expressway Canada Interchange High No Yes expressway is synonymous with freeway or autoroute depending on the province
Farm-to-market road High No usually a state highway or county highway
Freeway US Interchange High No Yes
Freeway Canada Interchange High No Yes expressway is synonymous with freeway or autoroute depending on the province
Frontage road Argentina Partial Low Yes No
Frontage road China Partial Low Yes No know locally as service roads or auxiliary roads
Frontage road US Uncontrolled or Partial Low Yes No Can be one way roads with opposing directions on either side of the adjoining freeway
High-quality dual carriageway Interchange High No Yes
Highway High No Optional
Lane Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Link road High No Optional
Motorway Interchange High No Yes
Parkway High No Optional
Regional road Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Road Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Semi-highway Interchange High No Yes
Single carriageway Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Street Uncontrolled Low Yes No
Superhighway Interchange High No Yes
Super two High No Optional
Thruway Interchange High No Yes
Two-lane expressway High Yes No

Notes

References

  1. ^ Piryonesi, Sayed Madeh (November 2019). Piryonesi, S. M. (2019). The Application of Data Analytics to Asset Management: Deterioration and Climate Change Adaptation in Ontario Roads (Doctoral dissertation) (Thesis).
  2. ^ a b Elkins, G.E., Schmalzer, P., Thompson, T., and Simpson, A. 2003. Long-Term Pavement Performance Information Management System Pavement Performance Database User Reference Guide.
  3. ^ Marohn, Charles L. Jr. (2021). Confessions of a recovering engineer: transportation for a strong town (1st ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey. ISBN 978-1-119-69929-3. OCLC 1253442641.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  4. ^ Piryonesi, S. M.; El-Diraby, T. E. (2020) [Published online: December 21, 2019]. "Data Analytics in Asset Management: Cost-Effective Prediction of the Pavement Condition Index". Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 26 (1): 04019036. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000512. S2CID 213782055.
  5. ^ a b Piryonesi, Sayed Madeh (November 2019). Piryonesi, S. M. (2019). The Application of Data Analytics to Asset Management: Deterioration and Climate Change Adaptation in Ontario Roads (Doctoral dissertation) (Thesis).
  6. ^ Way, N.C., Beach, P., and Materials, P. 2015. ASTM D 6433–07: Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys.
  7. ^ "9 Types of Roads in civil Engineering and Construction". 2 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Properties of bituminous materials and Uses, Chemical composition". 9 October 2020.
  9. ^ "shunpike". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 15 May 2019. A side road taken, instead of a turnpike or expressway, to avoid tolls or to travel at a leisurely pace.
  10. ^ Section 1A.13, Paragraph 27, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 2003 ed., rev. 1.[1]