David Souter
Official portrait, 1990
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
October 9, 1990 – June 29, 2009[1]
Nominated byGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byWilliam J. Brennan Jr.
Succeeded bySonia Sotomayor
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit
In office
May 25, 1990 – October 9, 1990
Nominated byGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byHugh H. Bownes
Succeeded byNorman H. Stahl
Associate Justice of the New Hampshire Supreme Court
In office
Nominated byJohn Sununu
Preceded byMaurice Bois
Succeeded bySherman Horton
Associate Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court
In office
20th Attorney General of New Hampshire
In office
July 17, 1976 – September 19, 1978
GovernorMeldrim Thomson Jr.
Preceded byWarren Rudman
Succeeded byThomas D. Rath
Personal details
David Hackett Souter

(1939-09-17) September 17, 1939 (age 84)
Melrose, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyRepublican[2]
EducationHarvard University (BA, LLB)
Magdalen College, Oxford (MA)

David Hackett Souter (/ˈstər/ SOO-tər; born September 17, 1939) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1990 until his retirement in 2009.[3] Appointed by President George H. W. Bush to fill the seat that had been vacated by William J. Brennan Jr., Souter sat on both the Rehnquist and the Roberts courts.

Raised in New England, Souter attended Harvard College, Magdalen College, Oxford, and Harvard Law School. After briefly working in private practice, he moved to public service. He served as a prosecutor (1966–1968) in the New Hampshire Attorney General's office (1968–1976), as the attorney general of New Hampshire (1976–1978), as an associate justice of the Superior Court of New Hampshire (1978–1983), as an associate justice of the New Hampshire Supreme Court (1983–1990), and briefly as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (1990).[4]

Souter was nominated to the Supreme Court without a significant "paper trail" but was expected to be a conservative justice. Within a few years of his appointment, Souter moved towards the ideological center. He eventually came to vote reliably with the Court's liberal wing.[4][5] In mid-2009, after Democrat Barack Obama took office as U.S. president, Souter announced his retirement from the Court; he was succeeded by Sonia Sotomayor. Souter has continued to hear cases by designation at the circuit court level.

Early life and education

Souter was born in Melrose, Massachusetts, on September 17, 1939, the only child of Joseph Alexander Souter (1904–1976) and Helen Adams (Hackett) Souter (1907–1995).[6][7] His father was of Scottish ancestry and his mother of English ancestry.[8] At age 11, he moved with his family to their farm in Weare, New Hampshire.[6]

Souter graduated second in his class from Concord High School in 1957.[9] He then attended Harvard University, graduating in 1961 with an Bachelor of Arts, magna cum laude, in philosophy and writing a senior thesis on the legal positivism of Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. While at Harvard, Souter was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa.[10] He was selected as a Rhodes Scholar and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree (later promoted to a Master of Arts degree, as per tradition) in Jurisprudence from Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1963. He graduated in 1966 with a Bachelor of Laws degree from Harvard Law School.

Early career

In 1968, after two years as an associate at the law firm of Orr & Reno in Concord, New Hampshire, Souter realized he disliked private practice[6] and began his career in public service by accepting a position as an Assistant Attorney General of New Hampshire. As Assistant Attorney General he prosecuted criminal cases in the courts. In 1971, Warren Rudman, then the Attorney General of New Hampshire, selected Souter to be the Deputy Attorney General. Souter succeeded Rudman as New Hampshire Attorney General in 1976.

In 1978, with the support of his friend Rudman, Souter was named an associate justice of the Superior Court of New Hampshire.[6] As a judge on the Superior Court he heard cases in two counties and was noted for his tough sentencing.[6] With four years of trial court experience, Souter was appointed to the New Hampshire Supreme Court as an associate justice in 1983.[11]

Shortly after George H. W. Bush was sworn in as President, he nominated Souter for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. Souter had had seven years of judicial experience at the appellate level, four years at the trial court level, and ten years with the Attorney General's office. He was confirmed by unanimous consent of the Senate on April 27, 1990.[12]

