V. K. Singh
Minister of State for Civil Aviation
Assumed office
7 July 2021
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
MinisterJyotiraditya Scindia
Preceded byHardeep Singh Puri
(MoS Independent charge)
Minister of State for Road Transport and Highways
Assumed office
30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
MinisterNitin Gadkari
Preceded byMansukh L. Mandaviya
Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha
Assumed office
16 May 2014
Preceded byRajnath Singh
ConstituencyGhaziabad
Majority501,500 (32.9%)
Minister of State for External Affairs
In office
27 May 2014 – 30 May 2019
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
MinisterSushma Swaraj
Preceded byE. Ahamed
Succeeded byV. Muraleedharan
Minister of State for Development of North Eastern Region (Independent charge)
In office
27 May 2014 – 9 November 2014
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded byPaban Singh Ghatowar
Succeeded byJitendra Singh
Minister of State for Statistics and Programme Implementation (Independent charge)
In office
9 November 2014 – 5 July 2016
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Preceded byRao Inderjit Singh
Succeeded byD. V. Sadananda Gowda
23rd Chief of the Army Staff
In office
31 March 2010 – 31 May 2012
PresidentPratibha Patil
Prime MinisterManmohan Singh
Preceded byDeepak Kapoor
Succeeded byBikram Singh
Personal details
Born (1951-05-10) 10 May 1951 (age 70)[1]
Bapora, Haryana, India
NationalityIndian
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party
Spouse(s)Bharti Singh
Alma materNational Defence Academy (BSc)
Indian Military Academy
Defence Services Staff College (MPhil)
United States Army War College
Awards
Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Ati Vishisht Seva Medal
Yudh Seva Medal
Military service
Allegiance India
Branch/service Indian Army
Years of service14 June 1970 - 31 May 2012
Rank
General
UnitRajput Regiment[2]
Commands
Chief of Army Staff
Eastern Command
II Corps
Victor Force, Rashtriya Rifles
168th Infantry Brigade
2 Rajput (Kali Chindi)
Battles/warsIndo-Pakistani War of 1971
Operation Pawan
Kargil War

General Vijay Kumar Singh, PVSM, AVSM, YSM, ADC (born 10 May 1951)[a] is an Indian politician and a former four-star General in the Indian Army.[b] He is the current Minister of State in the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways and Ministry of Civil Aviation in the Second Modi ministry.[7] He previously served as Minister of State for External Affairs, Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Development of the North-Eastern Region and Minister of State for Statistics and Programme Implementation[c] in the First Modi ministry.

During his military career, Singh served as the 24th[d][9] Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) from 2010 to 2012.[10] Singh took the Government of India to court in a dispute over his date of birth and subsequent retirement, becoming the first serving Indian Chief of the Army Staff to take legal action against the Indian government.[11]

After his retirement from the military, Singh joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 2014 and was elected as Member of Parliament to the Lok Sabha for the Ghaziabad constituency of Uttar Pradesh in that year's general election. He was re-elected to the same seat in 2019.

Singh has written an autobiography called Courage and Conviction.[e]

Early life and education

Singh was born on 10 May 1951 to Captain (later Colonel) Jagat Singh, an officer then serving in the 14th battalion The Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army,[f] and Krishna Kumari, at the Military Hospital at Pune.[13][14] He was born into the Tomar/Tanwar clan of Rajput,[15][16][g] with roots in the Bapora village in the Bhiwani district of Haryana. His paternal grandfather, Daffadar Mukhram Singh, served with the 3rd Cavalry. All five brothers of his father served in the Army, either joining the 1st Horse (Skinner's Horse) or the 7th Rajput Regiment.[18] His maternal grandfather, Subedar Shimbu Singh, also served in the Army and hailed from the Bohra Kalan village in the Gurgaon district.[14] His village had been founded by the Rajput rulers and frequently involved in fighting with the Mughal and has produced many warriors. He was inspired by men who served the Army from the British times.[19]

There's something incredibly romantic about Bapora, the village where the present Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Vijay Kumar Singh, was born, spent his childhood, and still has a home,

