2001 Italian general election

← 1996 13 May 2001 2006 →

All 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
316 seats needed for a majority
315 seats in the Senate
163 seats needed for a majority[a]
Registered49,256,295 (C· 44,499,794 (S)
Turnout40,085,397 (C· 81.4% (Decrease1.5 pp)
36,189,394 (S· 81.3% (Decrease0.9 pp)
  First party Second party Third party
 
Francesco Rutelli 2001 crop.jpg
Fausto Bertinotti 2001.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Francesco Rutelli Fausto Bertinotti
Party Forza Italia The Daisy PRC
Alliance House of Freedoms The Olive Tree
Leader since 18 January 1994 25 September 2000 22 January 1994
Leader's seat Milan (C) Rome (C) Piedmont (C)
Seats won 368 (C) / 176 (S) 241 (C) / 128 (S) 11 (C) / 4 (S)
Seat change Increase96 (C) / Increase33 (S) Decrease82 (C) / Decrease29 (S) Decrease24 (C) / Decrease6 (S)
Constituency vote 16,915,513 (C)
14,406,519 (S)
16,019,388 (C)
13,106,860 (S)
Did not run (C)
1,708,707 (S)
% and swing 45.6% (C) Decrease5.3pp
42.5% (S) Decrease5.3pp
43.2% (C) Increase1.2pp
38.7% (S) Decrease3.5pp
Did not run (C)
5.0% (S) Increase2.1pp
Party vote 18,398,246 (C) 13,169,239 (C) 1,868,659 (C)
% and swing 49.6% (C) Decrease2.6pp 35.7% (C) Increase1.0pp 5.0% (C) Decrease3.6pp

Results of the single-member constituencies in the Chamber of Deputies (left) and Senate (right).

Prime Minister before election

Giuliano Amato
The Olive Tree

Prime Minister after the election

Silvio Berlusconi
House of Freedoms

The 2001 Italian general election was held in Italy on 13 May 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The election was won by the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms led by Silvio Berlusconi, defeating Francesco Rutelli, former mayor of Rome, and leader of the centre-left coalition The Olive Tree, and rising back to power after Berlusconi's first victory in the 1994 Italian general election.

Electoral system

The election was regulated by the Mattarella law of 1993, also known as "Mattarellum".

The intricate electoral system, called scorporo, provided 75% of the seats on the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House) as elected by first-past-the-post system, whereas the remaining 25% was assigned on proportional representation with a minimum threshold of 4%.

The method used for the Senate was even more complicated: 75% of seats by uninominal method, and 25% by a special proportional method that assigned the remaining seats to minority parties. Formally, these were examples of additional member systems.

General election

Campaign

For this election Berlusconi ran again for Prime Minister as leader of the centre-right House of Freedoms (Italian: La Casa delle Libertà), which included the Forza Italia, National Alliance, Northern League, Christian Democratic Centre, United Christian Democrats and other minor parties. The candidate for Prime Minister of the centre-left Olive Tree (Italian: L'Ulivo) was Francesco Rutelli, former mayor of Rome.

On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta, during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (English: Contract with the Italians), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from the Newt Gingrich's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the 1994 US Congressional election,[1] which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his 2001 campaign bid for prime ministership. In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed his commitment on improving several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23% for anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.[2] Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006 if he failed to honour at least four of these five promises.

Main coalitions and parties

Coalition Party Main ideology Seats Party leader Coalition leader
C S
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) Social democracy
161
102
Massimo D'Alema Francesco Rutelli
Democracy is Freedom (DL)[b] Social liberalism
102
48
Francesco Rutelli
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) Green politics, social democracy
20
17
Enrico Boselli
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) Communism
20
6
Oliviero Diliberto
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) Regionalism
4
2
Luis Durnwalder
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism
117
45
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) National conservatism
88
42
Gianfranco Fini
Northern League (LN) Regionalism
46
18
Umberto Bossi
White Flower (CCDCDU) Christian democracy
18
12
Pier Ferdinando Casini
Italian Republican Party (PRI) Liberalism
1
0
Giorgio La Malfa
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) Social democracy
0
0
Gianni De Michelis
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) Communism
14
3
Fausto Bertinotti
European Democracy (DE) Christian democracy
0
10
Sergio D'Antoni
Bonino List (LB) Liberalism
0
1
Emma Bonino
Tricolour Flame (FT) Neo-fascism
0
1
Pino Rauti
Italy of Values (IdV) Anti-corruption politics
0
0
Antonio Di Pietro
  1. ^ taking into account the Senators for life, which accounted for 9 seats at the time the election took place
  2. ^ An electoral alliance composed of the Italian People's Party, Democrats, Italian Renewal and UDEUR.