U.S. Supreme Court appointment

Souter testifying during one of his confirmation hearings

President George H. W. Bush originally considered nominating Clarence Thomas to Brennan's seat, but he and his advisers decided that Thomas did not yet have enough experience as a judge.[13] Warren Rudman, who had since been elected to the U.S. Senate, and former New Hampshire Governor John H. Sununu, then Bush's chief of staff, suggested Souter, and were instrumental in his nomination and confirmation. Bush was reportedly "highly impressed by Souter's intellectual seriousness" and Souter's intellect, "particularly impressive in one-on-one meetings", was reported to have been a persuasive factor in his nomination.[14][15] At the time, few observers outside New Hampshire knew who Souter was,[16] although he had reportedly been on Reagan's short list of nominees for the Supreme Court seat held by Lewis F. Powell Jr. that eventually went to Anthony Kennedy.[17]

Souter was seen as a "stealth justice" whose professional record in the state courts provoked no real controversy and provided a minimal "paper trail"[18] on issues of U.S. Constitutional law. Bush saw the lack of a paper trail as an asset, because one of President Reagan's nominees, Robert Bork, had been rejected by the Senate partially because of his extensive written opinions on controversial issues.[19] Bush nominated Souter on July 25, 1990, saying that he did not know Souter's stances on abortion, affirmative action, or other issues.[6][20]

Senate confirmation hearings were held beginning on September 13, 1990. The National Organization for Women opposed Souter's nomination and held a rally outside the Senate during his confirmation hearings.[6] The president of NOW, Molly Yard, testified that Souter would "end freedom for women in this country."[21] Souter was also opposed by the NAACP, which urged its 500,000 members to write letters to their senators asking them to oppose the nomination.[22] In Souter's opening statement before the Judiciary Committee of the Senate he summed up the lessons he had learned as a judge of the New Hampshire courts:

The first lesson, simple as it is, is that whatever court we are in, whatever we are doing, whether we are in a trial court or an appellate court, at the end of our task some human being is going to be affected. Some human life is going to be changed in some way by what we do, whether we do it as trial judges or whether we do it as appellate judges, as far removed from the trial arena as it is possible to be. And so we had better use every power of our minds and our hearts and our beings to get those rulings right.[23]

Despite the organized opposition, Souter won confirmation easily.[24] Souter's performance at the confirmation hearings ensured his approval by the Senate; Walter Dellinger, a liberal Democrat and an adviser to the Senate Judiciary Committee, called Souter "the most intellectually impressive nominee I've ever seen".[25][26] The Senate Judiciary Committee reported out the nomination by a vote of 13–1,[27] and the Senate confirmed the nomination by a vote of 90–9;[28] Souter was sworn into office shortly thereafter, on October 9, 1990.[1]

The nine senators voting against Souter included Ted Kennedy and John Kerry from Souter's neighboring state of Massachusetts. These senators, along with seven others, painted Souter as a right-winger in the mold of Robert Bork.[29]

U.S. Supreme Court

Souter in 2009

Souter opposed having cameras in the Supreme Court during oral arguments because he said questions would be taken out of context by the media and the proceedings would be politicized.[30]

He also served as the Court's designated representative to Congress on at least one occasion, testifying before committees of that body about the Court's needs for additional funding to refurbish its building and for other projects.[6]

Expected conservatism

At the time of Souter's appointment, John Sununu assured President Bush and conservatives that Souter would be a "home run" for conservatism.[31] In his testimony before the Senate, he was thought by conservatives to be a strict constructionist on constitutional matters, but he portrayed himself as an incrementalist who disliked drastic change and attached a high importance to precedent.[32][33] In the state attorney general's office and as a state Supreme Court judge, he had never been tested on matters of federal law.[13]

After the appointment of Clarence Thomas, Souter moved toward the ideological middle.[16] In the 1992 case Lee v. Weisman, Souter voted with the liberal wing and against allowing prayer at a high school graduation ceremony.[34]

In the 1992 case Planned Parenthood v. Casey, Souter voted with the moderate wing in a majority decision in which the Court reaffirmed the essential holding in Roe v. Wade but narrowed its scope. Justice Anthony Kennedy had considered overturning Roe and upholding all the restrictions at issue in Casey. Souter considered upholding all the restrictions but was uneasy about overturning Roe. After consulting with O'Connor, the three (who came to be known as the "troika") developed a joint opinion that upheld all the restrictions in Casey except the mandatory notification of a husband while asserting the essential holding of Roe, that the Constitution protects the right to an abortion.[35]