It might be Bapora’s location, on the far side of the town of Bhiwani in Haryana (famed for its prize-winning boxers), on the fringe of the Thar Desert. It could be the dusty lanes that wind past big old houses, including havelis, some of them now abandoned and sunk a foot or more below the surface. It could be Bapora’s age, which is approaching 700 years. It could be the legends that surround its foundation, studded with sadhus and Rajput kings. It could be Totawala Baba, an ash-covered sadhu who has just begun his rigorous summer schedule of tapasya at the big Shiv Mandir near the government school. It could be the tang of steel in the air, owed not just to the presence of hundreds of retired servicemen here (and generations of soldiers before them) but also to the historical memory of the locally famous Mulla-Nawab Ladai, when stolen taxes (carried, the elders say, on three camels and two horses) led a nearby nawab to wage bloody war against Bapora in the 16th century.

(Singh 2005, pp. 6–17)

Singh's mother was diagnosed with terminal cancer and passed away in 1952. He was raised by his maternal grandparents before his father remarried and he went to live with them for a few years. At the age of 8, he enrolled at the Birla Public School, a boarding school in Pilani, Rajasthan. He joined the National Cadet Corps during his schooling and served in all three wings.[20]

National Defence Academy

He qualified in the entrance exam and having filled 'Air Force' as his first choice, he appeared before the No. 1 Air Force Selection Board in Dehradun. He entered the National Defence Academy (NDA) in 1966.[21] A part of the 'HUNTER' squadron, he held a number of cadet appointments at the NDA. He became a Corporal in his fifth term, the battalion cadet captain (BCC) in his sixth term, and officiated as the Academy Cadet Captain (ACC) for a short while. In his fifth term, on the request of his father, he was moved from the Air Force to Army.[22]

Indian Military Academy

After graduating from the NDA, he entered the Indian Military Academy (IMA) in June 1969. He was assigned to 'Cassino' Company at the academy. He was appointed senior under officer (SUO) in his fourth term. He passed out from the IMA in 1970, placed in the top ten in the merit list.[23]

Military career

Singh career in Military was of 42 years from the year 1970 to 2012. He started his career when he was commissioned in the 2nd Battalion of Rajput Regiment after graduating from Indian Military Academy and retired after serving as the Chief of Army Staff (India). He has been a part of many wars and recipient of many Army honours.[24]

Early Commissioning (1970-1978)

Singh was commissioned into the 2nd Battalion of the Rajput Regiment (Kali Chindi) on 14 June 1970. The battalion was among the oldest in the Indian Army, having been raised in 1798 as 1/16 Bengal Native Infantry.[3][25] He joined the battalion in Delhi, where it was garrisoned in the Red Fort and the Rashtrapathi Bhavan. He was slotted into 'C' company of the battalion.[26] He attended the Young Officers (YOs) course at the Infantry School in Mhow in November 1970. He completed the course and joined his battalion in early 1971 in Tamulpur in Assam where the battalion had moved.[27] Before the outbreak of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he was appointed Intelligence Officer (IO) of the battalion. The battalion moved to Meghalaya in mid-1971 and fought the war, entering East Pakistan from the east. Singh served as the IO through the war. He was at that time a junior Officer in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation war and he was at Assam at that time. He was a witness of 1971 Bangladesh genocide by Pakistan Army officers and enlisted soldiers, and described the treatment of the people of Bangladesh by the Pakistan Army as akin to Nazism.[28] He commented:[29]

"The world has forgotten the atrocities committed in Bangladesh. I do not think the people of Bangladesh of that period have forgotten, but the coming generations, probably have found it easier to put it somewhere in the corner"

— Singh, Indian Army Records

He was very much inspired by Sam Manekshaw and was a follower of his ideology and learnt leadership from him, after he met him after the War of India and Pakistan in 1971.[30] After the war, the battalion went to Bhutan on a training exercise with the Royal Bhutan Army. In 1973, he was nominated to attend the battalion support weapons course at Mhow. After finishing the course and returning to the battalion, in early 1974, he was again sent to attend the winter warfare course at Gulmarg. In mid-1974, he was posted to the Infantry School as an instructor in the platoon weapons division.[31][32]

