Tirukkural, also known as the Kural, an ancient Indian treatise on the ethics and morality of the commoner, is one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. Authored by the ancient Tamil poet-philosopher Thiruvalluvar, it has been translated into at least 42 world languages, with about 57 different renderings in the English language alone.

Beginning of translations

Beschi, the earliest known translator of the Kural text
Beschi, the earliest known translator of the Kural text
Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873[1]
Tamil Wisdom, by Edward Jewitt Robinson, 1873[1]

The Kural text, considered to have been written in the 1st century BCE,[2] remained unknown to the outside world for close to one and a half millennia. The first translation of the Kural text appeared in Malayalam in 1595 CE under the title Tirukkural Bhasha by an unknown author. It was a prose rendering of the entire Kural, written closely to the spoken Malayalam of that time.[2] However, again, this unpublished manuscript remained obscure until it was first reported by the Annual Report of the Cochin Archeological Department for the year 1933–34.[3] It took another three centuries before any translation was published in Malayalam.[clarification needed]

The Kural text has enjoyed a universal appeal right from antiquity owing to its secular and non-denominational nature that it suited the sensibilities of all.[4] The universality is such that, despite its having been written in the pre-Christian era, almost every religious group in India and across the world, including Christianity, has claimed the work for itself.[5] Owing to its ethical content, the Kural remained one of the most admired ancient Indian works among the Christian missionaries of the 16th and 17th centuries,[6] who arrived in India during the colonial era and found the Kural text containing many more ideals in addition to those that are similar to their own Christian ideals. This marked the beginning of wider translations of the Kural text.[7]

In 1730, Constantius Joseph Beschi rendered the Kural text into Latin, introducing the work to the Europeans for the first time. However, only the first two books of the Kural text, namely, virtue and wealth, were translated by Beschi, who considered translating the book on love inappropriate for a Christian missionary. Around 1767, an unknown author made the first French translation, which went unnoticed.[7] The Danish Missionary August Friedrich Caemmerer translated it into German in 1803.[6][8] The first available French version, however, was the one made in 1848 by E. S. Ariel. Here again, only parts of the work was translated.[7] In 1856, Karl Graul translated the Kural into German, claiming that the Kural is closer to the Christian preaching and offers a model of Tamil worldview.[6] The German version was published both at London and Leipzig. In 1865, his Latin translation of the Kural text, along with commentaries in Simple Tamil, was posthumously published.[9]

The first English translation ever was attempted by N. E. Kindersley in 1794 when he translated select couplets of the Kural. This was followed by another incomplete attempt by Francis Whyte Ellis in 1812, who translated only 120 couplets—69 in verse and 51 in prose.[10][11][12][13] William Henry Drew translated the first two parts in prose in 1840 and 1852, respectively. Along with Drew's English prose translation, it contained the original Tamil text, the Tamil commentary by Parimelalhagar and Ramanuja Kavirayar's amplification of the commentary. Drew, however, translated only 630 couplets. The remaining portions were translated by John Lazarus, a native missionary, thus providing the first complete English translation. In 1886, George Uglow Pope published the first complete English translation in verse by a single author, which brought the Kural text to a wide audience of the western world.[14]

By the turn of the twenty-first century, the Kural had already been translated to more than 37 world languages,[15] with at least 24 complete translations in English language alone, by both native and non-native scholars. By 2014, the Kural had been translated to more than 42 languages, with 57 versions available in English. Along with the Bible and the Quran, the Kural remains one of the most translated works in the world.[16] In October 2021, the Central Institute of Classical Tamil announced its translating the Kural text into 102 world languages.[17]

Criticisms on translations

The couplets of the Kural are inherently complex by virtue of their dense meaning within their terse structure. Thus, no translation can perfectly reflect the true nature of any given couplet of the Kural unless read and understood in its original Tamil form.[18] Added to this inherent difficulty is the attempt by some scholars to either read their own ideas into the Kural couplets or deliberately misinterpret the message to make it conform to their preconceived notions. The Latin translation by Father Beshi, for instance, contains several such mistranslations noticed by modern scholars. According to V. Ramasamy, "Beschi is purposely distorting the message of the original when he renders பிறவாழி as 'the sea of miserable life' and the phrase பிறவிப்பெருங்கடல் as 'sea of this birth' which has been translated by others as 'the sea of many births'. Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. The concept of rebirth or many births for the same soul is contrary to Christian principle and belief".[7]

List of Translations

Below is a list of translations of the Kural:[19][20]