Results

This section is in a table format that may be better if supplemented with prose. You can help by adding a prose summary of the table(s). Editing help is available. (January 2022)

Chamber of Deputies

Overall results

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Chamber of Deputies election results
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62 16,915,513 45.57 132 194[3] +71
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24 75 99 +6
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0 30 30 −29
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0 40 40 +10
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0 3 3 New
Sardinian Reformers (RS) 0 1 1 +1
New Sicily (NS) 0 1 1 New
Total seats 86 282 368
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31 16,019,388 43.15 105 136 −36
Democracy is Freedom (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27 56 83 −12
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0 17 17
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0 10 10 New
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 200,059 0.54 0 3 3 ±0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 0 1 1 New
Total seats 58 192 250
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11 0 11 −24
Aosta Valley (VdA) 0 25,577 0.07 1 1 ±0
Others 3,745,277 9.73 0 4,162,298 11.21 0 0 −1
Total 37,259,705 100.00 155 37,122,776 100.00 475 630

Proportional and FPTP results

In 2001 the proportional list exhausted before all the deputies – which the winning party was entitled to – were declared elected.[4]

First-past-the-post
Party or coalition Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms (CdL) 16,915,513 45.57 282
The Olive Tree (Ulivo) 16,019,388 43.15 183
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,487,287 4.01 0
European Democracy (DE) 1,310,119 3.53 0
Bonino List (LB) 457,117 1.23 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyThe Olive Tree 190,556 0.51 5
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 173,735 0.47 3
Venetian Front League (LFV) 173,618 0.47 0
Tricolour Flame (FT) 121,527 0.33 0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 1
La Bassa in the Parliament 26,151 0.07 0
Aosta Valley (VdA) 25,577 0.07 1
Autonomist Socialists 24,341 0.07 0
Democrats of the Left (Aosta Valley) 20,452 0.06 0
Southern Action League (LAM) 19,366 0.05 0
Buonanno 19,046 0.05 0
National Social Front (FSN) 16,202 0.04 0
Forza Italia – Northern League (Aosta Valley) 16,049 0.04 0
European Republicans Movement (MRE) 15,600 0.04 0
European Populars 13,447 0.04 0
Greens Greens 13,220 0.04 0
Amadu List 12,233 0.03 0
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 9,663 0.03 0
Movement of Freedoms 9,006 0.02 0
Camonica Valley – Basta! 8,257 0.02 0
People's List 8,091 0.02 0
Movement for the Confederation of the Communists 6,777 0.02 0
Alternative List 6,612 0.02 0
New Force (FN) 6,294 0.02 0
We Sicilians 6,121 0.02 0
National Alliance (Aosta Valley) 4,464 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 3,491 0.01 0
Upper Milanese People 1,409 0.00 0
Total 37,259,705 100.00 475
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Proportional
Party Votes % Seats
Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62
Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31
Democracy is Freedom (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,443,725 3.89 0
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0
European Democracy (DE) 888,269 2.39 0
Bonino List (LB) 832,213 2.24 0
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 200,059 0.54 0
Tricolour Flame (FT) 143,963 0.39 0
Venetian Front League (LFV) 74,353 0.20 0
Pensioners' Party (PP) 68,349 0.18 0
Sardinian Action PartySardigna Natzione (PSd'Az–SN) 34,412 0.09 0
New Country 34,193 0.09 0
Abolizione Scorporo 26,917 0.07 0
Southern Action League (LAM) 23,779 0.06 0
National Social Front (FSN) 22,985 0.06 0
Greens Greens 18,262 0.05 0
New Force (FN) 13,622 0.04 0
Amadu List 11,517 0.03 0
European Republicans Movement (MRE) 7,997 0.02 0
We Sicilians (NS) 7,637 0.02 0
Movement of Freedoms 6,754 0.02 0
Free and Strong 6,722 0.02 0
Autonomist Socialists 6,492 0.02 0
Basta! 6,332 0.02 0
Movement for the Confederation of the Communists 5,244 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 2,915 0.01 0
Total 37,122,776 100.00 155
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 2,962,621
Total 40,085,397
Registered voters/turnout 49,256,295 81.38
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote (First-past-the-post)
CdL
45.57%
Olive Tree
43.15%
IdV
4.01%
DE
3.53%
LB
1.23%
Others
2.89%
Popular vote (Proportional)
FI
29.43%
DS
16.57%
DL
14.52%
AN
12.02%
PRC
5.03%
LN
3.94%
IdV
3.89%
CCDCDU
3.22%
DE
2.39%
LB
2.24%
FdVSDI
2.17%
PdCI
1.67%
Others
2.90%