In late 1975, Singh was one of two officers selected to attend the United States Army Ranger School at Fort Benning, Georgia in the United States. The Ranger course is 62 days long and is aimed at small unit tactics and leadership. During this course, he was assigned to Whisky company of the 75th Ranger Regiment. He performed well in the physically-extracting course, which started with over 300 students and ended with only about 90 graduating. He was graded an honours graduate since he had graded more than 80%. [33] Since he was a graduate of the Ranger School, he was permitted to wear the coveted Ranger tab on his uniform.[34]

After completing the course, he returned to India and was posted to the Commando School at Belgaum.[31] After a year at the school, he moved back to his battalion in Secunderabad but was immediately selected to attend the Junior Command course at the College of Combat in Mhow. He finished the course and joined his battalion and was given command of a company. Two months later, he was selected to attend the winter warfare advanced course at the High Altitude Warfare School at Gulmarg.[35]

Mid-career (1978-1994)

In April 1978, Singh came back to his battalion which was to move to Poonch for its operational tenure along the Line of Control. He commanded the 'A' company of the battalion during this tenure. Later that year, he was posted to the Indian Military Training Team (IMTRAT) in Bhutan. He served as an instructor at IMTRAT for about two years. After his return from Bhutan, he was transferred to a new unit, the 25th battalion of the Rajput Regiment (25 Rajput) at Fatehgarh. He was given command of the Delta company of the battalion.[35]

The battalion then moved to Alwar where Singh served as a company commander. In March 1982, he was selected to attend the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, having secured a competitive vacancy.[36] After completing the year-long course, he was posted as General Staff Officer 2 (GSO-2) in the Military Operations (MO) Directorate at Army headquarters. His tenure at the MO directorate was an eventful one. He had a ring-side view during Operation Meghdoot in early 1984, Operation Blue Star later that year, Operation Brasstacks in late 1986 and the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish in the Sumdorong Chu Valley.[35]

In mid-1987, he joined his battalion as a company commander. In July, as part of the 76 Infantry Brigade, the battalion moved to Chennai and embarked for Sri Lanka on the Tank Landing Ship INS Magar (L20). Inducted as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force, they landed at Trincomalee. He spent the next two years in Sri Lanka fighting the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In mid-1988, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and was appointed second-in-command of the battalion.[35] On 26 January 1990, he was awarded the Yudh Seva Medal for leading an operation which eliminated 6 LTTE men.[37]

In late 1989, Singh was approved to be promoted to the rank of Colonel and cleared to command a battalion. In early 1990, the battalion embarked for Mumbai. Shortly thereafter, Singh was appointed Chief Instructor of the Commando School at Belgaum, where he had earlier served as an instructor.[38][39] He was earmarked by the Colonel of the Regiment to take over command of 24 Rajput, but Singh was determined to get back to his old battalion (2 Rajput) or take over the battalion he served with in Sri Lanka (25 Rajput). After a few months, he was appointed Commanding Officer of 2 Rajput.[35] The battalion was in Nowshera, Jammu and Kashmir along the Line of Control. It was a part of the 80 Brigade under the 25th Infantry Division. He commanded the battalion for about two years in Nowshera, before taking the unit to its peace location in Faizabad. The tenure started off in a tense environment - the Demolition of the Babri Masjid in December 1992, when the battalion was on the move to Faizabad.[35]

Singh also made a cameo appearance in the 1991 Hindi film Prahaar: The Final Attack, starring Nana Patekar, Madhuri Dixit and Dimple Kapadia.[38]

Later Career (1994-2001)

In June 1994, Singh was selected to attend the Higher Command Course at the Army War College, Mhow. After the ten-month course, he was appointed Colonel General Staff (Col GS) of the 12th Infantry Division at Jodhpur. He spent close to three years in this appointment under two division commanders.[35] In 1998, he was promoted acting Brigadier and appointed Commander of the 168 Infantry Brigade in Samba, Jammu and Kashmir.[31][40] As Brigade commander, he had four infantry battalions and two Border Security Force units under his command. A year into his command, the Kargil War broke out and all units were on high alert. He was in command of the brigade till mid-2000.[35]

In June 2000, Singh was selected to attend the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in the United States.[41] He performed well at the War College and was graded 'exceptional' in the course. After the course, he returned to India and was appointed Brigadier General Staff (BGS) of Jalandhar based XI Corps. He served in this appointment during Operation Parakram when Indian troops were mobilised on the border in the wake of the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[42]

General Officer (2001-2010)

Lt Gen Singh as the Eastern Army Commander in 2008.
Lt Gen Singh as the Eastern Army Commander in 2008.