S.No. Language Translator(s) Title of the Translation Place of Publication Year Coverage and Form Notes Translation for comparison:
Kural (verse) 251 (Chapter 26:1)
1 Arabic Muhammad Yousuf Kokan Sacred Verses 1976–1980 Complete Translated from an English translation.[21] كيف يكون احد رؤوفا ورحيما إن يأكل الحيوانات
لا زدياد شحمه ودسمه فى جثـتـه وجسمه
Amar Hasan Thirukkural Beirut, Lebanon (Al Farabi Publications) 2015 Complete [22][23]
K. M. A. Ahamed Zubair 2017 Partial Translated only about 50 couplets from the Kural chapters 2 (Glory of Rain), 10 (Speaking Pleasantly), 40 (Learning), 53 (Embracing the Kin), and 113 (Praise of Love), which were published in his book on translating Tamil poetry into Arabic with special reference to the Kural text.[24] Not translated
A. Jahir Hussain Thirukkural Chennai (International Institute of Tamil Studies) 2020 Complete–Verse Translated from Tamil original.[25][26]
2 Bengali Nalini Mohan Sanyal Thirukkural Calcutta 1939 Prose
E. C. Sastri Thirukkural Calcutta 1974 Prose
N. Ramanuja Das Thirukkural 1993 Prose
S. Krishnamoorthy Tirukkural (Ancient Tamil Poetry) Calcutta 2001 Complete—Verse Reprinted in 2014 by Sahitya Akademi; 148 pages. ISBN 978-81-260-4719-2[27]
3 Burmese U. Myo Thant Thirukkural Rangoon 1964 Complete—Prose
4 Chinese Ch'eng Xi Gula Zhenyan (古臘箴言) Hong Kong (Xianggang Daxue Chubanshe) 1967 如何真正实践慈悲谁吃动物肉养肥自己的血肉?
Yu Hsi Thirukkural Taipei, Taiwan 2014 Complete Book released by former President of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam[28] 以他者的脂肪養胖自己的人,
怎可能是善良的呢?
5 Czech Kamil V. Zvelebil Thirukural (Selections) Prague 1952–1954 Selections Translated select couplets that appeared in Novy Orient, a Czech journal, during 1952–54.[29]
6 Dutch D. Kat Thirukural (Selections) Netherlands 1964 Selections
7 English Nathaniel Edward Kindersley Specimens of Hindoo Literature London (W. Bulmer and Co.) 1794 Selections—Verse Made the first ever translation of the Kural text into English in a chapter titled 'Extracts from the Teroo-Vaulaver Kuddul, or, The Ocean of Wisdom' in his book Specimens of Hindoo Literature[30] Not translated.
Francis Whyte Ellis Thirukural on Virtue (in verse) with Commentary Madras 1812 (reprint 1955) Selections—Mixed Incomplete translation—only 120 couplets translated, 69 in verse and 51 in prose Not translated
William Henry Drew The Cural of Thiruvalluvar with Commentary of Parimelazhakar Madurai (American Mission Press) 1840 Partial—Prose Translated only the first 630 couplets How can he be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other (creatures)?
Charles E. Gover Odes from the Kural (Folksongs of South India) Madras (Higginbothams) 1872 Selections–Verse Reprinted in 1981 by Gian Publications, Delhi
Edward Jewitt Robinson Tamil Wisdom London (Paternoster Row) 1873 Partial—Verse Translated only Books I and II (1080 couplets) What graciousness by those is shown
Who feed with others' flesh their own?
William Henry Drew, and John Lazarus Thirukural (in verses) Madras 1885 Partial—Prose Lazarus revised Drew's work and translated the remaining portion (couplets 631 to 1330) in prose as done by Drew, thus making the incomplete work of Drew a complete one. How can he be possessed of kindness, who, to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other (creatures)?
George Uglow Pope A Collection of the English Translation of Thirukural Madras 1886 Complete—Verse First complete translation in English by a single author How can the wont of 'kindly grace' to him be known,
Who other creatures' flesh consumes to feed his own?
T. Thirunavukarasu Kural—A Selection of 366 Verses (A Gem for Each Day) Madras (SPCK Press) 1915 Selections—Prose
V. V. S. Aiyar Kural: Maxims of Thiruvalluvar Madras (Amudha Nilayam)[31] 1916 Complete–Prose How can he feel pity, who eateth other flesh in order to fatten his own?
S. Sabaratna Mudaliyar Kural Madras 1920
A. Mathavaiyah Kural in English with Commentary in Tamil Madras 1926 Selections—Verse
T. V. Parameswaran Aiyar 108 Gems from the Sacred Kural Kottayam 1928
H. A. Popley The Sacred Kural (Selections in verses) Calcutta 1931 Selections—Verse How can kindliness rule that man,
Who eateth other flesh to increase his own?
A. Ranganatha Muthaliar Thirukural Moolamum Uraiyum with English Translation Madras 1933
C. Rajagopalachari Kural, the Great Book of Thiruvalluvar Madras 1935 Partial—Prose
M. S. Purnalingam Pillai The Kural in English Tirunelveli (Sri Kanthimathi Vilasam Press) 1942 Complete–Prose How can a man grace who eats the meat of other animal to fatten himself?
S. M. Michael The Sacred Aphorisms of Thiruvalluvar (in verse) Nagarcoil 1946 Complete—Verse Who eats flesh other his own to expand,
How can he grace command?
V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar Thirukural in English with Roman Translation Madras 1949 Complete—Prose He who fattens on the flesh of animals, can he ever understand the rule of love?
M. R. Rajagopala Aiyangar Tirukkural Kumbakonam 1950 Complete–Prose
