A selection of Bible translations in contemporary English.

The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. As of September 2023 all of the Bible has been translated into 736 languages, the New Testament has been translated into an additional 1,658 languages, and smaller portions of the Bible have been translated into 1,264 other languages according to Wycliffe Global Alliance. Thus, at least some portions of the Bible have been translated into 3,658 languages.[1]

Early translators rendered biblical texts into Syriac, Latin, Ge'ez, Gothic and Slavonic languages, among others. Jerome's 4th-century Latin Vulgate version was dominant in Western Christianity during the Middle Ages. Since then, the Bible has been translated into many more languages.

English Bible translations have a rich and varied history of more than a millennium. (See List of English Bible translations.)

Textual variants in the New Testament include errors, omissions, additions, changes, and alternate translations. In some cases, different translations have been used as evidence for or have been motivated by doctrinal differences.

Original text

Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible was mainly written in Biblical Hebrew, with some portions (notably in Daniel and Ezra) in Biblical Aramaic. From the 6th century to the 10th century AD, Jewish scholars, today known as Masoretes, compared the text of various biblical manuscripts in an effort to create a unified, standardized text. A series of highly similar texts eventually emerged, and any of these texts are known as Masoretic Texts (MT). The Masoretes also added vowel points (called niqqud) to the text, since the original text contained only consonants. This sometimes required the selection of an interpretation; since some words differ only in their vowels their meaning can vary in accordance with the vowels chosen. In antiquity, variant Hebrew readings existed, some of which have survived in the Samaritan Pentateuch and other ancient fragments, as well as being attested in ancient versions in other languages.[2]

New Testament

The New Testament was written in Koine Greek[3] reporting speech originally in Aramaic, Greek and Latin (see Language of the New Testament.)

The autographs, the Greek manuscripts written by the original authors or collators, have not survived. Scholars surmise the original Greek text from the manuscripts that do survive. The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type, the Byzantine text-type, and the Western text-type.

Most variants among the manuscripts are minor, such as alternative spelling, alternative word order, the presence or absence of an optional definite article ("the"), and so on. Occasionally, a major variant happens when a portion of a text was missing or for other reasons. Examples of major variants are the endings of Mark, the Pericope Adulteræ, the Comma Johanneum, and the Western version of Acts.

The discovery of older manuscripts which belong to the Alexandrian text-type, including the 4th-century Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, led scholars to revise their view about the original Greek text. Karl Lachmann based his critical edition of 1831 on manuscripts dating from the 4th century and earlier, to argue that the Textus Receptus must be corrected according to these earlier texts.

Early manuscripts of the Pauline epistles and other New Testament writings show no punctuation whatsoever.[4][5] The punctuation was added later by other editors, according to their own understanding of the text.

There is also a long-standing tradition owing to Papias of Hierapolis (c.125) that the Gospel of Matthew was originally in Hebrew.[6] Eusebius (c.300) reports that Pantaenus went to India (c. 200) and found them using a Gospel of St Matthew in Hebrew letters.[7] Jerome also reports in his preface to St Matthew that it was originally composed "in Hebrew letters in Judea" not in Greek[8] and that he saw and copied one from the Nazarene sect. The exact provenance, authorship, source languages and collation of the four Gospel is unknown but subject to much academic speculation and disputed methods.

History

Collection of Bibles and New Testaments in several languages

Ancient translations

Aramaic Targums

Main article: Targum

Some of the first translations of the Torah began during the Babylonian exile, when Aramaic became the lingua franca of the Jews. With most people speaking only Aramaic and not understanding Hebrew, the Targums were created to allow the common person to understand the Torah as it was read in ancient synagogues.

