Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ, IAST: Vasiṣṭha) is one of the oldest and most revered Vedic rishis or sages. He is one of the Saptarishis (seven great Rishis) of Shiva. Vashistha is credited as the chief author of Mandala 7 of the Rigveda. Vashishtha and his family are mentioned in Rigvedic verse 10.167.4,[note 1] other Rigvedic mandalas and in many Vedic texts. His ideas have been influential and he was called the first sage of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy by Adi Shankara.
The Yoga Vasishtha, Vasishtha Samhita, as well as some versions of the Agni Purana and Vishnu Purana are attributed to him. He is the subject of many stories, such as him being in possession of the divine cow Kamadhenu and Nandini her child, who could grant anything to their owners. He is famous in Hindu stories for his legendary conflicts with sage Vishvamitra. In the Ramayana, he was the family priest of the Raghu dynasty and teacher of Rama and his brothers.
Vasishtha is also spelled as Vasiṣṭha and is Sanskrit for "most excellent", "best" or "richest". According to Monier-Williams, it is sometimes alternatively spelt as Vashishta or Vashisht (vaśiṣṭha, वशिष्ठ).
Historically, Vasishtha was a Rigvedic poet and the purohita of Sudās Paijavana, chief of the Bharata tribe. In Rigvedic hymn 7.33.9, Vashishtha is described as a scholar who moved across the Saraswati river to establish his school. At some point, he replaced Viśvāmitra Gāthina as the purohita of Sudās. In later Hindu texts, Viśvāmitra and Vasiṣṭha have a long-standing feud, and scholars have stated they historically had a feud regarding the position of the Bharata purohita. However, this view has been criticized due to lack of internal evidence and the projection of later views onto the Rigveda. Under Sudās and Vasiṣṭha, the Tṛtsu-Bharatas won the Battle of the Ten Kings. Sudās decisively won against a Puru-led alliance by the strategic breaching of a (natural) dyke on the Ravi river thereby drowning most of the opponents; the victory is attributed to the benevolence and strategizing of Indra, the patron-God of Bharatas, whose blessings were secured by Vasistha's poetics.
He was married to Arundhati, and therefore he was also called Arundhati Natha, meaning the husband of Arundhati. Later, this region is believed in the Indian tradition to be the abode of sage Vyasa along with Pandavas, the five brothers of Mahabharata. He is typically described in ancient and medieval Hindu texts as a sage with long flowing hairs that are neatly tied into a bun that is coiled with a tuft to the right, a beard, a handlebar moustache and a tilak on his forehead.
In Buddhist Pali canonical texts such as Digha Nikaya, Tevijja Sutta describes a discussion between the Buddha and Vedic scholars of his time. The Buddha names ten rishis, calls them "early sages" and makers of ancient verses that have been collected and chanted in his era, and among those ten rishi is Vasettha (the Pali spelling of Vashishtha in Sanskrit).[note 2]
Vashishtha is the author of the seventh book of the Rigveda, one of its "family books" and among the oldest layer of hymns in the Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. The hymns composed by Vashishtha are dedicated to Agni, Indra and other gods, but according to RN Dandekar, in a book edited by Anay Kumar Gupta, these hymns are particularly significant for four Indravarunau hymns. These have an embedded message of transcending "all thoughts of bigotry", suggesting a realistic approach of mutual "coordination and harmony" between two rival religious ideas by abandoning disputed ideas from each and finding the complementary spiritual core in both. These hymns declare two gods, Indra and Varuna, as equally great. In another hymn, particularly the Rigvedic verse 7.83.9, Vashishtha teaches that the Vedic gods Indra and Varuna are complementary and equally important because one vanquishes the evil by the defeat of enemies in battles, while other sustains the good during peace through socio-ethical laws. The seventh mandala of the Rigveda by Vashishtha is a metaphorical treatise. Vashishtha reappears as a character in Hindu texts, through its history, that explore conciliation between conflicting or opposing ideologies.
According to Ellison Findly – a professor of Religion, Vashishtha hymns in the Rigveda are among the most intriguing in many ways and influential. Vashishtha emphasizes means to be as important as ends during one's life, encouraging truthfulness, devotion, optimism, family life, sharing one's prosperity with other members of society, among other cultural values.
Practise righteousness (dharma), not unrighteousness.
Speak the truth, not an untruth.
Look at what is distant, not what's near at hand.
Look at the highest, not at what's less than highest.
