Four horsemen of the apocalypse, as depicted in the Apocalypse work by Albrecht Dürer

Eschatology /ˌɛskəˈtɒləi/ (audio speaker iconlisten) is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity. This concept is commonly referred to as "the end of the world" or "end times".[1]

The word arises from the Greek ἔσχατος éschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of", and first appeared in English around 1844.[2] The Oxford English Dictionary defines eschatology as "the part of theology concerned with death, judgment, and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind".[3]

In the context of mysticism, the term refers metaphorically to the end of ordinary reality and to reunion with the divine. Many[quantify] religions treat eschatology as a future event prophesied in sacred texts or in folklore.

Eschatologies vary as to their degree of optimism or pessimism about the future. In some eschatologies, conditions are better for some and worse for others, e.g. "heaven and hell". They also vary as to time frames. Groups claiming the end of times to be imminent are also referred to as doomsday cults.


Baháʼí Faith

See also: Baháʼí Faith on life after death and Baháʼí teachings

In the Baháʼí Faith, creation has neither a beginning nor an end;[4] Baháʼís regard the eschatologies of other religions as symbolic. In Baháʼí belief, human time is marked by a series of progressive revelations in which successive messengers or prophets come from God.[5] The coming of each of these messengers is seen as the day of judgment to the adherents of the previous religion, who may choose to accept the new messenger and enter the "heaven" of belief, or denounce the new messenger and enter the "hell" of denial. In this view, the terms "heaven" and "hell" become symbolic terms for a person's spiritual progress and their nearness to or distance from God.[5] In Baháʼí belief, the coming of Bahá'u'lláh (1817-1892), the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, signals the fulfilment of previous eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity and other major religions.[6]


Main article: Buddhist eschatology

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (May 2021)


Main article: Christian eschatology

Christian eschatology is the study concerned with the ultimate destiny of the individual soul and of the entire created order, based primarily upon biblical texts within the Old and New Testaments.

Christian eschatological research looks to study and discuss matters such as the nature of the divine and the divine nature of Jesus Christ, death and the afterlife, Heaven and Hell, the Second Coming of Jesus, the resurrection of the dead, the rapture, the Tribulation, millennialism, the end of the world, the Last Judgment, and the New Heaven and New Earth in the world to come.

Eschatological passages occur in many places in the Bible, in both the Old and the New Testaments. In the Old Testament, apocalyptic eschatology can be found notably in Isaiah 24–27, Isaiah 56–66, Joel, Zechariah 9–14 as well as in the closing chapters of Daniel, and in Ezekiel.[7] In the New Testament, applicable passages include Matthew 24, Mark 13, the parable of "The Sheep and the Goats" and the Book of Revelation — Revelation often occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.

The Second Coming of Christ is the central event in Christian eschatology within the broader context of the fullness of the Kingdom of God. Most Christians believe that death and suffering will continue to exist until Christ's return. There are, however, various views concerning the order and significance of other eschatological events.

The Book of Revelation stands at the core of much of Christian eschatology. The study of Revelation is usually divided into four interpretative methodologies or hermeneutics:

Messianic Judaism

Main article: Messianic Jewish theology § Eschatology


Main article: Hindu eschatology

The Vaishnavite tradition links contemporary Hindu eschatology to the figure of Kalki, the tenth and last avatar of Vishnu. Before the age draws to a close Kalki will reincarnate as Shiva and simultaneously dissolve and regenerate the universe.

Most Hindus believe that the current period is the Kali Yuga, the last of four Yuga that make up the current age. Each period has seen successive degeneration in the moral order, to the point that, in the Kali Yuga, quarrel and hypocrisy are the norm. In Hinduism, time is cyclic, consisting of cycles or "kalpas". Each kalpa lasts for 4.32 billion years and is followed by a pralaya of equal length, which together makes one full day and night of Brahma's 100 360-year lifespan, who lives for 311 trillion, 40 billion years. The cycle of birth, growth, decay, and renewal at the individual level finds its echo in the cosmic order, yet is affected by vagaries of divine intervention in Vaishnavite belief.

Some Shaivites hold the view that Shiva is incessantly destroying and creating the world.[17]


Main article: Islamic eschatology

The sayings of the prophet Muhammad regarding the Signs of the Day of Judgement document Islamic eschatology.

Diagram of "Plain of Assembly"(Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell) and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).[18]
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly"(Ard al-Hashr) on the Day of Judgment, from autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya by Sufi mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels, Gabriel (al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt (the Bridge), Jahannam (Hell) and Marj al-Jannat (Meadow of Paradise).[18]

Muhammad's sayings on the subject have been traditionally divided into Major and Minor Signs.[citation needed] He spoke about several Minor Signs of the approach of the Day of Judgment, including:

Regarding the Major Signs, a Companion of the Prophet narrated: "Once we were sitting together and talking amongst ourselves when the Prophet appeared. He asked us what it was we were discussing. We said it was the Day of Judgment. He said: 'It will not be called until ten signs have appeared: Smoke(Ad Dukhan), Dajjal (the Antichrist), the creature (that will wound the people), the rising of the sun in the West, the Second Coming of Jesus, the emergence of Gog and Magog, and three sinkings (or cavings in of the earth): one in the East, another in the West and a third in the Arabian Peninsula.'"[citation needed]


Main article: Jewish eschatology

Jewish eschatology discusses events that will happen in the end of days, according to the Hebrew Bible and Jewish thought. This includes the ingathering of the exiled diaspora, the coming of the Jewish Messiah, afterlife, and the revival of the dead Tzadikim.