Greek Septuagint

Main article: Septuagint

By the 3rd century BC, Alexandria had become the center of Hellenistic Judaism, and during the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC translators compiled in Egypt a Koine Greek version of the Hebrew scriptures in several stages (completing the task by 132 BC). The Talmud ascribes the translation effort to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (r. 285–246 BC), who allegedly hired 72 Jewish scholars for the purpose, for which reason the translation is commonly known as the Septuagint (from the Latin septuaginta, "seventy"), a name which it gained in "the time of Augustine of Hippo" (354–430 AD).[9][10] The Septuagint (LXX), the very first translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, later became the accepted text of the Old Testament in the Christian church and the basis of its canon. Jerome based his Latin Vulgate translation on the Hebrew for those books of the Bible preserved in the Jewish canon (as reflected in the Masoretic text), and on the Greek text for the deuterocanonical books.

The translation now known as the Septuagint was widely used by Greek-speaking Jews, and later by Christians.[11] It differs somewhat from the later standardized Hebrew (Masoretic Text). This translation was promoted by way of a legend (primarily recorded as the Letter of Aristeas) that seventy (or in some sources, seventy-two) separate translators all produced identical texts; supposedly proving its accuracy.[12]

Versions of the Septuagint contain several passages and whole books not included in the Masoretic texts of the Tanakh. In some cases these additions were originally composed in Greek, while in other cases they are translations of Hebrew books or of Hebrew variants not present in the Masoretic texts. Recent discoveries have shown that more of the Septuagint additions have a Hebrew origin than previously thought. While there are no complete surviving manuscripts of the Hebrew texts on which the Septuagint was based, many[quantify] scholars believe that they represent a different textual tradition ("Vorlage") from the one that became the basis for the Masoretic texts.[2]

Late Antiquity

Christian translations of the Old Testament also tend to be based upon the Hebrew, though some denominations prefer the Septuagint (or may cite variant readings from both). Bible translations incorporating modern textual criticism usually begin with the Masoretic text, but also take into account possible variants from all available ancient versions.

The Christian New Testament was written in Koine Greek,[a] and nearly all modern translations are to some extent based upon the Greek text.[citation needed]

2nd century

Origen's Hexapla (c. 235) placed side by side six versions of the Old Testament: the Hebrew consonantal text, the Hebrew text transliterated into Greek letters (the Secunda), the Greek translations of Aquila of Sinope and Symmachus the Ebionite, one recension of the Septuagint, and the Greek translation of Theodotion. In addition, he included three anonymous translations of the Psalms (the Quinta, Sexta and Septima). His eclectic recension of the Septuagint had a significant influence on the Old Testament text in several important manuscripts.

In the 2nd century, the Old Testament was translated into Syriac translation, and the Gospels in the Diatessaron gospel harmony. The New Testament was translated in the 5th century, now known as the Peshitta.

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the New Testament was translated into various Coptic (Egyptian) dialects. The Old Testament was already translated by that stage.

3rd century

In 331, the Emperor Constantine commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius (Apol. Const. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles.[13]

4th century

The Bible was translated into Gothic (an early East Germanic language) in the 4th century by a group of scholars, possibly under the supervision of Ulfilas (Wulfila).[14][15]

The canonical Christian Bible was formally established by Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem in 350 (although it had been generally accepted by the church previously), confirmed by the Council of Laodicea in 363 (both lacked the Book of Revelation), and later established by Athanasius of Alexandria in 367 (with Revelation added.)

Jerome's Vulgate Latin translation dates to between AD 382 and 405. Latin translations predating Jerome are collectively known as Vetus Latina texts. Jerome began by revising these earlier Latin translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew wherever he could instead of the Septuagint.

There are also several ancient translations, most important of which are in the Syriac dialect of Aramaic (including the Peshitta).

4th to 6th century

The Codex Vaticanus dates to c. 325–350, and is missing 21 sentences or paragraphs in various New Testament books: it is one of the four great uncial codices. The earliest surviving complete single-volume manuscript of the entire Bible in Latin is the Codex Amiatinus, a Latin Vulgate edition produced in 8th-century England at the double monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow.

Between the 4th to 6th centuries, the Bible was translated into Ge'ez (Ethiopic.)