P. Raja Thirukural (in verses) Kumbakonam 1950
A. Chakravarti Thirukural in English with Commentary Madras 1953 Complete—Prose How can a person cultivate the habit of universal benevolence if he for the purpose of fattening his own flesh (body) eats flesh of other animals?
I. D. Thangaswami Thirukural (Selections in Verse) Madras 1954 Selections—Verse
K. M. Balasubramaniam Thirukural of Thiruvalluvar Madras 1962 Complete—Verse How can the one who eats a flesh to have his own flesh swell
Possess a melting heart in which compassion could e'er dwell?
T. Muthuswamy Thirukural in English Madurai 1965 Partial—Prose
V. Chinnarajan The Kural Gems Udumalpet 1967 Selections–Verse
C. R. Soundararajan 1968 Complete–Prose
Emmons E. White The Wisdom of India New York City (The Pater Pauper) 1968 Selections–Verse Published as The Wisdom of the Tamil People in 1976
Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi Thirukural with English Couplets Madras 1968 Complete—Verse What graciousness can one command
Who feeds his flesh by flesh gourmand?
G. Vanmikanathan The Thirukural—A Unique Guide to Moral, Material and Spiritual Prosperity Trichy 1969 Complete—Prose How will he exercise charity, who eats the flesh of another (creature) to fatten his own flesh?
Kasturi Srinivasan Thirukural: An Ancient Tamil Classic (in couplets) Bombay 1969 Complete—Verse To feed his flesh, who flesh consumes
What kindly grace, such man presumes?
A. Gajapathy Nayagar The Rosary of Gems of Thirukkural Madras 1969
Yogi Suddanantha Bharathi Thirukural Couplets with Clear Prose Rendering Madras 1970 Complete—Prose
T. N. S. Ragavachari Teachings of Tiruvalluvar's Kural Madras (Health, June 1966 – October 1971) 1971 Complete–Prose Reprinted in 1982
E. V. Singan Tirukkural Singapore (EVS Enterprises) 1975 Complete–Prose Reprinted in 1982
S. N. Sriramadesikan Tirukkural Madras (Gangai Puthaka Nilayam) 1978 Complete–Prose Reprinted in 1991, 1994, and 2006 How can a person be held to be compassionate when he slays animals and eat their flesh, for fattening his own body?
S. Maharajan Tiruvalluvar New Delhi (Sahitya Akademi) 1979 Verse—Selections Translated select couplets from all the three books of the Kural text. Second edition was published in 1982. How can he be possessed of grace,
who, to swell his own flesh,
eats the flesh of others!
S. M. Diaz Aphorisms of Valluvar: Commentary and Comparative Study Madras: International Society for the Investigation of Ancient Civilizations 1982 Complete—Verse It is inconsistent with the way of living compassion,
To fatten oneself on the flesh of a fellow-creature.
P. S. Sundaram Tiruvalluvar: The Kural New Delhi (Penguin Books India Limited) 1987 Complete–Verse Reprinted in 1989, 1991, 1992, and 2000 by International Tamil Language Foundation, Illinois How can he be kindly
Who fattens himself on others' fat?
T. S. Ramalingam Pillai 1987
K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar Tirukkural Calcutta (M. P. Birla Foundation) 1988 Complete–Verse
M. Karunanidhi/K. Chellappan Kural—Portraits: Dr. Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi's Kuralovium, a Translation from Tamil by K. Chellappan Annamalai Nagar: Annamalai University 1989
M. Swaminathan 1991
T. R. Kallapiran 1995
D. V. G. Ramarathinam Tirukkural (Thiyaga Durgam) 1995 Complete–Prose
J. Narayanasamy Tirukkural Coimbatore 1998 Complete–Mixed More in prose than in verse. Reprinted in 1999. Hardly any mercy is left in the minds of those who build their bodies with the flesh of other beings.
K. Kalia Perumal Wonders of Tirukkural Thanjavur (Jayam Publications) 1999 Complete–Verse
C. B. Acharya 1999
Satguru Sivaya Subramuniya Swami Thirukural New Delhi (Abhinav Publications) 1979 Partial—Verse Translated only Books I and II How can he practice true compassion
Who eats the flesh of an animal to fatten his own flesh?
C. R. Sundar Book Divine Tirukkural Chennai (Vignesh Pathippakam) 2001 Complete–Verse
V. Padmanabhan Thirukkural with English Explanation Chennai (Manimekalai Prasuram) 2003 Complete–Prose How can you consider the person eating the flesh of other creatures to strengthen his own, as merciful?
O. R. Krishnaswami The Wisdom of Tirukkural—A Guide to Living Mumbai (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan) 2004 Partial–Prose Translated Books I and II only
M. D. Jayabalan Cheyyar (Mavanna Publications) 2005 Partial–Verse Translated only 321 couplets
David Pratap Singh Tirukkural Madurai (Master Pathippakam) 2006 Complete–Verse
S. Ratnakumar Tirukkural: A Guide to Effective Living Singapore (Tamils Representative Council) 2006 Complete–Prose
V. Murugan Thirukkural in English Chennai (Arivu Pathippagam) 2009 Complete–Verse How will compassion hold him under its reign
Who feeds on others' flesh to fatten his own?
M. Rajaram Thirukkural: Pearls of Inspiration New Delhi (Rupa Publication) 2009 Complete—Verse How could one ever be compassionate
If one fattens on animal meat?
M. Rajaram Thirukkural: Pearls of Inspiration New Delhi (Rupa Publication) 2009 Complete—Prose One who fattens himself feeding on the animal flesh can never be kind to others.