By the late 1990s, Souter began to align himself more with Stephen Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, although as of 1995, he sided on more occasions with the more liberal[36] justice John Paul Stevens than either Breyer or Ginsburg, both Clinton appointees.[37] On death penalty cases, workers' rights cases, defendants' rights cases, and other issues, Souter began increasingly voting with the Court's liberals,[38] and later came to be considered part of the Court's liberal wing. Because of this, many conservatives view Souter's appointment an error of the Bush presidency.[39] For example, after widespread speculation that President George W. Bush intended to appoint Alberto Gonzales—whose perceived views on affirmative action and abortion drew criticism—to the Court, some conservative Senate staffers popularized the slogan "Gonzales is Spanish for Souter".[40]

A Wall Street Journal opinion piece ten years after Souter's nomination called Souter a "liberal jurist" and said that Rudman took "pride in recounting how he sold Mr. Souter to gullible White House Chief of Staff John Sununu as a confirmable conservative. Then they both sold the judge to President Bush, who wanted above all else to avoid a confirmation battle."[41] Rudman wrote in his memoir that he had "suspected all along" that Souter would not "overturn activist liberal precedents."[6] Sununu later said that he had "a lot of disappointment" in Souter's positions on the Court and would have preferred him to be more like Antonin Scalia.[6] In contrast, President Bush said several years after Souter's appointment that he was proud of Souter's "outstanding" service and "outstanding intellect" and that Souter would "serve for years on the Court, and he will serve with honor always and with brilliance".[14]

Notable decisions

Planned Parenthood v. Casey

In the 1992 case Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Supreme Court upheld the right to abortion as established by the "essential holding" of Roe v. Wade (1973) and issued as its "key judgment" the imposition of the undue burden standard when evaluating state-imposed restrictions on that right. The controlling plurality opinion in the case was joined by Souter, Kennedy and O'Connor. Souter is widely believed to have written the section of the opinion that addresses the issue of stare decisis and set out a four-part test in determining whether to overrule a prior decision.[42] David Garrow later called that section "the most eloquent section of the opinion" and said it includes "two paragraphs that rank among the most memorable lines ever authored by an American jurist".[14]

Bush v. Gore

In 2000, Souter voted along with three other justices in Bush v. Gore to allow the presidential election recount to continue, while the majority voted to end the recount. The decision allowed the declaration of George W. Bush as the winner of the election in Florida to stand.

In his 2007 book The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court, Jeffrey Toobin wrote of Souter's reaction to Bush v. Gore:

Toughened, or coarsened, by their worldly lives, the other dissenters could shrug and move on, but Souter couldn't. His whole life was being a judge. He came from a tradition where the independence of the judiciary was the foundation of the rule of law. And Souter believed Bush v. Gore mocked that tradition. His colleagues' actions were so transparently, so crudely partisan that Souter thought he might not be able to serve with them anymore. Souter seriously considered resigning. For many months, it was not at all clear whether he would remain as a justice. That the Court met in a city he loathed made the decision even harder. At the urging of a handful of close friends, he decided to stay on, but his attitude toward the Court was never the same. There were times when David Souter thought of Bush v. Gore and wept.[43]

The above passage was disputed by Souter's longtime friend Warren Rudman. Rudman told the New Hampshire Union Leader that while Souter was discomfited by Bush v. Gore, it was not true that he had broken down into tears over it.[43]

Relationship with other justices

Justice Souter (second from the left in the back row) on the Rehnquist Court

Souter worked well with Sandra Day O'Connor and had a good relationship with both her and her husband during her days on the court.[6] He generally had a good working relationship with every justice, but was particularly fond of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and considered John Paul Stevens to be the "smartest" justice.[6]

International recognition

Even though Souter had never traveled outside the United States during his years with the Supreme Court, he still gained significant recognition abroad. In 1995, a series of articles based on his written opinions and titled "Souter Court" was published by a Moscow legal journal, The Russian Justice. Those were followed by a book, written in Russian and bearing Souter's name in the title.[44] Justice of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation Yury Danilov, reviewing the 2nd edition of the book in a Moscow English-language daily, made the following remark on Souter's position in Bush v. Gore: "In a most critical and delicate situation, David Souter had maintained the independence of his position and in this respect had become a symbol of the independence of the judiciary."[45][46]