In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob translated the Bible using the Armenian alphabet invented by him. Also dating from the same period is the Georgian translation.[citation needed]

In the 6th century, the Bible was translated into Old Nubian.

By the end of the eighth century, Church of the East monasteries (so-called Nestorians) had translated the New Testament and Psalms (at least, the portions needed for liturgical use) from Syriac to Sogdian,[16] the lingua franca in Central Asia of the Silk Road,[17] which was an Eastern Iranian language with Chinese loanwords, written in letters and logograms derived from Aramaic script.

Middle Ages

Main article: Bible translations in the Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages

The Codex Gigas from the 13th century, held at the Royal Library in Sweden.

When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correct their text—especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line—and to comment about the text. When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. See textual criticism. Over time, different regions evolved different versions, each with its own assemblage of omissions, additions, and variants (mostly in orthography).

There are some fragmentary Old English Bible translations, notably a lost translation of the Gospel of John into Old English by the Venerable Bede, which is said to have been prepared shortly before his death around the year 735. An Old High German version of the gospel of Matthew dates to 748. Charlemagne in c. 800 charged Alcuin with a revision of the Latin Vulgate. The translation into Old Church Slavonic was started in 863 by Cyril and Methodius.

Alfred the Great, a ruler in England, had a number of passages of the Bible circulated in the vernacular in around 900. These included passages from the Ten Commandments and the Pentateuch, which he prefixed to a code of laws he promulgated around this time. In approximately 990, a full and freestanding version of the four Gospels in idiomatic Old English appeared, in the West Saxon dialect; these are called the Wessex Gospels. Around the same time, a compilation now called the Old English Hexateuch appeared with the first six (or, in one version, seven) books of the Old Testament.

High Middle Ages

The provincial synods of Toulouse (1229) and Tarragona (1234) outlawed possession of some vernacular renderings, in reaction to the Cathar and Waldensian heresies, in South France and East Spain. There is evidence of some vernacular translations being permitted while others were being scrutinized.

The complete Bible was translated into Old French in the late 13th century. Parts of this translation were included in editions of the popular Bible historiale, and there is no evidence of this translation being suppressed by the Church.[18] The entire Bible was translated into Czech around 1360.

Late Middle Ages

During the Late Middle Ages, translation, particularly of the Old Testament was discouraged in some regions.[citation needed]

In England, a group of Middle English Bible translations were created: including the Wycliffean Bibles (1383, 1393) and the Paues New Testament, based on the Vulgate. New unauthorized translations were banned in England by the provincial Oxford Synod in 1408 under church law; possession of material that contained Lollard material (such as the so-called General Prologue found in a few Wycliffite Bibles) was also illegal by English state law, in response to Lollard uprisings.

The Hungarian Hussite Bible appeared in 1416. In 1478, a Catalan translation was made in the dialect of Valencia.

Many parts of the Bible were printed by William Caxton in his translation of the Golden Legend (1483), and in the loose paraphrase Speculum Vitae Christi (The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ), which had been authorized into English around 1410.

Reformation and Early Modern period

See also: Early Modern English Bible translations

Czech Protestant Bible of Kralice (1593)

The earliest printed edition of the Greek New Testament appeared in 1516 from the Froben press, by Desiderius Erasmus, who reconstructed a Greek text from several recent manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type, to accompany his Latin revision and philological annotations. He produced four later editions of this text. Erasmus was Catholic, and his ad fontes preference for the Greek manuscripts rather than the Latin Vulgate led some traditionalist theologians to view him with suspicion. This Latin, Greek and annotations were used by subsequent Reformation vernacular translators.

During 1517 and 1519 Francysk Skaryna printed a translation of the Bible in Old Belarusian language in twenty-two books.[19]

In 1521, Martin Luther was placed under the Ban of the Empire, and he retired to the Wartburg Castle. During his time there, he translated the New Testament into German, using the 2nd edition of Erasmus' New Testament, which provide a new Latin translation, detailed annotations on Greek words, and a Greek text for reference. It was printed in September 1522.