Judaism usually refers to the end times as the "end of days" (aḥarit ha-yamim, אחרית הימים), a phrase that appears several times in the Tanakh. The idea of a messianic age has a prominent place in Jewish thought and is incorporated as part of the end of days.

Judaism addresses the end times in the Book of Daniel and in numerous other prophetic passages in the Hebrew scriptures, and also in the Talmud, particularly Tractate Avodah Zarah.

Old Norse religion

Main article: Ragnarök


Main article: Taoist eschatology


Main article: Frashokereti

Frashokereti is the Zoroastrian doctrine of a final renovation of the universe when evil will be destroyed, and everything else will then be in perfect unity with God (Ahura Mazda). The doctrinal premises are:

  1. Good will eventually prevail over evil.
  2. Creation, initially perfectly good, was subsequently corrupted by evil.
  3. The world will ultimately be restored to the perfection it had at the time of creation.
  4. The "salvation for the individual depended on the sum of [that person's] thoughts, words and deeds, and there could be no intervention, whether compassionate or capricious, by any divine being to alter this". Thus each human bears the responsibility for the fate of his own soul, and simultaneously shares in the responsibility for the fate of the world.[22]

Analogies in science and philosophy

Main article: Global catastrophic risk

Futures studies and transhumanism

Researchers in futures studies and transhumanists investigate how the accelerating rate of scientific progress may lead to a "technological singularity" in the future that would profoundly and unpredictably change the course of human history, and result in Homo sapiens no longer being the dominant life form on Earth.[23][24][improper synthesis?]


A diagram showing the life cycle of the Sun
A diagram showing the life cycle of the Sun

See also: Future of Earth, Future of an expanding universe, and Ultimate fate of the universe

Occasionally the term "physical eschatology" is applied to the long-term predictions of astrophysics.[25][26] The Sun will turn into a red giant in approximately 6 billion years. Life on Earth will become impossible due to a rise in temperature long before the planet is actually swallowed up by the Sun.[27] Even later, the Sun will become a white dwarf.

See also


  1. ^ "BBC - Religions - Christianity: End Times". BBC Online. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
  2. ^ Dictionary – Definition of Eschatology. Webster's Online Dictionary.
  3. ^ "Eschatology, n.", def. a, Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  4. ^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6.
  5. ^ a b Smith, Peter (2000). "Eschatology". A concise encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 133–134. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  6. ^ Buck, Christopher (2004). "The Eschatology of Globalization: The Multiple Messiahship of Bahá'u'lláh Revisited (pp. 143–178)". In Sharon, Moshe (ed.). Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. ISBN 9004139044.
  7. ^ Bauckham, R. J. (1996). "Apocalyptic". In D. R. W. Wood, I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, J. I. Packer, & D. J. Wiseman (Eds.), New Bible Dictionary (3rd ed., p. 53). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
  8. ^ Tyndale, William, Parable of the Wicked Mammon, c. 1526, (facsimile copy of later printing, no ISBN, Benediction Classics, 2008) at pages 4-5
  9. ^ Smith, John Howard (2021-02-05). A Dream of the Judgment Day: American Millennialism and Apocalypticism, 1620-1890. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-753375-8.
  10. ^ Luther, Martin, "Sermon for the Twenty-Fifth Sunday after Trinity; Matthew 24:15-28", Church Postil, 1525
  11. ^ J. H. Merle D'aubigne's History of the Reformation of the Sixteen Century, book vi, chapter xii, p. 215.
  12. ^ Calvin, John, "Lecture Fifty-Second", Commentary on Daniel, Volume
  13. ^ "Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible: Matthew: Matthew Chapter 24".
  14. ^ All Roads Lead to Rome, by Michael de Semlyen. Dorchestor House Publications, p. 205. 1991
  15. ^ Gregg, Steven (1997). Revelation: Four Views. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-0840721280.
  16. ^ Elliott, Edward Bishop (1862). Horae Apocalypticae. Vol. IV (5th ed.). London: Seely, Jackson and Halliday. pp. 562–563. |volume= has extra text (help)
  17. ^ BBC. "Shiva". BBC. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  18. ^ Begley, Wayne E. The Garden of the Taj Mahal: A Case Study of Mughal Architectural Planning and Symbolism, in: Wescoat, James L.; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim (1996). Mughal Gardens: Sources, Places, Representations, and Prospects Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C., ISBN 0884022358. pp. 229-231.
  19. ^ AL-HAJAJ, MUSLIM BEN (1 Jan 2011). SAHIH MOSLIM (THE AUTHENTIC HADITHS OF MUSLIM) 1-4 VOL 4: صحيح مسلم 1/4 [عربي/إنكليزي] ج4. Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah. p. 332. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  20. ^ Redmond, Jeffery (2012). Introduction to Eschatology (PDF). University Publications. ISBN 978-1-283-49919-4. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  21. ^ Shabazz, Hassan (30 Mar 2020). Al Islaam, a Mercy to all the Systems of Knowledge in the Boundless Universe.,, 2020. p. 74. ISBN 9781716139130. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  22. ^ Boyce, Mary (1979), Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 27–29, ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8.
  23. ^ Sandberg, Anders. An overview of models of technological singularity
  24. ^ "h+ Magazine | Covering technological, scientific, and cultural trends that are changing human beings in fundamental ways". Archived from the original on 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2011-09-09.
  25. ^ Ćirković, Milan M. "Resource letter: PEs-1: physical eschatology." American Journal of Physics 71.2 (2003): 122–133.
  26. ^ Baum, Seth D. "Is humanity doomed? Insights from astrobiology." Sustainability 2.2 (2010): 591–603.
  27. ^ Zeilik, M.A.; Gregory, S.A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. p. 322. ISBN 0-03-006228-4.

Further reading