Souter receiving an honorary degree from Harvard University on May 27, 2010

Long before the election of President Obama, Souter had expressed a desire to leave Washington, D.C., and return to New Hampshire.[47][48] The election of a Democratic president in 2008 may have made Souter more inclined to retire, but he did not want to create a situation in which there would be multiple vacancies at once.[49] Souter apparently became satisfied that no other justices planned to retire at the end of the Supreme Court's term in June 2009.[49] As a result, in mid-April 2009 he privately notified the White House of his intent to retire at the conclusion of that term.[50] Souter sent Obama a retirement letter on May 1, effective at the start of the Supreme Court's 2009 summer recess.[51] Later that day Obama made an unscheduled appearance during the daily White House press briefing to announce Souter's retirement.[52] On May 26, 2009, Obama announced his nomination of federal appeals court judge Sonia Sotomayor. She was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 6.

On June 29, 2009, the last day of the Court's 2008–2009 term, Chief Justice Roberts read a letter to Souter that had been signed by all eight of his colleagues as well as retired Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, thanking him for his service, and Souter read a letter to his colleagues reciprocating their good wishes.[53]

Souter's papers have been donated to the New Hampshire Historical Society and will not be made public until at least 50 years after his death.[54]

Post-Supreme Court career

As a Supreme Court justice with retired status, Souter remains a judge and is entitled to sit by designation on lower courts. After his retirement from the Supreme Court and until 2020, he regularly sat by designation on panels of the First Circuit Court of Appeals, based in Boston and covering Maine, Massachusetts, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and his adopted home state of New Hampshire, generally in February or March of each year.[55][56][needs update]

Souter has maintained a low public profile since retiring from the Supreme Court. In one exception, comments he made during a 2012 appearance at the Capitol Center for the Arts in New Hampshire about the dangers of "civic ignorance" were, in 2016, called "remarkably prescient" of the presidential campaign of Donald Trump.[57]

Personal life

Once named by The Washington Post as one of Washington's 10 Most Eligible Bachelors,[6] Souter has never married, though he was once engaged.[58] He is an Episcopalian.[59]

Souter was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1994,[60] and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1997.[61]

In 2004, Souter was mugged while jogging between his home and the Fort Lesley J. McNair Army Base in Washington, DC. He suffered minor injuries from the event, visiting the MedStar Washington Hospital Center for treatment.[62] The problem led to public questioning of the Supreme Court Police's security detail, which was not present at the time.[63]

According to Jeffrey Toobin's 2007 book The Nine, Souter has a decidedly low-tech lifestyle: He writes with a fountain pen, does not use email, and has no cellphone or answering machine. While serving on the Supreme Court, he preferred to drive back to New Hampshire for the summer, where he enjoyed mountain climbing.[6] Souter has also done his own home repairs[64] and is known for his daily lunch of an apple and unflavored yogurt.[65]

Former Supreme Court correspondent Linda Greenhouse wrote of Souter: "to focus on his eccentricities—his daily lunch of yogurt and an apple, core and all; the absence of a computer in his personal office—is to miss the essence of a man who in fact is perfectly suited to his job, just not to its trappings. His polite but persistent questioning of lawyers who appear before the court displays his meticulous preparation and his mastery of the case at hand and the cases relevant to it. Far from being out of touch with the modern world, he has simply refused to surrender to it control over aspects of his own life that give him deep contentment: hiking, sailing, time with old friends, reading history."[66]

In early August 2009, Souter moved from his family farmhouse in Weare to a Cape Cod-style single-floor house in nearby Hopkinton, New Hampshire, a town in Merrimack County northeast of Weare and immediately west of the state capital of Concord. Souter told a disappointed Weare neighbor that the two-story family farmhouse was not structurally sound enough to support the thousands of books he owns and that he wished to live on one level.[67]