FPTP and proportional results by constituency

Constituency Total
seats
Seats won
CdL Ulivo
Abruzzo 11 5 6
Aosta Valley 1 1
Apulia 34 22 12
Basilicata 5 5
Calabria 17 11 6
Campania 1 25 15 10
Campania 2 22 14 8
Emilia-Romagna 32 2 30
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 10 8 2
Lazio 1 32 13 19
Lazio 2 11 11
Liguria 14 5 9
Lombardy 1 31 29 2
Lombardy 2 32 32
Lombardy 3 11 9 2
Marche 12 2 10
Molise 3 2 1
Piedmont 1 19 4 15
Piedmont 2 17 16 1
Sardinia 14 9 5
Sicily 1 20 20
Sicily 2 21 21
Trentino-Alto Adige 8 8
Tuscany 29 2 27
Umbria 7 7
Veneto 1 22 20 2
Veneto 2 15 10 5
Total 475 282 193
Constituency Total
seats
Seats won
CdL Ulivo PRC
Abruzzo 3 2 1
Apulia 10 6 3 1
Basilicata 2 1 1
Calabria 6 3 3
Campania 1 9 5 3 1
Campania 2 7 4 2 1
Emilia-Romagna 9 4 4 1
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 3 2 1
Lazio 1 10 4 5 1
Lazio 2 4 3 1
Liguria 6 2 3 1
Lombardy 1 10 5 4 1
Lombardy 2 10 5 4 1
Lombardy 3 4 3 1
Marche 4 2 2
Molise 1 1
Piedmont 1 6 4 1 1
Piedmont 2 6 4 2
Sardinia 4 2 2
Sicily 1 7 5 2
Sicily 2 7 4 3
Trentino-Alto Adige 2 1 1
Tuscany 10 5 4 1
Umbria 2 2
Veneto 1 8 4 3 1
Veneto 2 5 3 2
Total 155 86 58 11

Senate of the Republic

Overall results

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Senate of the Republic election results
Coalition Party First-past-the-post Proportional
(Seats)
Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 14.406.519 42.57 152 24 82 +40
National Alliance (AN) 45 +2
White Flower (CCDCDU) 29 +4
Northern League (LN) 17 −10
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 1 +1
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 1 New
Tricolour Flame (FT)[5] 1
Total seats 176
The Olive Tree[6] Democrats of the Left (DS) 13,282,495[7] 39.22[8] 72 51 64 −38
Democracy is Freedom (DL) 43 −5
Federation of the Greens (FdV) 8 −6
Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) 6
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 2 New
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 1
Independent candidates 4
Total seats 128
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,708,707 5.04 0 4 4 −6
European Democracy (DE) 1,066,908 3.15 0 2 2 New
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,140,489 3.37 0 1 1 New
Bonino List (LB) 677,725 2.00 0 0 0 −1
League for Autonomy – Lombard League (LAL) 308,559 0.91 0 1 1 +1
Tricolour Flame (FT) 340,221 1.00 0 0 0 −1
Venetian Front League (LFV) 138,134 0.41 0 0 0 New
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 126.177 0.37 2 0 2 ±0
Va' pensiero Padania 119,058 0.35 0 0 0 New
National Social Front (FSN) 98,132 0.29 0 0 0 New
Autonomist Socialists – European Democracy (SA–DE) 79,002 0.23 0 0 0 New
Pensioners' Party (PP) 39,545 0.12 0 0 0 ±0
New Force (FN) 78,572 0.23 0 0 0 New
Greens Greens 35,743 0.11 0 0 0 ±0
Sardinian Action PartySardigna Natzione (PSd'Az–SN) 32,822 0.10 0 0 0 −1
Aosta Valley (VdA) 32,429 0.10 0 1 1 ±0
Filograna List for Salento 21,857 0.06 0 0 0 New
We Sicilians (NS) 20,761 0.06 0 0 0 ±0
Southern Action League (LAM) 19,914 0.06 0 0 0 ±0
Basta! 19,913 0.06 0 0 0 New
Liberal Popular Party 10,301 0.03 0 0 0 New
Amadu List 9,203 0.03 0 0 0 New
Alternative List 7,704 0.02 0 0 0
Forza Chiappetta 6,932 0.02 0 0 0 New
Die Freiheitlichen (dF) 5,354 0.02 0 0 0
Franco Greco List 4,284 0.01 0 0 0 New
Movement of Freedoms 4,023 0.01 0 0 0 New
Third Pole for Autonomy 2,392 0.01 0 0 0 New
Movement for the Confederation of the Communists 2.159 0.01 0 0 0 New
Justice and Progress 950 0.00 0 0 0 New
Grand Ducal Tuscany 625 0.00 0 0 0 New
Italian Constitutional Party (PACI) 175 0.00 0 0 0 New
Independents 4,975 0.02 0 0 0 New
Total 32,624,584 100.00 232 83 315 ±0
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote
CdL
42.53%
Olive Tree
38.70%
PRC
5.04%
IdV
3.37%
DE
3.15%
LB
2.00%
Others
5.21%