Singh was promoted to the rank of Major General and appointed General Officer Commanding (GOC) Victor Force - a division-sized formation in the Rashtriya Rifles in Jammu and Kashmir. The Victor Force is responsible for the districts of Anantnag, Pulwama, Shopian, Kulgam and Budgam. For his distinguished service as GOC Victor Force, he was awarded the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal on 26 January 2003.[42] After a one-and-a-half tenure, he took over as the Chief of Staff (COS) of the XV Corps.[43] As the COS and the officiating Corps Commander, he was involved in the relief operations in the aftermath of the devastating 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the deadliest earthquake to hit South Asia since the 1935 Quetta earthquake.[44]

On 15 April 2006, Singh was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General and shortly thereafter appointed General Officer Commanding II Corps at Ambala. He was at the helm of the Strike Corps for about two years. On 25 February 2008, he was promoted to Army Commander grade and appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Eastern Command.[45] For distinguished service of the highest order, he was awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal on 26 January 2009.[42][46]

Chief of Army Staff (2010-2012)

Gen V.K. Singh paying homage at Amar Jawan Jyoti after taking over as Army Chief
Gen V.K. Singh paying homage at Amar Jawan Jyoti after taking over as Army Chief

Singh became the 24th Chief of Army Staff on 31 March 2010, and was the first commando to achieve that position.[6] Towards the end of his career, a dispute regarding his date of birth arose; Singh took the Government of India to court and become the first serving officer of the Indian Army to do so.[47] Because of an error made in 1965 when he enrolled with the National Defence Academy, official records misstated the year in which he was born. Singh withdrew the writ in February 2012 when, according to The Hindu, the Supreme Court of India "refused to intervene". The Court noted there was no dispute regarding his actual date of birth and that the matter being contested was the way in which it had been recorded. It ruled Singh had on three occasions accepted the misrecorded date.[48][h]

The BBC noted in 2012 that defence experts considered a drive to modernise the Indian army had suffered from "a lack of planning and acrimony between the military and the defence ministry". This report followed an interview given by Singh in March 2012 that caused a political row. According to Singh, over a year earlier he had reported to A. K. Antony, the defence minister, that he had been offered a bribe of US$2.7 million if the army bought several hundred sub-standard vehicles. Antony issued a rebuttal to the interview, saying he had requested a written report from Singh regarding the incident and that this had never been submitted. Two days after the interview with Singh, a correspondence between V.K. Singh and the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was leaked. The correspondence criticised the standard of India's defences and caused another political row.[49]

Singh retired as Chief of Army Staff on 31 May 2012. He was succeeded by General Bikram Singh.[50][i]

Political career

After his retirement from the military, Singh showed support for the anti-corruption movement.[51] He was seen on the stage in August 2012 at Ramlila Maidan in New Delhi, where the yoga instructor Ramdev was fasting in protest of alleged black money and corruption. Singh was reported to have said, "It is shocking but true that over two lakh farmers have committed suicide since 1995. The problems of farmers will have to take the forefront in this movement as the government has turned a blind eye to their woes."[52] Around that time he also said the anti-corruption movement, whose principal figurehead was Anna Hazare, to that of the Bihar Movement that was led by Jayaprakash Narayan in 1975. Singh said, "When I evaluate the country's present condition, it is similar to that of 1975. Jayaprakash Narayan had then said 'Vacate the throne, common people are coming'. He felt then that corruption is the root of all problems ... the situation in the country is the same today."[53][j]

Minister of State for External Affairs, Gen V.K. Singh (R) with King Abdullah II of Jordan at Raj Ghat
Minister of State for External Affairs, Gen V.K. Singh (R) with King Abdullah II of Jordan at Raj Ghat

Singh and Ramdev led a demonstration on 23 December 2012 at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi, on the 2012 Delhi gang rape case.[55][56] Singh joined the BJP on 1 March 2014.[57] He won the Ghaziabad (Lok Sabha constituency) seat in the 2014 Indian general election, defeating Raj Babbar of the Indian National Congress by a margin of 567,260 votes.[58] He was re-elected in a landslide during the 2019 Indian general election.