The first complete Dutch Bible, partly based on the existing portions of Luther's translation, was printed in Antwerp in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.[20]

The first printed edition with critical apparatus (noting variant readings among the manuscripts) was produced by the printer Robert Estienne of Paris in 1550. The Greek text of this edition and of those of Erasmus became known as the Textus Receptus (Latin for "received text"), a name given to it in the Elzevier edition of 1633, which termed it as the text nunc ab omnibus receptum ("now received by all").

The use of numbered chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages and later. The system used in English was developed by Stephanus (Robert Estienne of Paris) (see Chapters and verses of the Bible)

The churches of the Protestant Reformation translated the Greek of the Textus Receptus to produce vernacular Bibles, such as the German Luther Bible (1522), the Polish Brest Bible (1563), the Spanish "Biblia del Oso" (in English: Bible of the Bear, 1569) which later became the Reina-Valera Bible upon its first revision in 1602, the Czech Melantrich Bible (1549) and Bible of Kralice (1579-1593) and numerous English translations of the Bible. Tyndale's New Testament translation (1526, revised in 1534, 1535 and 1536) and his translation of the Pentateuch (1530, 1534) and the Book of Jonah were met with heavy sanctions given the widespread belief that Tyndale changed the Bible as he attempted to translate it. Tyndale's unfinished work, cut short by his execution, was supplemented by Myles Coverdale and published under a pseudonym to create the Matthew Bible, the first complete English translation of the Bible. Attempts at an "authoritative" English Bible for the Church of England would include the Great Bible of 1538 (also relying on Coverdale's work), the Bishops' Bible of 1568, and the Authorized Version (the King James Version) of 1611, the last of which would become a standard for English speaking Christians for several centuries.

The first complete French Bible was a translation by Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, published in 1530 in Antwerp.[21] The Froschauer Bible of 1531 and the Luther Bible of 1534 (both appearing in portions throughout the 1520s) were an important part of the Reformation.

The first English translations of Psalms (1530), Isaiah (1531), Proverbs (1533), Ecclesiastes (1533), Jeremiah (1534) and Lamentations (1534), were executed by the Protestant Bible translator George Joye in Antwerp. In 1535 Myles Coverdale published the first complete English Bible also in Antwerp.[22]

By 1578 both Old and New Testaments were translated to Slovene by the Protestant writer and theologian Jurij Dalmatin. The work was not printed until 1583. The Slovenes thus became the 12th nation in the world with a complete Bible in their language. The translation of the New Testament was based on the work by Dalmatin's mentor, the Protestant Primož Trubar, who published the translation of the Gospel of Matthew already in 1555 and the entire testament by parts until 1577.

Following the distribution of a Welsh New Testament and Prayer Book to every parish Church in Wales in 1567, translated by William Salesbury, Welsh became the 13th language into which the whole Bible had been translated in 1588, through a translation by William Morgan, the bishop of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant.[23]

Samuel Bogusław Chyliński (1631–1668) translated and published the first Bible translation into Lithuanian.[24]

In 1660, John Eliot published the Eliot Indian Bible in the language of the Massachusett people, an indigenous American group who lived in the area around what is today Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first translation of the Bible into an indigenous American language. This translation was produced by Eliot in an effort to convert the dwindling population of Massachusett to Christianity in praying towns such as Natick, Massachusetts.

Nova Vulgata

The Nova Vulgata is the most recent translation to Latin. On 29 November 1965, Pope Paul VI instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Revised Standard Version of the Bible,[25] in order to prepare a new translation from Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek, to Latin. The result was the Nova Vulgata, promulgated by Pope John Paul II in 1979.

The purpose was to achieve more precision and clarity in the texts, and to remove the errors and obscure passages that were present in the version of Jerome of Stridon,[25] known as the Vulgate.