N. E. Ramalingam Thirukkural Commentary in Tamil and English Chennai (Thiruvalluvar Pathippagam) 2009 Complete—Prose [32] How can one be kind hearted when he eats the flesh of other beings to increase his own flesh?
A. Gopalakrishnan Tirukkural—Thiruvalluvar Karutthurai Chidambaram (Meiyappan Padhippagam) 2012 Complete—Prose Authored both Tamil commentary and English translation How can one possess kindness towards the living beings; when he himself eats the flesh of other living beings to increase his own flesh?
Singaravelu Sachithanantham Karya Etika Tamil Berjudul Thirukkuṛaḷ Malaysia (Uma Publications) 2013 Complete—Verse Trilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator. How would one, who kills the body of another being, and eats the meat of that being in order to enlarge one's own body, become one, who nurtures Arul ('compassion')?
S. P. Guruparan Thirukkural: English Translation Chennai (Mayilavan Padhippagam) 2014 Complete—Verse (a) If one eats the flesh of another (creature) to fatten his body
How can he be a charitable person?
(b) To strengthen his body if another body is eaten by one
How can he be a compassionate one?!!
Gopalkrishna Gandhi Tiruvalluvar—The Tirukkural: A New English Version New Delhi (Aleph Classics) 2015 Complete—Verse How can one not see the ugliness of eating meat?
How can one made of flesh another's flesh eat?
R. Venkatachalam Thirukkural—Translation—Explanation: A Life Skills Coaching Approach Gurgaon (Partridge Publishing India) 2015 Complete—Verse
V. K. Parameswaran Pillai Kural Madras
Madurai Babaraj Thirukkural—Virtue Chennai (B. Vasantha) 2018 Partial—Prose How can one be merciful if one eats flesh of animals to develop his corporeal frame?
R. Jayaprakasam Thirukkural: Text in English & Tamil Chennai (Porselvi Pathippagam) 2019 Complete—Prose [33] How could he who eat the flesh for proliferation of his own flesh and body be enough compassionate?
Pattu M. Bhoopathi Thus Blossoms Love: A Transcreation of Kamattupal in Modern Verse Chennai (Sandhya Publications) 2019 Partial—Verse Translated Book III alone in modern verse form[34] Not translated
Thomas Hitoshi Pruiksma The Kural: Tiruvalluvar's Tirukkural Boston (Beacon Press) 2021
J. S. Anantha Krishnan Thiruvalluvar's Thirukkural Kollam (Dream Bookbindery) 2021 Complete—Verse
8 Fijian S. L. Berwick Na. Thirukkurala Fiji 1964
Paul Geraghty Tirukurali Na sere tabu Fiji 2008 Complete E rawa vakacava ni yalololoma e dua ni dau kania na lewenimanumanu me ikuri ni lewe ni yogona.
9 Finnish Pentti Aalto Kural—The Ancient Tamil Classic Helsinki (Societas Orientalis Fennica) 1972 [29]
10 French Anonymous Kural de Thiruvalluvar, Selections Paris 1767 Selections
E. S. Ariel Kural de Thiruvalluvar (Traduits du Tamoul) Paris 1848 Selections
Pierre-Eugène Lamairesse Thirukural in French Pondicherry 1867
G. Barrigue de Fontaineu Le Livre de l'amour de Thiruvalluva Paris 1889
Alain Daniélou Thiruvallouvar Kural Pondicherry 1942
Gnanou Diagou Tirou Vallouvar Koural (Thirukural in French) Pondicherry (Sandhanam)[35] 1942 Complete—Prose Comment celui qui mange la chair d’un autre être animé,
pour engraisser la sienne, peut-il se laisser gagner par la miséricorde.
M. Sangeelee Tirouk Koural[35] (Editions de L'Ocean Indien) 1988
François Gros Le Livre de l'Amour Paris (Gallimard, Collection UNESCO) 1992
Rama Valayden Port Louis, Mauritius 2007
11 Garo A. Antoni Selvadoss Rongtalgipa Poido Meghalaya 2000 Complete—Verse
12 German August Friedrich Caemmerer Thirukural waith German Translation Leipzig 1803 Wie kann er zutreffendes Mitleid üben, das das Fleisch eines Tieres ißt,
um sein eigenes Fleisch zu mästen?
Friedrich Rückert Thirukural, Selections Berlin 1847 Selections
Karl Graul Der Kural des Tiruvalluver. Ein gnomisches Gedicht über die drei Strebeziele des Menschen. London and Leipzig (F. A. Brockhaus)[35] 1856 Complete Published as the third volume (220 pages) of the four-volume work Bibliotheca Tamulica sive Opera Praecipia Tamuliensium Wer, das eigne Fleisch zu mehren, fremdes Fleisch geniesst, — wie wird Der der Huld pflegen?
Fenz Albrecht and K. Lalithambal Thirukural von Thiruvalluvar aus dem Tamil Madurai 1877 Ißt jemand Fleisch von anderen Kreaturen, um sein eigenes Fleisch zu vermehren – wie kann er Gnade erlangen?
Albert Schweitzer
13 Greek Πώς μπορεί κάποιος, που τρώει τη σάρκα άλλων για να
φουσκώσει τη δική του σάρκα, να δείξει συμπόνοια;
14 Gujarati Najuklal Choksi Thirukural Ahmedabad 1931
Kantilal L. Kalani Thirukural in Gujarati Bombay 1971 Select Translated only 852 couplets (from all chapters). Republished in 1985 by Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidhya Nagar.
P. C. Kokila Thirukkural in Gujarathi Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil) 2015 Complete [36] સ્વમાંસ પોષણ હેતુ જે અન્ય (પ્રાણી)ના માંસનું કરે ભક્ષણ
દયાભાવ કેમ કરી હોય તેના (મન) માં?
15 Hindi Khenand Rakar Thirukural, Parts 1 and 2 Ajmer 1924 Republished in 1969.[37]
