Howell E. Jackson
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
March 4, 1893 – August 8, 1895[1]
Nominated byBenjamin Harrison
Preceded byLucius Q. C. Lamar
Succeeded byRufus W. Peckham
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
In office
June 16, 1891 – March 4, 1893
Nominated byoperation of law
Preceded bySeat established by 26 Stat. 826
Succeeded byHorace Harmon Lurton
Judge of the United States Circuit Courts for the Sixth Circuit
In office
April 12, 1886 – March 4, 1893
Nominated byGrover Cleveland
Preceded byJohn Baxter
Succeeded byHorace Harmon Lurton
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
March 4, 1881 – April 14, 1886
Preceded byJames E. Bailey
Succeeded byWashington C. Whitthorne
Member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from Madison County
In office
January 3, 1881 – February 9, 1881
Preceded byBenjamin Tyson
Succeeded byHugh C. Anderson
Personal details
Howell Edmunds Jackson

(1832-04-08)April 8, 1832
Paris, Tennessee, US
DiedAugust 8, 1895(1895-08-08) (aged 63)
Nashville, Tennessee, US
Resting placeMount Olivet Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic
EducationUniversity of Virginia
West Tennessee College (AB)
Cumberland School of Law (LLB)

Howell Edmunds Jackson (April 8, 1832 – August 8, 1895) was an American attorney, politician, and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1893 until his death in 1895. His brief tenure on the Supreme Court is most remembered for his opinion in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., in which Jackson argued in dissent that a federal income tax was constitutional. Republican President Benjamin Harrison appointed Jackson, a Democrat, to the Court. His rulings demonstrated support for broad federal power, a skepticism of states' rights and an inclination toward judicial restraint. Jackson's unexpected death after only two years of service prevented him from having a substantial impact on American history.

Born in Paris, Tennessee, in 1832, Jackson earned a law degree from Cumberland Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1856. He briefly practiced law in Jackson before moving to Memphis, Tennessee, in 1857. Although he had initially opposed secession, he took a position in the Confederate civil service after the Civil War broke out. He returned to the practice of law after the war, but he also took an interest in politics. After an unsuccessful run for the Tennessee Supreme Court, he was elected to a seat in the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1880. When the legislature deadlocked over the selection of a U.S. Senator, Jackson was selected as a consensus candidate, garnering bipartisan support. Despite being a loyal Democrat, he was held in high regard by fellow officeholders of both political parties, including Democrat Grover Cleveland and Republican Benjamin Harrison. When Cleveland became president, he appointed Jackson to a seat on the federal circuit court for the Sixth Circuit. While on the circuit court, he sided with businesses in a major antitrust dispute and supported an expansive view of constitutional freedoms in a civil rights case.

Shortly after President Harrison – Jackson's former Senate colleague – lost reelection, Supreme Court Justice Lucius Q. C. Lamar died. Harrison wanted to select a Republican replacement for Lamar, but he realized Democratic senators would likely stall the nomination until he left office. He chose Jackson, whom he viewed both as a close friend and a well-regarded jurist. The Senate unanimously confirmed Jackson just before Harrison left office in 1893. Not long after assuming office, Jackson developed tuberculosis, preventing him from playing a major role in Supreme Court affairs. He authored only forty-six opinions, many of which were in patent disputes or other insignificant cases. He left Washington hoping that a better climate would aid his health but returned to the capital after the remaining eight justices split 4–4 in Pollock. Yet Jackson ended up dissenting in the landmark income tax case, likely because of a change in another justice's vote. While Jackson's opinion in Pollock kept him from total obscurity in the annals of history, the journey to Washington also worsened his health considerably: he died on August 8, 1895, only eleven weeks after the ruling was handed down.