Union minister

In May 2014, Singh was appointed as Minister of State of External Affairs and Minister of state (independent charge) for North East Region in the NDA-led Indian government.[59] He was relieved of responsibility for the North East Region in November 2014, when Jitendra Singh replaced him.[60]

Singh is praised for leading Operation Raahat, a rescue mission to evacuate Indian citizens and other foreign nationals from Yemen during 2015 Yemeni Crisis.[61] Prime Minister Narendra Modi in April 2015 said, “I believe this is the first time in the world that a government minister has stood on the battlefield like a soldier to do this work ... I salute General V. K. Singh.”[62] In May 2019, Singh became Minister of State for Road Transport and Highways.[63]

Singh along with A. K. Antony, Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik and the Vice Chief of Naval Staff.
Singh along with A. K. Antony, Air Chief Marshal P.V. Naik and the Vice Chief of Naval Staff.
Singh as Minister of External Affairs.
Singh as Minister of External Affairs.

Electoral history

2019 General Election

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJP Vijay Kumar Singh 9,44,503 61.96 +5.45
SP Suresh Bansal 4,43,003 29.06 +21.09
INC Dolly Sharma 1,11,944 7.34 -6.91
NOTA None of the Above 7,495 0.49 +0.03
Majority 5,01,500 32.90 -9.36
Turnout 15,25,097 55.89 -1.05
BJP hold Swing -7.82

2014 General Election

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJP Vijay Kumar Singh 7,58,482 56.51 +13.17
INC Raj Babbar 1,91,222 14.25 -18.16
BSP Mukul 1,73,085 12.89 -8.84
SP Sudhan Kumar 1,06,984 7.97 N/A
AAP Shazia Ilmi Malik 89,147 6.64 N/A
NOTA None of the Above 6,205 0.46 N/A
Majority 5,67,260 42.26 +31.33
Turnout 13,42,471 56.94 +11.64
BJP hold Swing +15.665

Personal life

Singh is married to Bharti Singh. Bharti complained of an occurrence[when?] of blackmail and extortion by a man of Gurugram.[64] She and Singh have two daughters, Yojna Singh and Mrinali Singh. Yojna is married to Dr. Anirudh Singh who is the son of Lt. Gen. Ashok Singh.[65]

Aside from his career in defence and politics, his interests are sport,[specify] horse riding, and reading. He has written an autobiography, Courage and Conviction, covering his career and experience in the Indian Army.[66]

He has often been embroiled in controversy over his comments on social issues and topics of national importance. From a family with a military background, he is open in his expression of nationalism.[67] He faced criticism over his battle to have the army's record of his date of birth rectified.[k] The dispute culminated in a Supreme Court case. Singh failed in his attempt to have the Army's anomalous record of two different birth dates amended to reflect the later date. The court ruled that the Ministry of Defence could act to enforce his retirement according to the earlier 1950 date, given that Singh had previously agreed to the Army's use of the 1950 date when granting him promotions and awards. The court did not dispute the fact that his actual date of birth was in 1951.[70][71]

Honours and awards

Military awards

Param Vishisht Seva Medal Ati Vishist Seva Medal Yudh Seva Medal Poorvi Star
Special Service Medal Sangram Medal Operation Vijay Medal Operation Parakram Medal
Sainya Seva Medal High Altitude Service Medal Videsh Seva Medal 50th Anniversary of Independence Medal
25th Anniversary of Independence Medal 30 Years Long Service Medal 20 Years Long Service Medal 9 Years Long Service Medal
US Army Ranger Tab

During his service as the COAS, Singh was appointed honorary Aide-de-camp to the President of India. He served as the Colonel of the Rajput Regiment and as the honorary Colonel of the Brigade of Guards, by virtue of being the Army Chief.[72] On 11 March 2011, he was inducted into the United States Army War College Class of 2001 graduates International Fellows Hall of Fame. He is the 33rd International Fellow and the first officer from the Indian Armed Forces to be inducted.[73] He was inspired by the legacy of Sam Manekshaw in the 1971 Indo Pak war when he was a junior officer in Army.[30]