FPTP and proportional results by constituency

Constituency Total
seats
Seats won
CdL Ulivo Others
Piedmont 17 12 5
Aosta Valley 1 1
Lombardy 35 33 2
Trentino-Alto Adige 6 1 5
Veneto 17 16 1
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 5 5
Liguria 6 2 4
Emilia-Romagna 15 1 14
Tuscany 14 1 13
Umbria 5 5
Marche 6 2 4
Lazio 21 15 6
Abruzzo 5 4 1
Molise 2 1 1
Campania 22 14 8
Apulia 16 15 1
Basilicata 5 5
Calabria 8 6 2
Sicily 20 20
Sardinia 6 4 2
Total 232 152 79 1
Constituency Total
seats
Seats won
Ulivo CdL PRC Others
Piedmont 6 4 2
Lombardy 12 9 1 2
Trentino-Alto Adige 1 1
Veneto 6 6
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2 2
Liguria 3 1 2
Emilia-Romagna 6 5 1
Tuscany 5 4 1
Umbria 2 2
Marche 2 1 1
Lazio 7 5 2
Abruzzo 2 2
Campania 8 4 2 1 1
Apulia 6 6
Basilicata 2 2
Calabria 3 3
Sicily 7 6 1
Sardinia 3 2 1
Total 83 51 24 4 4

Leaders' races

2001 Italian general election (C): Milan Centre
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Silvio Berlusconi House of Freedoms FI 42,098 53.66
Gianni Rivera The Olive Tree Dem 28,651 36.52
Benedetto Della Vedova LB 4,874 6.21
Adriano Ciccioni IdV 2,835 3.61
Total 78,458 100.0
Turnout 81,412 80.39
Centre-right hold
Source: Ministry of the Interior
2001 Italian general election (C): Rome – Praenestine
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Francesco Rutelli The Olive Tree DL 36,457 56.73
Elio Vito House of Freedoms FI 25,463 39.62
Pietro Tagliatesta IdV 2,348 3.65
Total 64,268 100.0
Turnout 66,479 77.44
Centre-left hold
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References

  1. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Armey, Dick (1994). Contract With America: The Bold Plan.
  2. ^ Ricolfi, Luca (2005). Dossier Italia: a che punto è il 'contratto con gli italiani. Il mulino.
  3. ^ Including one deputy of the Italian Republican Party
  4. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Cercansi candidati per 14 seggi. La speranza della (lista) civetta". Diritto&Giustizia Edizione Online. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  5. ^ Tricolour Flame made electoral agreements with the House of Freedoms in some constituencies in Sicily.
  6. ^ Including the results of SVP and SVP–Olive Tree.
  7. ^ Including 175,635 votes for the SVP–Olive Tree
  8. ^ Including 0.52% of the vote for the SVP–Olive Tree.