Early life and career

Jackson was born in Paris, Tennessee, on April 8, 1832.[2]: 239  His parents, natives of Virginia, moved to Tennessee in 1827.[2]: 239  Jackson's father, Alexander, was a university-trained physician in a time when professional medical training was rare.[3]: 41–42  A Whig, Alexander later served in the Tennessee legislature and as mayor of Jackson, Tennessee.[3]: 42–43  The Jackson family moved to Madison County, Tennessee, in 1840.[2]: 239  Howell Jackson enrolled at Western Tennessee College, where he studied Greek and Latin.[2]: 239  After graduating in 1850, he pursued post-graduate studies at the University of Virginia for two years.[3]: 44  Jackson then read law with A. W. O. Totten, a justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court, and with attorney and former U.S. Congressman Milton Brown.[3]: 44  He next entered Cumberland Law School, graduating in 1856 after one year's study.[2]: 239  Jackson was admitted to the bar that same year[4]: 567  and began practicing law in the town of Jackson.[3]: 46  His work there appears to have been largely unsuccessful, and he moved to the larger city of Memphis, Tennessee, in 1857.[3]: 46–47  There he established a joint legal practice with David M. Currin, who later served as a Confederate congressman.[5]: 141  The firm was successful, and it provided Jackson with experience in corporate litigation.[3]: 47 

Tennessee seceded from the Union in 1861.[3]: 48  Although Jackson had opposed secession, he supported the Southern side in the war that followed.[6]: 317  Judge West H. Humphreys appointed Jackson to enforce Confederate sequestration law in western Tennessee, placing him in charge of confiscating and selling the property of Union loyalists.[7]: 357–359  Extant newspaper accounts show Jackson auctioned off a wide variety of property, including almonds, pickles, chairs, alcohol, tobacco and dried peaches.[7]: 359, 361  Just before the Union recaptured Memphis in 1862, Jackson fled with his family to LaGrange, Georgia.[7]: 362  He attempted unsuccessfully to secure a position in the Confederate military judiciary.[3]: 49–50  After the Civil War ended in 1865, Jackson returned to Memphis.[7]: 362  Since he had served in the Confederate government, he had to secure a presidential pardon before he could continue the practice of law.[7]: 362  Arguing that his role in the Confederate civil service was small, Jackson claimed in his petition that no formal sequestration orders had ever been issued under his tenure.[3]: 51–52  Scholar Terry Calvani has contended these statements in Jackson's application "simply were not true", characterizing them as perjury.[3]: 52–53  President Andrew Johnson initially rejected Jackson's petition, but he granted a second request in 1866.[7]: 362 

Since Currin had died during the war, Jackson started a new legal practice with a former colleague.[7]: 362  Their clients consisted mainly of banks and other business enterprises.[8]: 597  The firm was successful, arguing numerous cases before the Memphis courts.[3]: 55  Jackson's political sympathies had by this time moved toward the Democratic Party.[9]: 339  A Redeemer, he was against Reconstruction-era policies and efforts toward racial equality.[10]: 210  After his first wife died in 1873, he returned to the town of Jackson, where he started a law practice with General Alexander W. Campbell.[3]: 59–60  Their firm litigated many cases involving property and criminal law.[3]: 59–60  Jackson was well regarded as a lawyer: he sat as a judge on the local courts and served as a law professor at Southwestern Baptist University.[3]: 62–63 

Service in state government

Jackson practiced law in Jackson until 1880.[11]: 407  In 1875, however, he was appointed a judge of the temporary Court of Arbitration for Western Tennessee, which heard cases stemming from the large backlog created by the Civil War.[12]: 150  When that court was dissolved, Jackson sought the Democratic nomination for a seat on the Tennessee Supreme Court, running against incumbent Thomas J. Freeman.[3]: 65  At the convention, Jackson lost by a single vote; he refused the entreaties of his supporters to challenge the result.[9]: 339–340  Jackson then became involved in what was then Tennessee's key political dispute: whether to pay back the state debt.[2]: 241  Republicans generally supported its repayment, while Democrats were split between a state-credit faction, which was supportive of fulfilling the state's financial obligations and a low-tax faction, which favored repudiating the debt.[3]: 68–69  Jackson, who viewed repudiation to be immoral, was firmly on the state-credit side of this debate.[9]: 340  After giving a speech on the debt, he was urged to run for a seat in the Tennessee House of Representatives.[3]: 69  Jackson reluctantly agreed, and he was elected in 1880 to represent Madison County following a contentious campaign.[9]: 340  After the legislature's session began in January 1881, he was appointed by Speaker Henry B. Ramsey to the finance, ways and means; judiciary; penitentiary; public grounds and buildings; incorporations; and privileges and elections committees.[13] He was given the chairmanship of the committee on public grounds and buildings, but his prompt elevation to the U.S. Senate prevented him from making any substantial impact in that position.[14]: 91 