Khan Chand Rahit 1926
Govindaraj Shastri Jain Kural in Verse, First two parts New Delhi 1942
B. D. Jain Thirukural Thirupananthal 1952 Republished in 1961.
S. Sankar Raju Naidu Tamil Ved Madras (University of Madras Press) 1958
M. G. Venkatakrishnan Thirukural Trichy 1964 Complete Revised and enlarged edition published November 1998 by Sakthi Finance Ltd., Madras माँस-वृद्धि अपनी समझ, जो खाता पर माँस।
कैसे दयार्द्रता-सुगुण, रहता उसके पास॥
Uttar Ved 1967
Rajan Pillai Thirukural Lucknow 1976
K. Seshadri Thirukural in Hindi Lucknow 1982
Satsai 1982 Selections Translated 700 couplets
1989
16 Indonesian A. S. Kobalen Tuntunan Bijak: Dari Masa ke Masa [Tirukural by Tiruwalluar] Complete—Prose Bagaimana seseorang mungkin memiliki sifat iba, yang memiliki maksud menambah daging jasadnya sendiri, akan memakan daging hewan lain.
17 Italian Antonio Sorrentino Tirukkural. Le massime di Tiruvalluvar Napoli (Ist Universitario Orientale Studi asiatici. Serie tre (Dept. of Asiatic Studies)) 1986 Complete 226 pages Come può esercitarsi nella pietà allineare che mangia la carne
di un animale per ingrassare la sua propria carne?
18 Japanese Shuzo Matsunaga Thirukkural Osaka 1981 (August) [38] 彼はいかに彼自身の肉を太らせるために動物の肉を食べる本当の同情を練習してもいいか。
Takanobu Takahashi Thirukkural: Sacred Verses of Ancient Tamil Tokyo (Heibonsha) 1999
19 Kannada B. M. Srikanthaiah Kural (Selections in verses) Bangalore 1940 Selections—Verse
L. Gundappa Thirukural Dharma Bhaga (Chapter on Virtue) Bangalore 1955 Partial Published a complete translation in 1960 under the title Thirukural (3 parts).
L. Gundappa Thirukural (3 parts) Madras 1960 Complete
P. S. Srinivas Thirukural with Original Couplets and Translations in Kannada Madurai 1982 Complete—Prose ತನ್ನ ಮೈ ಮಾಂಸವನ್ನು ಬೆಳಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಇತರ ಪ್ರಾಣಿಗಳ ಮೈಮಾಂಸವನ್ನು ತಿನ್ನುವವನು ಹೇಗೆ ತಾನೆ ಕರುಣೆಯಿಂದ ಬಾಳಬಲ್ಲನು?
N. Munusamy Thirukural in Kannada 1985 [37]
K. Jayaraman Thirukural with Original Couplets and Translations in Kannada Mysore 2001
S. Srinivasan Tirukkural in Kannada Chennai 2014 Complete—Verse [39] ತನ್ನೊಡಲ ಬೆಳೆಸಲು ಉಣಲು ಬೇರೆ ಬಾಡನು
ತನ್ನೊಳು ಕರುಣೆ ಬರುವದೆಂತು?
20 Konkani Narayana Purushothama Mallaya Thirukkural in Konkani Kochi (Konkani Bhasha Prachar Sabha) 2002 Complete—Verse Began translating in 1987. Translation released on 23 June 2002.[40][41] अन्नदान करचाक तागेले मांस, कोण माम्स भक्षण कर्ता,।
कसले करुणायुक्त औदार्य, तसले मनुष्य अनुमान कर्ता?॥
Suresh Gundu Amonkar [42][43]
21 Korean 그는 어떻게 그 자신의 살을 살찌기 위하여 동물의 살을 먹는
진실한 연민을 실행해서 좋은가?
Thirukkural Chennai 2017 Complete—Prose Published by the International Institute of Tamil Studies 동물의 고기를 먹어 스스로 살찌우는 사람은 타인에게 결코 친절할 수 없다.
22 Latin Constanzo Beschi Thirukural (Books I and II) London 1730 Partial—Prose Qui ut sua caro pinguoscat, alienas carnes comedit quinam eum
viveutibus lenitatem et clementiam exercere dicetur?
Karl Graul Kural of Tiruvalluver. High-Tamil Text with Translation into Common Tamil and Latin, Notes and Glossary Tranquebar 1865 Published as the fourth volume (348 pages) of the four-volume work Bibliotheca Tamulica sive Opera Praecipia Tamuliensium Qui ut suam earnem augeat, alienas carnes comedit, quomodo is benevolentia utetur?
23 Malay Ramily Bin Thakir Thirukural (in verses) Kuala Lumpur 1964
Hussein Ismail Thirukural Sastera Kalasik Tamil Yang Kuala Lumpur 1967
G. Soosai Thirukkural dalam bahasa Melayu (Thirukkural Kitab Murni Tamil Nadu) Kuala Lumpur 1978 Reprinted in 1991 Insan maging menikmati kekejaman
Tanpa belasan mengemukakan badan.
Singaravelu Sachithanantham Tirukkural translations into English (Thirukkural Tribahasa) Malaysia (Uma Publications) 2013 Complete—Verse Trilingual version with Tamil original and Malay and English versions translated by the translator. Bagaimanakah orang, yang membunuh tubuh makhluk lain, dan makan daging makhluk itu untuk membesarkan badannya sendiri, akan menjadi orang, yang memelihara arul (belas kasihan)?
24 Malayalam I. V. Ramaswamy Iyer Malayalathil Kural Trivandrum 1595 First ever translation of the Kural text in any language.
Perunazhi Krishna Vaidhyan Kural Trivandrum 1863 Partly translated. Republished in 1894.[37]
Azhakathu Kurup Thirukural in Verses Trivandrum 1875 Verse
A. Govinda Pillai Thirukural Trivandrum 1899 Translation currently unavailable
P. Damodaran Pillai Thirukural Manikal Trivandrum 1951
Sasthamangalam Ramakrishna Pillai Ramakrishna Tirukkural Trivandrum 1957 Translation completed 1933 with comprehensive commentary and notes, but published September 1957 with abridged commentary
Parmeshram Partial Translated only Books I and II
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup Thirukural Kottayam (Writers Co-operative Society) 1957 Partial—Verse Reprinted in 1960 with translations for Books I and II in verse
K. Chellan Nadar Thirukural Tharmanaskantam Parassala 1962
Tiruvallam G. Bhaskaran Nair Bhasha Tirukkural (Dharmakandam) Trivandrum (Arul Nilayam) 1962 Partial—Prose Translated only Book I. Published with the original Tamil verse transliterated in Malayam and a Malayalam commentary in prose.