Modern translation efforts

See also: International Bible Society, Wycliffe Bible Translators, and Institute for Bible Translation

Bible Translation Statistics (for selected years)
Year Full Bible New Testament Portions Total
1996 308 764 1014 2086
2006 426 1114 862 2402
2010 457 1211 897 2565
2011 513 1276 1015 2804
2012 518 1275 1005 2798
2013 513 1309 1028 2850
2014 531 1329 1023 2883
2015 554 1333 1045 2932
2016 636 1442 1145 3223
2017 670 1521 1121 3312
2018 683 1534 1133 3350
2019 698 1548 1138 3384
2020 704 1551 1160 3415
2021 717 1582 1196 3495
2022 724 1617 1248 3589
2023 736 1658 1264 3658

The Bible is the most translated book in the world. The United Bible Societies announced that as of 31 December 2007[26] the complete Bible was available in 438 languages, 123 of which included the deuterocanonical material as well as the Tanakh and New Testament. Either the Tanakh or the New Testament was available in an additional 1,168 languages, in some kind of translations, like the interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme translation (e.g. some Parallel Bible, with interlinear morphemic glossing).

In 1999, Wycliffe Bible Translators announced Vision 2025—a project that intends to commence Bible translation in every remaining language community by 2025. It was realised that, at the rates of Bible translation at that point, it would take until at least 2150 until Bible translation began in every language that was needing a translation. Since the launch of Vision 2025, Bible translation efforts have increased dramatically, in large part due to the technology that is now available. Due to the increase, at current rates, Bible translation will begin in every language by 2038, thus being 112 years faster.[27]

As of September 2023, they estimated that around 99.8 million people spoke those 1,268 languages where translation work still needs to begin. This represents 17.1% of all languages (based off an estimate of 7,394 total languages) and 1.3% of the human population (based of a global population of 7.42 billion).

In total, there are 3,736 languages without any Bible translation at all, but an estimated 1,148 of these (with a population of 9.6 million people) are likely to never need a Bible because they are very similar to other languages, or spoken by very few speakers where the language will die out very soon.[1]

Bible translation is currently happening in 3,283 languages in 167 countries. This work impacts 1.15 billion people, or about 15.5 percent of all language users, who have (or will soon have) new access to at least some portions of Scripture in their first language.[1]

Differences in Bible translations

This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress

Further information: Dynamic and formal equivalence and Bible version debate

Modern critical editions incorporate ongoing scholarly research, including discoveries of Greek papyrus fragments from near Alexandria, Egypt, that date in some cases within a few decades of the original New Testament writings.[28] Today, most critical editions of the Greek New Testament, such as UBS4 and NA27, consider the Alexandrian text-type corrected by papyri, to be the Greek text that is closest to the original autographs. Their apparatus includes the result of votes among scholars, ranging from certain {A} to doubtful {E}, on which variants best preserve the original Greek text of the New Testament.

Critical editions that rely primarily on the Alexandrian text-type inform nearly all modern translations (and revisions of older translations). For reasons of tradition, however, some translators prefer to use the Textus Receptus for the Greek text, or use the Majority Text which is similar to it but is a critical edition that relies on earlier manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. Among these, some argue that the Byzantine tradition contains scribal additions, but these later interpolations preserve the orthodox interpretations of the biblical text—as part of the ongoing Christian experience—and in this sense are authoritative. Distrust of the textual basis of modern translations has contributed to the King-James-Only Movement.

Dynamic or formal translation policy

A variety of linguistic, philological and ideological approaches to translation have been used. Inside the Bible-translation community, these are commonly categorized as:

though modern linguists, such as Bible scholar Dr. Joel Hoffman, disagree with this classification.[29]

Other translation approaches include:

As Hebrew and Greek, the original languages of the Bible, like all languages, have some idioms and concepts not easily translated, there is in some cases an ongoing critical tension about whether it is better to give a word-for-word translation, to give a translation that gives a parallel idiom in the target language, or to invent a neologism.