Dates of rank

Insignia Rank Component Date of rank
Second Lieutenant Indian Army 14 June 1970[3]
Lieutenant Indian Army 14 June 1972[74]
Captain Indian Army 14 June 1976[75]
Major Indian Army 14 June 1983
Lieutenant-Colonel Indian Army 1 November 1991[76]
Colonel Indian Army 1 February 1993[77]
Brigadier Indian Army 4 June 1999[78]
Major General Indian Army 29 June 2004[79]
Lieutenant-General Indian Army 1 October 2006[80]
General
(COAS)
Indian Army 1 April 2010[81][82]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ A subset of the official records of the Army misstated the year in which Singh was born (as 1950).[4][5]
  2. ^ V K Singh started his career as a military officer and became the first ever commando (trained to carry out high altitude and counter insurgency operations) in the Indian Army to have been promoted to the General rank.[6] He was part of the 1971 India-Pakistan War and Operation Pawan.
  3. ^ "Minister of State (Independent Recharge)[clarification needed] for Statistics and Programme Implementation"
  4. ^ Singh's order in the succession of COAS depends on how the count is made. From the establishment of Indian "home rule", there had been 25 heads of the Indian Army prior to Singh's appointment. The first was designated, "Commander-in-Chief, Indian Army", while the second and 3rd were called "Chief of the Army Staff and Commander-in-Chief, Indian Army". If counted from the first commander with COAS included in the position title, Singh would be the 25th COAS; if from the first who was called solely COAS, he would be 23rd in the order; if counted from the very first Head of the army after home rule began, he would be the 26th. (See Chief of the Army Staff (India).) Most sources describe Singh as the 24th COAS.[8]
  5. ^ Singh, V.K.; Verma, Shiv Kunal (2013), Courage and Conviction: An Autobiography. Aleph Book Company[12]
  6. ^ V K Singh was born on May 10, 1951 (or, according to some - erroneous - Army records, 1950). While his grandfather was a Junior Commissioned Officer, his father was a colonel in the Indian Army.
  7. ^ Pride, tradition and the shortage of other local work opportunities continue to send Bapora’s Rajputs year after year to the Army’s recruitment camps (called bharti, enrollment) in neighbouring towns or states. Many who are enrolled enter the Rajput Regiment, as did Gen. Singh.[17]
  8. ^ Singh was the 24th Indian Army Chief and the only one to date to take a dispute with the Union Government to court, in the case of his date of birth issue.[11]
  9. ^ 68-year-old Gen VK Singh Singh retired as Army chief in 2012 after a long drawn-out battle with Raj Babbar of Indian National Congress in Gaziabad.
  10. ^ After retiring from his position as Chief of Army Staff, Singh became a member of the BJP. He also actively participated in the anti-corruption campaign led by Anna Hazare in New Delhi’s Ramlila Maidan. V K Singh once compared Anna’s movement with the 1975 Bihar Movement of Jayaprakash Narayan. On the issue of Nirbhaya gang rape case of 2012, which shook the conscience of the country, Singh was among the leading agitators against the crime.[54]
  11. ^ A variety of sources took a range of positions (not all critical) on Singh's fight with the Ministry of Defence over his date of birth.[4][68][69][5]