G. Balakrishnan Nair Kural with Commentary, Part I Trivandrum 1963 Partial
S. Ramesan Nair Thirukkural Malayalam Vivarthanam Trivandrum (Trust Publications) 1998 Translated into old Malayalam
V. V. Abdulla Sahib Thirukkural Erode (Gupta Press) 2002 തൻ ദേഹം നിലനിർത്താനായ് മറുദേഹം ഭുജിപ്പവൻ
ജീവകാരുണ്യമുള്ളോനെന്നുരചെയ്യുവതെങ്ങനെ?
K. G. Chandrasekaran Nair Thirukkural (Sampoornabhashyam) Thiruvananthapuram (All Kerala Tamizh Federation) 2002 Prose Published by D. C. Books, Kottayam in 2003
M. R. R. Variar Thirukkural Kozhikode (Poorna Publications) 2003
Shailaja Ravindran Thirukkural Kottayam (D. C. Books) 2007
25 Manipuri Soibam Rebika Devi Tirukkural in Manipuri Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil) 2014 Complete—Prose [44] মশাবূ থাক্ননবা অতোপ্ত্রা জীবগী শদোঙ চাবা মীওই অদুগী মথম্মোইদা করন্না মীনুংশি ফাওগদৌরিবানা?
26 Marathi Sane Guruji Kavi Tiruvalluvar Kural Pune (Continental Publishers) 1930 Complete–Prose First published 1930. Officially published 1948. Third edition in 1960 and fourth edition in 1975.[45][46] स्वतःची चरबी वाढावी म्हणून दुसन्या प्राण्यांचे जो मांस खातो; त्याला दया कशी बरे कधी वाटेल?
Narayana Govindarao Peshwe and Ganpath Govindarao Peshwe (Thirukkural) Belgaum (Dhananjay Press) 1930 Partial–Prose Translated only the first 89 chapters. First appeared in Lokamitra journal.[47]
27 Norwegian Kevin Raja Kowsihaa Gowsegan Gowrithasan Krogh Thiruvalluvar sin Thirukkural på Norsk Oslo 2017 Complete—Verse
28 Odia Chittaranjan Das Kural (Oriya) Bhubaneswar (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan) 1978
Kishrod Dash Ch Thirukuralu—In Oriya Language Sambalpur 1985 Verse
Nityanada Acharya Tirukkural: Book of Sacred Couplets Balangir (Agragami Karyalaya) 1992 Partial Books I and II only
G. N. Das Vidyapuri Cuttack (Bidyapuri) 1994 Complete—Verse
Biswanath Misra Tirukkural Bhubaneswar 1996
Balaram Rout Thirukkural Delhi (Sahitya Akademi) 2017 Complete
29 Punjabi Ram Murti Sharma Thirukural Dhamma Granth of the Tamils Chandigarh 1983
Tarlochan Singh Bedi Tirukkural in Punjabi Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil) 2012 Complete—Verse ਆਪਣਾ ਮਾਸ ਵਧਾਉਣ ਲਈ ਦੂਸਰੇ ਜੀਵਾਂ ਦਾ ਮਾਸ
ਖਾਣ ਵਾਲੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਇਆ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ
30 Polish Umadevi, Wandy Dynowskiej Tiruwalluwar: Tiru-Kural Madras (Biblioteka Polsko-Indyjska) 1958 Partial 141 pages
Bohdan Gębarski Tiruwalluwar "Tirukkural" ("Kural"). Święta księga południowych Indii Wrocław, Poland (Ossolineum)(Europa Publisher) 1977 Complete—Verse 152 pages; published again in 1998. Pożeraczem żywego nie może być człowiek,
Co wyznaje zasady pokoju.
31 Portuguese Como pode praticar o compassion verdadeiro que come a carne
de um animal para fatten sua própria carne?
32 Rajasthani Kamala Gurg Thirukural Needhi Sastra Jaipur 1982
33 Russian J. J. Glazov and A. Krishnamurthi Thirukural, a Book on Virtue, Politics and Love Moscow 1963 Complete—Prose [48] Как может испытывать сострадание пожирающий плоть других живых созданий ради наращивания своей собственной?
A. Ibragimov Thirukural in Couplets with Illustrations Moscow 1974
D. V. Burba Select–Prose Translated the English translation of select couplets by C. Rajagopalachari, which contained 555 couplets from Book I and Book II. Not translated
V. Furniki Thirukkural Moscow 1990 Complete—Prose Разве может испытывать чувства сострадания человек,
который поедает плоть других живых существ для увеличения своей плоти?
34 Sanskrit Thyagasamudram Shri Chakrapani Iyer 18th century Verse
Appa Vajapeyin Suniti Kusuma Mala Kumbakonam (Gururajachariar) 1922 Verse
Sankara Subramanya Sastri Sugati Ratnaakaraa 1937–1940 Verse Published as "Sugati Ratnaakaraa" in the journal Sahridaya
Anonymous (perhaps Vidya Bhushanam Pandit Shri Govindaraya Shastri) Delhi 1940 Verse Contains prose explanation in Hindi
Kaliyan Ramanuja Jeer Nanguneri 1956 Verse
S. N. Sriramadesikan Thirukural in Sanskrit Slokas Madras 1961 Complete—Verse Revised edition published in 1968. पोषणार्थे स्वदेहस्य कृत्वा य: प्राणिहिंसनम्।
तन्मांसभक्षणपर: स दयावान् कथं भवेत्॥
H. A. Chakrapani Iyer Tiruvalluvar in Sanskrit 1983 Verse
V. Indrajithu Thirukural Sanskrit Translation Mangudi (Athirai Publication) 2021 Complete—Verse स्वमांसवर्धनार्थं यो मांसं खादति प्राणिनः।
स कथं करुणाशीलो भविष्यति महीतले॥
35 Santali Ref. Fr. Richard V. Joe Torjakmayic Thirukkural—Nerunji Ilakkiya Iyakkam Partial (Book I)
36 Saurashtra S. Sankhu Ram Saurastra Thirukural Payiram—Pitika Pragaranam Madurai (Siddhasramam) 1980 Complete—Verse Published posthumously. Republished in 1993. அபுல்தனு ஹொட்3வன்அப்லான் ஆஸிது3ஸ்தன் கா2த்தெனு
கோனக ஸவ்கன் த3யொ
?
37 Sinhalese Govokgada Misihamy Thiruvalluvar's Kural Colombo (Anula Publishers) 1961 Complete තම සිරුර වඩනුව – අන්සතූ සිරුරු කන්නා
කරුණාව සිත තූළ – ඇති කරන්නේ කවර අයුරුද?
Charles De Silva Sirigiya (Thirukural in Sinhalese) Colombo 1964
38 Spanish Cómo puede él practicar la compasión verdadera que come la
carne de un animal para cebar su propia carne?