The most urgent task before the legislature during Jackson's tenure was the election of a U.S. Senator.[3]: 69  Incumbent Senator James E. Bailey's state-credit policies alienated the low-tax faction of the Democratic caucus, but Republican candidate Horace Maynard also failed to garner majority support.[3]: 69  Jackson, who was considered capable of obtaining bipartisan support, refused to enter the race because he favored Bailey.[9]: 340  A week of balloting failed to break the gridlock.[3]: 69  Bailey then withdrew from consideration and urged Jackson to enter the race in his stead.[9]: 340  On the thirtieth ballot, Republican R. R. Butler announced his support for Jackson, saying he had given up any hope that a Republican would be chosen.[15] The Speaker of the House, a Maynard loyalist, followed suit, arguing that Jackson was the best choice among the Democrats.[15] A number of Democratic legislators, many of whom were afraid that a Republican could be elected if they did not unite behind a candidate, backed Jackson as well.[3]: 70  Convinced by Butler, other Republicans did the same, and Jackson was elected, receiving sixty-eight votes of the ninety-eight cast.[3]: 70  He telegraphed his resignation from the state house, effective immediately, to Governor Alvin Hawkins on February 9, 1881.[16] After a special election, he was succeeded later in the month by Hugh C. Anderson, who represented the district composed of Haywood, Hardeman, and Madison counties in the previous legislative session.[13]

Senate tenure

Jackson took his seat in the Senate on March 4, 1881.[14]: 91  He was a member of four committees: the Post Office, Pensions, Claims, and Judiciary panels.[9]: 340  Despite his loyalty to the Democratic platform, Republicans and Democrats alike held him in high regard.[17] In the Senate, Jackson advocated for civil service reform and for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.[14]: 91  He supported further restrictions on Chinese immigration and argued for lower tariffs and higher infrastructure spending.[14]: 91  Jackson's views on legal issues were influential among his colleagues: many important bills on the judiciary were referred to the subcommittee on which he sat.[11]: 407  More important than his legislative accomplishments, however, were the personal relationships that he forged.[18]: 215  Jackson became a friend of President Grover Cleveland, whose tariff policies he supported.[2]: 241  He also established a friendly relationship with his colleague Benjamin Harrison, whom he was seated next to on the Senate floor.[9]: 341  Jackson held a reputation for being a hard-working and committed legislator.[9]: 340–341 

Circuit judge

A cigar advertisement with the words "Smoke the Judge Howell E. Jackson Cigar" showing a picture of Judge Jackson, seated
A cigar advertisement, c. 1892, portraying Jackson, then a circuit judge.

The 1886 death of Tennessee federal judge John Baxter created a vacancy for President Cleveland to fill on the circuit court for the Sixth Circuit.[19]: 106  Cleveland asked his friend Jackson, who was still serving in the Senate, to recommend potential replacements, but the President ignored his advice and instead offered the seat to him.[2]: 240–241  The senator attempted to decline, but Cleveland's insistence eventually led him to agree to be nominated.[9]: 341  The Senate unanimously confirmed Jackson.[6]: 318  During his seven-year tenure, he heard a variety of cases, a number of which pertained to patent issues.[2]: 242  In 1889, Jackson urged his friend Harrison – who by then had become president – to appoint his judicial colleague Henry Billings Brown to the Supreme Court; although Harrison declined to appoint Brown that year, he elevated him to fill a subsequent vacancy the next year.[2]: 242  Jackson's most noteworthy opinion on the circuit court was In re Greene (1892), the first case in which a federal court applied the Sherman Antitrust Act.[20]: 98  The ruling in Greene rejected a Sherman Act indictment against whiskey producers on the basis that the defendants were not preventing other firms from entering the whiskey market.[21]: 37–38  Jackson's narrow interpretation of the Act set the stage for later consequential antitrust cases, including United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895), and it continued to influence interstate commerce law for half a century.[20]: 104, 107–108 