— Vashishtha Dharmasutra 30.1 
Vashishtha is a revered sage in the Hindu traditions, and like other revered sages, numerous treatises composed in ancient and medieval era are reverentially named after him. Some treatises named after him or attributed to him include:
According to Mandala 7 of the Rigveda, the gods Mitra-Varuna and the apsara Urvashi are mentioned as his parents. In the story, Mitra and Varuna are performing a yajna (fire-sacrifice), when they see Urvashi and become sexually aroused. They ejaculate their semen into a pitcher, from which Vasishtha is born after a few days.
Vasishtha's birth story is retold in many later Hindu scriptures. The Puranas state that he has three births. In the first, he is a Manasputra (mind born son) created by the god Brahma. After the destruction of the Daksh Yajna, Vasishtha is killed but is recreated by Brahma. Vashishth became the royal guru of Nimi, a king. However Nimi forgot to invite Vashishth in a yajna and in rage, Vashishtha cursed Nimi to die soon. Nimi also cursed the same. Frightened, Vashishtha ran towards his father, Brahma. Brahma suggested him to emerge in Varuna and Mitra. When Urvashi was seen by Varuna and Mitra, Vashishth remerged from them.
According to Agarwal, one story states that Vashishtha wanted to commit suicide by falling into river Saraswati. But the river prevented this sacrilege by splitting into hundreds of shallow channels. This story, states Agarwal, may have very ancient roots, where "the early man observed the braiding process of the Satluj" and because such a story could not have invented without the residents observing an ancient river (in Rajasthan) drying up and its tributaries such as Sutlej reflowing to merge into Indus river.
Vashishtha is known for his feud with Vishwamitra. The king Vishwamitra coveted Vashistha's divine cow Nandini (Kamadhenu) that could fulfil material desires. Vashishtha destroyed Vishwamitra's army and sons. Vishwamitra acquired weapons from Lord Shiva and incinerated Vashishtha's hermitage and sons, but Vashistha baffled all of Vishwamitra's weapons. Vishwamitra betook severe penances for thousands of years and became a Brahmarshi. He even reconciled with Vashishtha.
Vashishtha is best known as the priest and preceptor, teacher of the Ikshvaku kings clan. He was also the preceptor of Manu, the progenitor of Kshatriyas and Ikshvaku's father. Other characters like Nahusha, Rantideva, lord Rama and Bhishma were his disciples. When the Bharata king Samvarta lost his kingdom to the Panchalas, he became the disciple of Vashistha. Under Vashistha's guidance, Samvarta regained his kingdom and became the ruler of the earth.
A copper casting of a human head styled in the manner described for Vashishtha was discovered in 1958 in Delhi. This piece has been dated to around 3700 BCE, plus minus 800 years, in three western universities (ETH Zurich, Stanford and UC) using among other methods carbon-14 dating tests, spectrographic analysis, X-ray dispersal analysis and metallography. This piece is called "Vashishtha head", because the features, hairstyle, tilak and other features of the casting resembles the description for Vashishtha in Hindu texts.
The significance of "Vashishtha head" is unclear because it was not found at an archaeological site, but in open Delhi market where it was scheduled to be remelted. Further, the head had an inscription of "Narayana" suggesting that the item was produced in a much later millennium. The item, states Edwin Bryant, likely was re-cast and produced from an ancient pre-2800 BCE copper item that left significant traces of matter with the observed C-14 dating.
There is an Ashram dedicated to Vashishtha in Guwahati, India. This Ashram is situated close to Assam-Meghalaya border to the south of Guwahati city and is a major tourist attraction of Guwahati. Vashishtha's Temple is situated in Vashisht village, Himachal Pradesh. Vashishtha Cave, a cave on the banks of Ganges at Shivpuri, 18 km from Rishikesh is also locally believed to be his winter abode and houses a Shiva temple, also nearby is Arundhati Cave.
Guru Vashishtha is also the primary deity at Arattupuzha Temple known as Arattupuzha Sree Dharmasastha in Arattupuzha village in Thrissur district of Kerala. The famous Arattupuzha Pooram is a yearly celebration where Sri Rama comes from the Thriprayar Temple to pay obeisance to his Guru at Arattupuzha temple.
A form of lustre springing from the lightning wast thou, when Varuṇa and Mitra saw thee;
Tliy one and only birth was then, Vashiṣṭha, when from thy stock Agastya brought thee hither.
Born of their love for Urvasi, Vashiṣṭha thou, priest, art son of Varuṇa and Mitra;
And as a fallen drop, in heavenly fervour, all the Gods laid thee on a lotus-blossom