39 Swedish Yngve Frykholm Tirukkural sydindisk levnadsvisdom, statskunskap och kärlekskonst sammanfattad i 1330 epigram av tamilskalden Tiruvalluvar Uddevalla 1971 Complete—Prose Hur skall den kunna behärskas av godhet som äter andra varelsers kött för att hans eget kött må stärkas?
40 Telugu Venkatrama Srividyanandaswami Trivarga Dipika Nellore 1877
Sakkam Narasimhalu Naidu Trivargamu 1892 Partial
Venkatram Nīti Mañcari
Lakshminarayana Sastri Kural Chittoor 1906
P. Sriramulu Reddi Trivargamu Putthalapatti 1948
Jagannatha Sastri, Mudiganthi Thiruvalluva Sookthalu West Godavari 1952
Challa Radhakrishna Sarma Tamila Vedhamu Madras 1954
Jalayya Nitisudha 1955
Sonti Sripati Sastry Sri Padula 1966
Gurucharan Dutaluri Jagannadham Tirukkural of Tiruvalluvar in Telugu Kuppam (Dravidian University) 1986 Verse బలియ గోరి తాను బలిజేయు జీవుల
నట్టి కెట్టు లమరు తరుణ
Jayaprakash Tirukkural in Telugu Chennai (Central Institute of Classical Tamil) 2014 Complete–Prose తన శరీరంలోని కండలు పెంచుకోవడం కోసం వేరొక ప్రాణి శరీరాన్ని ఆహారంగా స్వీకరించేవారు ఏ విధంగా దయా స్వభావులవుతారు?
41 Thai 2019 Complete Released in Bangkok by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 2 November 2019. Translated from the English version by M. Rajaram (2009).
42 Urdu Hasarat Surawathi Kural in Urdu New Delhi (Sahitya Akademi) 1966 Prose Translated from an English translation.
Muhamad Yusuf Kohan Kural in Urdu and Arabic Madras 1976
Mukhtar Badri Lafz lafz gohar Chennai (Nazir Book Depot) 2001 Verse Translated from the Tamil original.
43 Vaagri Booli Kittu Sironmani [49]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Edward Jewitt Robinson (1873). Tamil Wisdom; Traditions Concerning Hindu Sages, and Selections from their writings. London: Wesleyan Conference Office.
  2. ^ a b Mukherjee, Sujit (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: One: Beginnings–1850. 1 (1 ed.). Hyderabad: Orient Longman. pp. 392–393. ISBN 81-250-1453-5.
  3. ^ George, K. M. (1973). Tirukkural and Malayalam. In: First All India Tirukkural Seminar Papers (N. Sanjeevi, ed.) (2nd ed.). University of Madras. pp. 44–49.
  4. ^ Mohan Lal (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1221-3.
  5. ^ Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India. BRILL. p. 156. ISBN 978-90-04-03591-1.
  6. ^ a b c Amaladass, Anand (2007). "Values in Leadership in the Tamil Tradition of Tirukkural Vs. Present-day Leadership Theories" (PDF). International Management Review. 3 (1): 9–16. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Ramasamy, V. (2001). On Translating Tirukkural (First ed.). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. pp. 28–47.
  8. ^ Ebeling, Sascha (2010). Colonizing the Realm of Words: The Transformation of Tamil Literature in Nineteenth-Century South India. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4384-3199-4.
  9. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, p. 257
  10. ^ A stone inscription found on the walls of a well at the Periya palayathamman temple at Royapettai indicates Ellis' regard for Thiruvalluvar. It is one of the 27 wells dug on the orders of Ellis in 1818, when Madras suffered a severe drinking water shortage. In the long inscription Ellis praises Thiruvalluvar and uses a couplet from Thirukkural to explain his actions during the drought. When he was in charge of the Madras treasury and mint, he also issued a gold coin bearing Thiruvalluvar's image. The Tamil inscription on his grave makes note of his commentary of Thirukkural.Mahadevan, Iravatham. "The Golden coin depicting Thiruvalluvar −2". Varalaaru.com (in Tamil). Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  11. ^ The original inscription in Tamil written in the Asiriyapa meter and first person perspective: (The Kural he quotes is in Italics)
    சயங்கொண்ட தொண்டிய சாணுறு நாடெனும் | ஆழியில் இழைத்த வழகுறு மாமணி | குணகடன் முதலாக குட கடலளவு | நெடுநிலம் தாழ நிமிர்ந்திடு சென்னப் | பட்டணத்து எல்லீசன் என்பவன் யானே | பண்டாரகாரிய பாரம் சுமக்கையில் | புலவர்கள் பெருமான் மயிலையம் பதியான் | தெய்வப் புலமைத் திருவள்ளுவனார் | திருக்குறள் தன்னில் திருவுளம் பற்றிய் | இருபுனலும் வாய்த்த மலையும் வருபுனலும் | வல்லரணும் நாட்டிற் குறுப்பு | என்பதின் பொருளை என்னுள் ஆய்ந்து | ஸ்வஸ்திஸ்ரீ சாலிவாகன சகாப்த வரு | ..றாச் செல்லா நின்ற | இங்கிலிசு வரு 1818ம் ஆண்டில் | பிரபவாதி வருக்கு மேற் செல்லா நின்ற | பஹுதான்ய வரு த்தில் வார திதி | நக்ஷத்திர யோக கரணம் பார்த்து | சுப திநத்தி லிதனோ டிருபத்தேழு | துரவு கண்டு புண்ணியாஹவாசநம் | பண்ணுவித்தேன்.
  12. ^ Blackburn, Stuart (2006). Print, folklore, and nationalism in colonial South India. Orient Blackswan. pp. 92–95. ISBN 978-81-7824-149-4.
  13. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1992). Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature. Brill. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-04-09365-2.
  14. ^ Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.
  15. ^ "Thirukkural translations in different languages of the world".