Citations

  1. ^ "Army chief Gen V K Singh had accepted date of birth". Economics Times. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  2. ^ "V K Singh to be next Indian Army chief". News 18.
  3. ^ a b c "Part I-Section 4: Ministry of Defence (Army Branch)" (PDF). The Gazette of India. 16 October 1971. p. 1209.
  4. ^ a b Singh, RSN. "Age controversy: Is Gen VK Singh paying the price for being honest?". Sify.com. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Why Gen VK Singh's D.O.B is not just a 'personal' matter". Firstpost (India News). 27 January 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2021. The case arose from a difference in the records of the Military Secretary’s Branch and the Adjutant General’s (AG’s) Branch of the army. The latter is the usual record-keeper. In Gen Singh’s case, the ministry of defence decided that it will go by the Military Secretary’s records – when common sense should have told it to do otherwise. In fact, the MoD has done so in at least one earlier case.
  6. ^ a b "Gen V K Singh takes over as Army Chief". India Strategic. March 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  7. ^ ANI (9 July 2021). "VK Singh takes charge as MoS Civil Aviation". The Economic Times - m.economictimes.com. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  8. ^ India Strategic (March 2010). "Gen V K Singh takes over as Army Chief". www.indiastrategic.in (Indian Army News). Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  9. ^ Official Indian Army Web Portal. "Chief of the Army Staff (COAS)". www.indianarmy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 18 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  10. ^ Staff writers (23 May 2021). "V K Singh: Latest News (topic roundup)". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2021. Singh served as the 24th Chief of the Army Staff from 2010 to 2012
  11. ^ a b Staff writer. "Gen VK Singh Biography in Hindi: About family, Political life, Age, Photos, Videos, History". Patrika News (in Hindi). Retrieved 12 October 2020. VK Singh retired on 31 May 2012 after contributing for 42 years in the Army. He was the 24th Chief of the Army Staff in the Indian Army
  12. ^ "India is Seeming Ungrateful, Writes General VK Singh". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  13. ^ "Members : Lok Sabha". 164.100.47.194.
  14. ^ a b Singh & Verma 2013, p. 17.
  15. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 1.
  16. ^ Kumar, Anuj (29 March 2019). "General V.K. Singh fights a divided Opposition in U.P.'s Ghaziabad". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  17. ^ "The General's village". Business Standard News. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  18. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 15.
  19. ^ Singh 2005, p. 6-11.
  20. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 18-21.
  21. ^ Mohan, Raman (24 January 2010). "Bapoda village basks in Gen VK Singh's glory". The Tribune. Chandigarh. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
  22. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 29.
  23. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 29-33.
  24. ^ "The Official Home Page of the Indian Army". www.indianarmy.nic.in. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  25. ^ Dutta, Sujan (30 July 2011). "Generation shift in air force". The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  26. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 36-37.
  27. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 43-47.
  28. ^ "VK Singh compares Pakistan army with Nazis for Bangladesh atrocities". DNA India. 16 December 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  29. ^ "Pakistan Army worse than Nazis in 1971 war, says retd General VK Singh". India Today. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  30. ^ a b Mishra, Achyut (27 June 2019). "Sam Manekshaw, the general who told Indira when Indian Army wasn't ready for a war". ThePrint. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  31. ^ a b c "Change of Guard - General VK Singh new COAS". Sainik Samachar. 10 April 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  32. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 85-89.
  33. ^ Singh & Verma 2013, p. 94-101.
  34. ^ "AR 670-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2012.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Singh & Verma 2013.
  36. ^ "SELECTION FOR THE 39th DEFENCE SERVICES STAFF COLLEGE COURSE" (PDF). pibarchive.nic.in. 31 March 1982.
  37. ^ "GALLANTRY AND DISTINGUISHED SERVICE AWARDS FOR DEFENCE PERSONNEL" (PDF). pibarchive.nic.in. 24 January 1990.
  38. ^ a b "Did you know: Gen VK Singh is a small time movie star!". First Post. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  39. ^ "When the army chief did a cameo in Bollywood". India Today. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  40. ^ "Gen V K Singh takes over as Army Chief". India Strategic. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  41. ^ "Gen VK Singh battles odds, becomes 26th army chief". DNA. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
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Selected works

Military offices Preceded byK D S Shekhawat General Officer Commanding II Corps 2006-2008 Succeeded byJ P Singh Preceded byK S Jamwal General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Eastern Command 2008-2010 Succeeded byBikram Singh Preceded byDeepak Kapoor Chief of Army Staff 2010-2012 Succeeded byBikram Singh Lok Sabha Preceded byRajnath Singh Member of Parliamentfor Ghaziabad 2014 – Present Incumbent Political offices Preceded byMansukh L. Mandaviya Minister of State for Road Transport and Highways 2019-present Succeeded byIncumbent Preceded by Minister of State for External Affairs 2014-2019 Succeeded byV. Muraleedharan Preceded byPaban Singh GhatowarMinister of State with Independent Charge Minister of Development of North Eastern Region 26 May 2014 – 9 November 2014Minister of State with Independent Charge Succeeded byJitendra SinghMinister of State with Independent Charge Preceded byRao Inderjit Singh(Minister of State withIndependent charge) Minister of Statistics and Programme Implementation(Minister of State withIndependent charge) 10 November 2014 – 5 July 2016 Succeeded byD. V. Sadananda Gowda