Over the years, Souter has served on hospital boards and civic committees.[68][69] He is a former honorary co-chair of the We the People National Advisory Committee.[70]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Justices 1789 to Present". Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  2. ^ Barnes, Robert; Shackelford, Lucy (February 12, 2008). "As on Bench, Voting Styles Are Personal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  3. ^ "Press Release". Supreme Court of the United States. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "David H. Souter". The New York Times. August 3, 2017. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
  5. ^ Baker, Peter; Zeleny, Jeff (May 1, 2009). "Souter's Exit to Give Obama First Opening". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Yarbrough, Tinsley E. "David Hackett Souter: Traditional Republican on the Rehnquist Court" Archived May 5, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-515933-0
  7. ^ Biography David Hackett Souter Archived March 14, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Cornell University Law School
  8. ^ "David Souter, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court". May 24, 2018.
  9. ^ "CONCORD HIGH SCHOOL NOTABLES". Concord High School. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  10. ^ Supreme Court Justices Who Are Phi Beta Kappa Members Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Phi Beta Kappa website
  11. ^ Gerstenzang, James; Lauter, David (July 24, 1990). "Little-Known Judge Named to Replace Brennan on Court : Judiciary: David Souter served as New Hampshire justice and attorney general. He has no clear record on abortion". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  12. ^ "PN1016 - Nomination of David H. Souter for The Judiciary, 101st Congress (1989-1990)". www.congress.gov. April 27, 1990. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  13. ^ a b Greenberg, Jan Crawford Clarence Thomas: A Silent Justice Speaks Out Archived September 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, ABC News, September 30, 2007
  14. ^ a b c Garrow, David J. (September 25, 1994). "Justice Souter Emerges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  15. ^ "And Then There Were 2 and Finally 1--Souter : Court: Nominee selected over Texas woman primarily for his lack of 'paper trail' on controversial issues". Los Angeles Times. July 25, 1990. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  16. ^ a b Greenhouse, Linda Souter Anchoring the Court's New Center Archived May 8, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, July 3, 1992
  17. ^ Greenhouse, Linda; Times, Special To the New York (October 29, 1987). "A NEW CONTENDER IS SEEN FOR COURT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  18. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey "Stealth Justice" Archived December 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, May 1, 2009
  19. ^ Greenfield, Jeff (July 9, 2018). "The Justice Who Built the Trump Court". POLITICO Magazine. Archived from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  20. ^ US Supreme Court Archived November 28, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, about.com
  21. ^ Kamen, Al For Liberals, Easy Does It With Roberts Archived November 30, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post, September 19, 2005
  22. ^ Molotsky, Irvin N.A.A.C.P. Urges Souter's Defeat, Citing Earlier Statements on Race Archived February 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, September 22, 1990
  23. ^ Senate Committee on the Judiciary: Senate Hearing 101–1263 Archived January 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Hearings on the Nomination of David H. Souter, September 13, 1990.
  24. ^ Taranto, James and Leo, Leonard "Presidential Leadership" Archived April 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Free Press, 2004
  25. ^ Greenhouse, Linda; Times, Special To the New York (September 17, 1990). "The 'Not Bork' Test; Senators Know What Judge Souter Isn't, But a Question Remains: Is That Enough?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  26. ^ Hensley, Thomas R.; Hale, Kathleen; Snook, Carl (2006). The Rehnquist Court: Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-57607-200-4.
  27. ^ "Judiciary Committee Votes On Recent Supreme Court Nominees | United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary". www.judiciary.senate.gov. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  28. ^ "PN1414 - Nomination of David H. Souter for Supreme Court of the United States, 101st Congress (1989-1990)". www.congress.gov. October 2, 1990. Archived from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  29. ^ Boston, Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate Columbia Point 210 Morrissey Blvd; Ma 02125. "Warren Rudman Oral History, Senator, New Hampshire". Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  30. ^ On Cameras in Supreme Court, Souter Says, 'Over My Dead Body' Archived July 29, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, March 30, 1996
  31. ^ Shenon, Philip; Times, Special To the New York (August 24, 1990). "Conservative Says Sununu Assured Him on Souter". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  32. ^ "Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate on the Nomination of David H. Souter to be Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States" (PDF). govinfo.gov. September 19, 1990. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2020. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  33. ^ Roosevelt, Kermit. Justice CincinnatusDavid Souter—a dying breed, the Yankee Republican Archived January 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Slate, May 1, 2009.
