Palais de la Cour de Justice, Luxembourg
|Judicial branch overview|
|Jurisdiction||European Union and Northern Ireland[a]|
|Headquarters||Palais de la Cour de Justice, Kirchberg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg|
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (French: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne or "CJUE"; Latin: Curia) is the judicial branch of the European Union (EU). Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. From 2005 to 2016 it also contained the Civil Service Tribunal. It has a sui generis court system, meaning 'of its own kind', and is a supranational institution.
The CJEU is the chief judicial authority of the European Union and oversees the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law, in co-operation with the national judiciary of the member states. The CJEU also resolves legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions, and may take action against EU institutions on behalf of individuals, companies or organisations whose rights have been infringed.
The CJEU consists of two major courts:
The CJEU's specific mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties of the European Union. To achieve this, it:
The composition and functioning of the courts are regulated by the Rules of Procedure.
The CJEU was originally established in 1951 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities. With the Euratom and the European Economic Community in 1957 its name changed to the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)). In 1988 the Court requested the Commission to create a Court of First Instance and in 2004 it added the Civil Service Tribunal.  The Civil Service Tribunal are for issues of public employment.
The Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 renamed the court system to the "Court of Justice of the European Union" and renamed the CJEC to the "Court of Justice".
The working language of the Court of Justice of the European Union is French.
The Protocol will also confer full jurisdiction on the CJEU to oversee the operation of EU law applying to Northern Ireland in relation to customs and the movement of goods, technical regulations, VAT and excise, the Single Electricity Market and State aid; including the jurisdiction to hear applications for preliminary rulings submitted by the courts of Northern Ireland. The UK will have the right to participate in these proceedings as if it were a Member State.