In other cases, Jackson took a broader view of constitutional provisions.[19]: 108  His 1893 ruling in United States v. Patrick interpreted the Civil Rights Act of 1870 expansively.[9]: 343–344  The defendants in Patrick, who were residents of Tennessee, had been charged with killing several federal officers while they were searching for an illegal still.[9]: 343  A lower federal court threw out the indictments, holding the officers were not exercising any legally protected civil right while they were carrying out their duties.[9]: 343  Jackson rejected these arguments.[19]: 108  In his view, federal officers have a constitutionally protected right "of accepting the public employment, and engaging in the administration of its functions".[19]: 108  On that basis, Jackson concluded the prosecution under the Civil Rights Act could go forward since the officers' civil rights had been violated.[19]: 108  Some Southerners denounced the ruling, objecting that it expanded the scope of an already loathed law.[9]: 344  Jackson's decision also showed that his stances were sufficiently moderate to coalesce with the Republican agenda.[10]: 213 

Supreme Court nomination

On January 23, 1893, Supreme Court Justice Lucius Q. C. Lamar died.[9]: 342  At this point, President Harrison was a lame duck: Grover Cleveland had won the 1892 presidential election and would take office in six weeks.[19]: 108  Although Harrison wanted to appoint a fellow Republican to fill the vacancy, he recognized that the Democrat-controlled Senate would likely refuse to act on the nomination since it could simply wait for Cleveland to make a more favorable appointment.[19]: 109  Not long after Lamar's death, Justice Brown, whom Jackson had recommended to Harrison a few years prior, paid a visit to the White House.[22]: 439  Wishing to return the favor, the Republican Brown suggested that the Democratic Jackson would be an ideal candidate for Harrison to select.[22]: 439–440  Jackson indeed checked all the boxes for Harrison: he was a conservative and well-regarded jurist and came from the South, as Lamar had.[19]: 109  The two had also served in the Senate together and were close friends.[23]: 120  Harrison agreed to nominate Jackson, doing so on February 2.[2]: 242  The decision surprised both Republicans and Democrats, who expected Harrison to choose someone from his own party.[24]: 40  Jackson's nomination was held up initially in committee,[23]: 120  but senators unanimously confirmed their ex-colleague on February 18.[19]: 109  Most had expected some objections on the floor, and a contemporaneous New York Times report noted that many were left "wondering...what became of the opposition".[24]: 40  Professor Richard D. Friedman concludes their acquiescence was understandable: Democrats "could not very well vote against one of their own", while "Republicans, after initial disgruntlement, understood the logic of Harrison's move."[24]: 40–41  Chief Justice Melville Fuller swore in Jackson on the morning of March 4, just hours before administering the presidential oath to Harrison's successor.[19]: 109–110 

Supreme Court service

Photograph of Supreme Court Justices including Jackson
Group photograph of U.S. Supreme Court Justices, October 1894. Jackson is in the back row, first from the left.

Jackson's brief tenure on the Supreme Court lasted from March 4, 1893 until his death on August 8, 1895.[19]: 112  He wrote only forty-six opinions.[18]: 216  Because of his poor health and his lack of seniority, many of them were rendered in insignificant cases, especially patent disputes.[19]: 112 

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.