For instance, in the Douay Rheims Bible, Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, New American Bible Revised Edition, which are the English language Catholic translations, as well as Protestant translations like the King James Bible, the Darby Bible, the Recovery Version, the Literal Standard Version, the New Revised Standard Version, the Modern Literal Version, and the New American Standard Bible are seen as more literal translations (or "word-for-word").

Translations like the New International Version and New Living Translation sometimes attempt to give relevant parallel idioms. The Living Bible and The Message are two paraphrases of the Bible that try to convey the original meaning in contemporary language.

The further away one gets from word-for-word translation, the easier the text becomes to read while relying more on the theological, linguistic or cultural understanding of the translator, which one would not normally expect a lay reader to require. On the other hand, as one gets closer to a word-for-word translation, the text becomes more literal but still relies on similar problems of meaningful translation at the word level and makes it difficult for lay readers to interpret due to their unfamiliarity with ancient idioms and other historical and cultural contexts.

Doctrinal differences and translation policy

Further information: Tetragrammaton in the New Testament

In addition to linguistic concerns, theological issues also drive Bible translations. Some translations of the Bible, produced by single churches or groups of churches, may be seen as subject to a point of view by the translation committee.

For example, the New World Translation, produced by Jehovah's Witnesses, provides different renderings where verses in other Bible translations support the deity of Christ.[31] The NWT also translates kurios as "Jehovah" rather than "Lord" when quoting Hebrew passages that used YHWH. The authors believe that Jesus would have used God's name and not the customary kurios. On this basis, the anonymous New World Bible Translation Committee inserted Jehovah into the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures (New Testament) a total of 237 times while the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) uses Jehovah a total of 6,979 times to a grand total of 7,216 in the entire 2013 Revision New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures while previous revisions such as the 1984 revision were a total of 7,210 times while the 1961 revision were a total of 7,199 times.[32]

A number of Sacred Name Bibles (e.g., the Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition) have been published that are even more rigorous in transliterating the tetragrammaton using Semitic forms to translate it in the Old Testament and also using the same Semitic forms to translate the Greek word Theos (God) in the New Testament—usually Yahweh, Elohim or some other variation.