  34. ^ Perrin, Marilyn (1994). "Lee v. Weisman: Unanswered Prayers". Pepperdine Law Review. 21: 250. Archived from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  35. ^ Whitman, Christina (June 2002). "Looking Back on Planned Parenthood v. Casey". Michigan Law Review. 100 (7): 1982. doi:10.2307/1556082. JSTOR 1556082. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  36. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey The Dissenter: Majority of One, Stevens at the Supreme Court Archived November 24, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, September 23, 2007
  37. ^ Ponnuru, Ramesh Empty Souter-Supreme Court Justice David Souter Archived September 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, National Review, September 11, 1995
  38. ^ (see Segal-Cover score)
  39. ^ Greenfield, Jeff David Souter: The Justice Who Built The Trump Court Archived July 10, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Politico Magazine, July 9, 2018
  40. ^ Greenburg, Jan Crawford (2007). Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court. Penguin. p. 246. ISBN 9781594201011. Archived from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  41. ^ "Chief Justice Souter?". Wall Street Journal. February 29, 2000. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  42. ^ Wermiel, Stephen (October 2, 2019). "SCOTUS for law students: Supreme Court precedent". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved July 3, 2022.
  43. ^ a b Did Bush v. Gore Make Justice Souter Weep? Archived November 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2007
  44. ^ Петр Баренбойм, "3000 лет доктрины разделения властей: Суд Сьютера", M., 1996. / Petr Barenboim, "3000 years of the separation of powers doctrine: Souter court", Moscow, 1996; 2nd ed., 2003. / ISBN 5-7619-0015-7, http://lccn.loc.gov/2001434516 Archived November 8, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Yury Danilov, The Judiciary: From Samuel to Souter, The Moscow News, October 15, 2003.
  46. ^ Peter Barenboim, «Biblical Roots of Separation of Powers», Moscow, 2005 Archived November 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, p.163, ISBN 5-94381-123-0
  47. ^ Barnes, Robert (May 1, 2009). "Souter Reportedly Planning to Retire From High Court". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 1, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
  48. ^ Rucker, Philip (May 3, 2009). "Justice Souter longs for rural hideaway". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  49. ^ a b Totenberg, Nina (April 30, 2009). "Supreme Court Justice Souter To Retire". NPR. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009.
  50. ^ Baker, Peter; Nagourney, Adam (May 28, 2009). "Sotomayor Pick a Product of Lessons From Past Battles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2009.
  51. ^ Souter, David H. (May 1, 2009). "David H. Souter Letter to President Obama, May 1, 2009" (PDF). New York Times. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  52. ^ Obama Announces Souter Retirement Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, Caucus Blog, May 1, 2009
  53. ^ Phillips, Kate (June 29, 2009). "Souter and Justices Exchange Farewells". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  54. ^ Gresko, Jessica (May 11, 2022). "For Supreme Court justices, secrecy is part of the job". Associated Press. Retrieved May 16, 2022.
  55. ^ Wente, Gary H. (September 7, 2012). Pagano, Florence; Dumas, Michelle; McQuillan, Kelly (eds.). "First Circuit 2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Circuit Executive, United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2012. In January, February, March, and May 2010, retired United States Supreme Court Justice David Souter sat with the court.
  56. ^ Carrano, Gina. "First Circuit Upholds Firearms Restrictions". Archived from the original on June 26, 2016. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  57. ^ "Souter warned of a Trump-like candidate in prescient remarks". MSNBC.com. October 21, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  58. ^ Totenberg, Nina "Supreme Court Justice Souter To Retire" Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, NPR, April 30, 2009
  59. ^ "David Souter Fast Facts". CNN. July 26, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2023.
  60. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
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  62. ^ "Justice Souter Is Attacked While Jogging". The New York Times. May 2, 2004. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  63. ^ Yarbrough, Tinsley E. (January 2001). Blackmun, Harry A. (1908-1999), Supreme Court justice. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1101205.
  64. ^ A No-Frills Embrace for a Low-Key Justice Archived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, May 3, 2009
  65. ^ "Following Souter". The Economist. May 7, 2009. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  66. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (May 2, 2009). "David H. Souter: Justice Unbound". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 26, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
  67. ^ Off the Bench, Souter Leaves Farmhouse Behind Archived November 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, August 3, 2009
  68. ^ Linda Greenhouse (July 24, 1990). "An 'Intellectual Mind': David Hackett Souter". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  69. ^ Ashby Jones (May 20, 2009). "What's in Souter's Future? Civics, for Starters". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  70. ^ National Advisory Committee Archived March 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Legal offices Preceded byWarren Rudman Attorney General of New Hampshire 1976–1978 Succeeded byThomas D. Rath Preceded byHugh H. Bownes Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit 1990 Succeeded byNorman H. Stahl Preceded byWilliam Brennan Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1990–2009 Succeeded bySonia Sotomayor U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Preceded byAnthony Kennedyas Retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Order of precedence of the United Statesas Retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Succeeded byStephen Breyeras Retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court