Scholar Irving Schiffman maintains that Jackson's name would have been "buried in [the] coffin of historical neglect" were it not for his participation in a single case: Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.[9]: 334  Pollock involved a challenge to a provision of the 1894 Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act that had imposed a two percent personal income tax on all revenue over four thousand dollars.[25]: 285  According to the plaintiff, the law imposed a direct tax without apportioning it among the states, in violation of a provision of the Constitution.[25]: 285  In practice, it would be impossible to apportion such taxes among the states, so a ruling on that basis would doom all federal income taxation.[26]: 118  Jackson was ill, but the eight remaining justices heard the case. They struck down certain other provisions of the act but split 4–4 on the constitutionality of the income tax.[25]: 285––286  When Jackson suggested he could return to Washington, the Court agreed to rehear the case to make a more conclusive ruling on the income tax's legality.[9]: 335–337 

Because the other eight justices had been evenly split, it was assumed that Jackson's vote would determine the case.[9]: 338  Experts were uncertain how he would rule: his Southern background suggested he might support the tax, but his pro-business judicial views meant he might be inclined to strike it down.[19]: 118  During the three days of arguments, lawyers aimed their contentions at the violently coughing Jackson, often ignoring other justices in their zeal to persuade the swing vote.[9]: 338  But when the ruling finally came down on May 20, 1895, Jackson was in dissent.[19]: 118  A five-justice majority led by Chief Justice Fuller ruled the tax to be unconstitutional, declaring it was an impermissible unapportioned direct tax.[25]: 286  Jackson joined Brown and justices John Marshall Harlan and Edward Douglass White in dissenting from the Court's holding.[9]: 347  In an impassioned opinion, he wrote "this decision is, in my judgment, the most disastrous blow ever struck at the constitutional power of Congress".[19]: 118–119  Numerous coughing fits interrupted Jackson's ardent turns of phrase, stopping the seriously ill justice several times during his forty-five-minute delivery of the dissent.[9]: 348 

Many have attempted to determine how Jackson ended up in the minority.[9]: 347  The apparent reason is that one justice switched his vote.[2]: 243  Newspapers at the time identified George Shiras as the "vacillating Justice"; biographer Willard King notes that "great obloquy was heaped on him" by outlets that opposed the Court's decision.[27]: 218  While this suggestion continues to have its adherents,[19]: 118  three sources denied Shiras's vote changed.[27]: 218  Others have argued that Horace Gray or David Brewer changed their votes, but those proposals are difficult to reconcile with primary sources.[27]: 219  The remaining possibility is that no justice changed his vote.[26]: 120  According to this theory, five justices were averse to the tax from the beginning, but they were unable to unite behind one legal theory initially.[27]: 220  Jackson's dissent eventually won vindication from the court of history: the Sixteenth Amendment passed eighteen years after Pollock revised the Constitution to authorize an income tax.[18]: 217 

Other cases

History has taken little notice of most of Jackson's remaining opinions.[9]: 344  He was assigned to write a number of opinions involving patent law, a field with which his circuit court tenure had given him experience.[19]: 112  A disproportionate number of his rulings drew no dissents, suggesting they were mostly insignificant.[9]: 344  His poor health and the fact that he was one of the newest justices for the entirety of his brief tenure likely contributed to this.[19]: 112  Jackson's few cases display support for the proposition that the judiciary should defer to the legislature.[19]: 112–113  His opinions in Schurz v. Cook (1893) and Columbus Southern Railway v. Wright (1894) rejected attempts by corporations to strike down various tax laws.[9]: 344–345  Jackson's opinions also evidence both his support for broad federal power and his skepticism of states' decisions.[9]: 345  In Mobile & Ohio R.R. v. Tennessee (1894), he favored a broad interpretation of the Contract Clause, ruling over four dissenting votes that Tennessee acted illegally in using its state constitution to renege on a promised tax exemption for a railroad company.[9]: 344  In the 1893 case of Brass v. North Dakota, meanwhile, he exhibited support for the concept of substantive due process, joining a dissent by Justice Brewer that argued that a North Dakota regulation of grain elevators was an unconstitutional infringement upon the freedom of contract.[9]: 345  Finally, he joined a five-justice majority in Fong Yue Ting v. United States (1893) to hold the federal government could deport Chinese immigrant laborers without providing them with due process protections.[9]: 345 