Other translations are distinguished by smaller but distinctive doctrinal differences. For example, the Purified Translation of the Bible, by translation and explanatory footnotes, promoting the position that Christians should not drink alcohol, that New Testament references to "wine" are translated as "grape juice".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Some scholars hypothesize that certain books (whether completely or partially) may have been written in Aramaic before being translated for widespread dissemination. One very famous example of this is the opening to the Gospel of John, which some scholars argue to be a Greek translation of an Aramaic hymn.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ a b c "2023 Global Scripture Access". wycliffe.net. Retrieved October 11, 2023.
  2. ^ a b Menachem Cohen, The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of Textual Criticism Archived 2011-03-10 at the Wayback Machine in HaMikrah V'anachnu, ed. Uriel Simon, HaMachon L'Yahadut U'Machshava Bat-Z'mananu and Dvir, Tel-Aviv, 1979.
  3. ^ Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar. Revised by Gordon M. Messing. ISBN 9780674362505. Harvard University Press, 1956. Introduction F, N-2, p. 4A
  4. ^ "Greek Language and Linguistics - Ancient Greek, mostly Hellenistic". 13 April 2023. Archived from the original on 9 September 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  5. ^ http://www.stpaulsirvine.org/images/papyruslg.gif%7C[permanent dead link] shows an example of the text without punctuation
  6. ^ See also the Hebrew Gospel hypothesis.
  7. ^ which also could be Syriac.
  8. ^ "Jerome, Letter to Pope Damasus: Beginning of the Preface to the Gospels". www.tertullian.org.
  9. ^ Sundberg, Albert C. Jr. (2002). "The Septuagint: The Bible of Hellenistic Judaism". In McDonald, Lee Martin; Sanders, James A. (eds.). The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-56563-517-3.
  10. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, chapter by Sundberg, page 72, adds further detail: "However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354-430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term septuaginta. [70 rather than 72] Jerome began by revising the earlier Latin translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew wherever he could instead of the Septuagint. The New Testament and at least some of the Old Testament was translated into Gothic in the 4th century by Ulfilas. In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob translated the Bible into Armenian. Also dating from the same period are the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic and Georgian translations. In his City of God 18.42, while repeating the story of Aristeas with typical embellishments, Augustine adds the remark, "It is their translation that it has now become traditional to call the Septuagint" ...[Latin omitted]... Augustine thus indicates that this name for the Greek translation of the scriptures was a recent development. But he offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development: Exod 24:1–8, Josephus [Antiquities 12.57, 12.86], or an elision. ...this name Septuagint appears to have been a fourth- to fifth-century development."
  11. ^ Karen Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint, ISBN 1-84227-061-3 (Paternoster Press, 2001). The as of 2001 standard introductory work on the Septuagint.
  12. ^ Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.
  13. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pp. 414–15, for the entire paragraph.
  14. ^ Falluomini, Carla (2015). The Gothic Version of the Gospels and Pauline Epistles: Cultural background, transmission and character. Berlin: De Gruyter. doi:10.1515/9783110334692. ISBN 978-3110334692.
  15. ^ Ratkus, Artūras (2018). "Greek ἀρχιερεύς in Gothic translation: Linguistics and theology at a crossroads". NOWELE. 71 (1): 3–34. doi:10.1075/nowele.00002.rat. Archived from the original on 2015-05-01. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  16. ^ "Bible v. Sogdian Translations". Encyclopaedia Iranica online.
  17. ^ Rachel Lung (7 September 2011). Interpreters in Early Imperial China. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-90-272-8418-1.
  18. ^ Sneddon, Clive R. 1993. "A neglected mediaeval Bible translation." Romance Languages Annual 5(1): 11–16 [1] Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Полная биография Георгия (Доктора медицинских и свободных наук Франциска) Скорины, Михаил Уляхин, Полоцк, 1994
  20. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, p. 120.
  21. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, pp. 134–35.
  22. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, pp. 143–45.
  23. ^ J. Davies, "Hanes Cymru". 1990, p. 236
  24. ^ S. L. Greenslade, The Cambridge History of the Bible: The West, from the Reformation to the Present Day. 1995, p. 134
  25. ^ a b "Nova Vulgata. Praefatio ad lectorem" (in Latin). Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  26. ^ United Bible Society (2008). "Statistical Summary of languages with the Scriptures". Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  27. ^ Creson, Bob. "Bible Translation as We Approach 2025 What's Been Accomplished and What Remains". Mission Frontiers. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  28. ^ Metzger, Bruce R. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Paleography (Oxford University Press, 1981) cf. Papyrus 52.
  29. ^ "Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence: A False Dichotomy". October 5, 2009. Archived from the original on March 31, 2023. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  30. ^ Discenza, Nicole G.; Szarmach, Paul E. (1 January 2015). "A Companion to Alfred the Great". doi:10.1163/9789004283763_011. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ Is the New World Translation Accurate?
  32. ^ New World Translation appendix, pp. 1564–66. When discussing "Restoring the Divine Name," the New World Bible Translation Committee states: "To know where the divine name was replaced by the Greek words Κύριος and Θεός, we have determined where the inspired Christian writers have quoted verses, passages and expressions from the Hebrew Scriptures and then we have referred back to the Hebrew text to ascertain whether the divine name appears there. In this way we determined the identity to give Kyʹri·os and The·osʹ and the personality with which to clothe them." Explaining further, the Committee said: "To avoid overstepping the bounds of a translator into the field of exegesis, we have been most cautious about rendering the divine name in the Christian Greek Scriptures, always carefully considering the Hebrew Scriptures as a background. We have looked for agreement from the Hebrew versions to confirm our rendering." Such agreement from Hebrew versions exists in all the 237 places that the New World Bible Translation Committee has rendered the divine name in the body of its translation.

Further reading