  16. ^ "Thirukkural translations in different languages of the world". Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  17. ^ "102 மொழிகளில் திருக்குறள்: செம்மொழி நிறுவனம் முயற்சி". Dinamalar. Chennai: Dinamalar. 20 October 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  18. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The Smile of Murugan of Tamil Literature of South India. P. 169. ISBN 9004035915. Retrieved 11 December 2010. ... It is almost impossible to truly appreciate the maxims of the Kural through a translation. Tirukkural must be read and re-read in Tamil.
  19. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Tamil Literature. 1. Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai: Institute of Asian Studies.
  20. ^ Zvelebil, K. V. (1975). Tamil Literature. Leiden/Cologne: E. J. Brill. ISBN 9004041907.
  21. ^ Ashraf, N. V. K. ""تِروكـُّـرل" و "تِرووَلـّـووَر"". GeoCities. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  22. ^ "تروكرل المثنوي المقدس". الفارابي. دار الفارابي. 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
  23. ^ "Thirukkural now in Arabic". The Hindu. Chennai. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  24. ^ Badsha, M. O. (28 November 2019). "The essence of Thirukkural in Arabic". The Hindu. Chennai. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  25. ^ "Thirukkural Now in Arabic". The New Indian Express. Chennai: Express Publications. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  26. ^ Kolappan, B. (17 June 2015). "Saudis celebrate wisdom of Tirukkural". The Hindu. Chennai: Kasturi & Sons. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  27. ^ "E-Newsletter (November–December 2014)" (PDF). sahitya-akademi.gov.in. Sahitya Akademi. 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  28. ^ Rajaram, R. (19 June 2014). "Chinese translation of Tirukkural, Bharathi's poems ready". The Hindu. Chennai.
  29. ^ a b Sanjeevi, N. (1973). Bibliography on Tirukkural. In First All India Tirukkural Seminar Papers. University of Madras. p. 145.
  30. ^ Kindersley, N. E. (1794). "Specimens Of Hindu Literature". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  31. ^ Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, p. 518.
  32. ^ N. E. Ramalingam (2009). Thirukkural Commentary in Tamil and English. Chennai: Thiruvalluvar Pathippagam.
  33. ^ R. Jayaprakasam (2019). Thirukkural: Text in English & Tamil. Chennai: Porselvi Pathippagam. ISBN 978-81-926917-5-6.
  34. ^ Bhoopathi, 2019.
  35. ^ a b c "Editions of "Tirukkuṟaḷ"". data.bnf.fr. BnF Data. n.d.
  36. ^ Press Information Bureau (16 January 2015). "PM releases Gujarati translation of Thirukkural, on 'Thiruvalluvar Day'". New Delhi: Government of India, Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  37. ^ a b c Polhilan et al. (Ed.) (2019). Tiruvalluvar 2050 (in Tamil) (1 ed.). Chennai: Periyariya Unarvalargal Koottamaippu. p. 680.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  38. ^ Kannadasan, Akila (24 June 2012). "Friendship that has withstood time". The Hindu. Coimbatore: Kasturi & Sons. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  39. ^ Srinivasan, S. (2014). Tirukkural in Kannada (in Tamil and Kannada). 1 (1 ed.). Chennai: Central Institute of Classical Tamil. pp. i–xxiv, 410 pages. ISBN 978-93-81744-05-5.
  40. ^ "'Thirukkural' in Konkani". The Hindu. 24 June 2002. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  41. ^ The Times of India. 15 June 2002 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/Thirukkural-translated-into-Konkani/articleshow/13002899.cms. Retrieved 24 February 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  42. ^ "Amonkar on Goa University Library". Goa University Library. 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  43. ^ "Goa's Padmashree Dr. Suresh Gundu Amonkar on Dr. Jose Pereira and Hinduism". Gmane. 8 August 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  44. ^ "திருக்குறளை மணிப்பூர் மொழியில் மொழி பெயர்த்து வெளியிட்ட மணிப்பூர் மங்கை ரேபிகா தேவி". Valai Tamil.com (in Tamil). ValaiTamil.com. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  45. ^ Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, pp. 518–520.
  46. ^ Sanjeevi, 1973, pp. 50–55.
  47. ^ Kovaimani and Nagarajan, 2013, p. 520.
  48. ^ "Translations" (PDF). Russian State University for the Humanities. Russian State University for the Humanities. n.d. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  49. ^ The Hindu, 25 March 2013.

References

  • Sanjeevi, N (1973). Marathi Translation of Tirukkural. In: First All India Tirukkural Seminar Papers (2nd ed.). Chennai: University of Madras. pp. 50–55.
  • M. G. Kovaimani and P. V. Nagarajan (2013). திருக்குறள் ஆய்வுமாலை [Tirukkural Research Papers] (in Tamil) (1 ed.). Tanjavur: Tamil University. ISBN 978-81-7090-435-9.
  • "Thirukkural now in Arabic". The Hindu. Chennai. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Pattu M. Bhoopathi (2019). Thus Blossoms Love: A transcreation of Kamattupal in modern verse. Chennai: Sandhya Publications. ISBN 978-93-87499-85-0.

Further reading