Illness and death

Despite being apparently healthy at the time of his nomination, Jackson developed tuberculosis within a year of taking the bench.[9]: 336  He returned quickly to his duties, but his illness worsened, and he had to leave the capital. In October 1894, he journeyed to the West hoping the climate would improve his condition.[2]: 242  He traveled to Thomasville, Georgia, a few months later; his lung ailment started improving, but his health deteriorated substantially when he was afflicted with dropsy.[9]: 336  Having no independent source of income, Jackson could not retire without a special act of Congress giving him a pension.[9]: 336  Being too unwell to participate, he was unable to cast a vote in the consequential cases of United States v. E. C. Knight Co. and In re Debs.[9]: 346  Jackson returned to his Tennessee home in February; his health began improving, and he expressed the hope that he would be able to return to his judicial duties by fall.[9]: 336–337  His desire to participate in the income tax case led him to return to Washington in May, earlier than he had anticipated.[9]: 337  The journey did substantial harm to Jackson's health, and Schiffman notes that his failure in Pollock "provided little incentive with which to uplift the spirit beyond the pains of the body".[9]: 348  He died in Nashville just eleven weeks after the decision was rendered;[19]: 119  his remains were buried in that city's Mount Olivet Cemetery.[28]: 27  His tenure on the Supreme Court had lasted for less than two and a half years.[23]: 114 

Personal life

Jackson married Sophie Malloy, a Memphis banker's daughter, in 1859. They had six children (two of whom died during infancy) before her death in 1873.[2]: 239–240  He then married Mary Harding, the daughter of influential Tennessee resident W. G. Harding, the following year.[3]: 61  Jackson's brother William Hicks Jackson, who had been a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War, was married to another of Harding's daughters.[3]: 62 [29]: 111, 113  When Harding died in 1886, the two Jackson brothers and their wives inherited the Belle Meade Plantation, where thoroughbred horses were raised.[30]: 163–164  Howell's role was minimal, and he sold his stake in the horses to his brother in 1890.[30]: 165  His thousand acres of property at West Meade (another part of Harding's estate) contained his home, which was considered among the finest in the state.[6]: 321  Jackson had three children with his second wife.[6]: 321  He was a devout Christian, serving as an elder of the First Presbyterian Church of Nashville.[6]: 321  His hobbies included hunting foxes and watching horse races.[6]: 321 


Jackson's impact on history was minimal, due in no small part to the brevity of his Supreme Court tenure.[19]: 119  A 1972 survey of legal scholars found Jackson was considered a "below average" justice, although the respondents declined to classify him as a "failure".[31]: 1186  His participation in Pollock, however, prevented him from being entirely covered with what Schiffman called the "shroud of anonymity".[9]: 334  Pollock was among the leading cases of the era, and his vote aligned with later public sentiment.[18]: 217  While Jackson was well regarded by his contemporaries,[6]: 321  Timothy L. Hall writes that he "would probably never have been a great Supreme Court justice"; according to Hall, the "plodding and pedestrian" Jackson "was capable of solid work but not of judicial brilliance".[18]: 217  Scholar Roger D. Hardaway, while conceding that the justice "is not a giant" in the annals of the Supreme Court, argues that Jackson's accomplished if brief work deserves a prominent place in Tennessee history.[19]: 119  The Liberty ship SS Howell E. Jackson was named in his honor.[32]: 119 

See also


  1. ^ "Justices 1789 to Present". Washington, D.C.: Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cushman, Clare, ed. (2013). Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press. pp. 239–243. ISBN 978-1-60871-832-0. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Calvani, Terry (January 1977). "The Early Legal Career of Howell Jackson". Vanderbilt Law Review. 30 (1): 39–72. Archived from the original on April 23, 2021. Retrieved April 23, 2021 – via Scholarship@Vanderbilt Law.
  4. ^ Carson, Hampton Lawrence (1904). The History of the Supreme Court of the United States: With Biographies of All the Chief and Associate Justices. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA: P. W. Ziegler. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved April 24, 2021.
  5. ^ Hudspeth, Harvey Gresham (Summer 1999). "Howell Edmunds Jackson and the Making Of Tennessee's First Native-Born Supreme Court Justice, 1893 – 1895". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 58 (2): 140–155. ISSN 0040-3261. JSTOR 42628467. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021 – via JSTOR.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Green, John W. (June 1944). "Two United States Circuit Judges". Tennessee Law Review. 18 (4): 311–322. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021 – via HeinOnline.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Hudspeth, Harvey Gresham (Winter 2003). "In Service to the Confederacy: Howell Edmunds Jackson, West Tennessee's Receiver of Sequestered Property, 1861–1862". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 62 (4): 354–365. ISSN 0040-3261. JSTOR 42627794. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021 – via JSTOR.
  8. ^ Myers, Gustavus (1912). History of the Supreme Court of the United States. Chicago, IL: C. H. Kerr. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Schiffman, Irving (Winter 1970). "Escaping the Shroud of Anonymity: Justice Howell Edmunds Jackson and the Income Tax Case". Tennessee Law Review. 37 (2): 334–348. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021 – via HeinOnline.
  10. ^ a b Newkirk, Zachary (2014). "Gray Jackets and Rifles to Black Robes and Gavels: Confederate Veterans in the U.S. Federal Courts from Ulysses S. Grant to William H. Taft". Journal of Southern Legal History. 22: 187–231. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021 – via HeinOnline.
  11. ^ a b McKellar, Kenneth Douglas (1942). Tennessee senators as seen by one of their successors. Kingsport, TN: Southern Publishers. hdl:2027/mdp.39015070205680. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  12. ^ Reilly, Don; Murphy, Norman; Timanus, Chuck, eds. (1992). The Supreme Court of the United States: Its Beginnings & Its Justices, 1790–1991. Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Tennessee, Forty-Second General Assembly". Nashville: Tavel & Howell. 1881. pp. 4, 50–52, 485. Retrieved April 21, 2023 – via HathiTrust.
  14. ^ a b c d Hudspeth, Harvey Gresham (1998). "Seven Days in Nashville: Politics, the State Debt, and the Making of a United States Senator; January 19–26, 1881". West Tennessee Historical Society Papers. 52: 81–94 – via Shelby County Register of Deeds.
  15. ^ a b "Howell E. Jackson, of Madison County, The Dark Horse, Who Wins on the Thirtieth Ballot". The Daily Memphis Avalanche. January 27, 1881. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 2, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021 – via
  16. ^ "Hon. Howell E. Jackson". Tribune and Sun. February 11, 1881. p. 2. Retrieved April 21, 2023 – via
  17. ^ "Howell E. Jackson Dead". The New York Times. August 9, 1895. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2021 – via
  18. ^ a b c d e Hall, Timothy L. (2001). Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York, NY: Facts on File. pp. 214–217. ISBN 978-0-8160-4194-7. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Hardaway, Roger D. (1976). "Howell Edmunds Jackson: Tennessee Legislator and Jurist". West Tennessee Historical Society Papers. 30: 104–119 – via Shelby County Register of Deeds.
  20. ^ a b Hudspeth, Harvey Gresham (2002). "The Rise and Fall of the Greene Doctrine: The Sherman Act, Howell Jackson, and the Interpretation of "Interstate Commerce", 1890 — 1941". Essays in Economic & Business History. 20 (1): 97–112. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021 – via The Economic & Business History Society.
  21. ^ Meese, Alan J. (1999). "Liberty and Antitrust in the Formative Era". Boston University Law Review. 79 (1): 1–92. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021 – via William & Mary Law School Scholarship Repository.
  22. ^ a b Luxenberg, Steve (2019). Separate: The Story of Plessy v. Ferguson, and America's Journey from Slavery to Segregation. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-65115-7. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c Abraham, Henry Julian (2008). Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U.S. Supreme Court Appointments from Washington to Bush II. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5895-3. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  24. ^ a b c Friedman, Richard D. (Fall 1983). "The Transformation in Senate Response to Supreme Court Nominations: From Reconstruction to the Taft Administration and Beyond". Cardozo Law Review. 5 (1): 1–95. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021 – via HeinOnline.
  25. ^ a b c d McManus, Edgar J.; Helfman, Tara (2014). Liberty and Union: A Constitutional History of the United States, concise edition. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-75716-7. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  26. ^ a b Ely, James W. (1995). The Chief Justiceship of Melville W. Fuller, 1888–1910. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-018-5. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
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