The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament ("HALOT") is a scholarly dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, which has partially supplanted Brown–Driver–Briggs.[1]

It is a translation and updating of the German-language Koehler-Baumgartner Lexicon, which first appeared in 1953, into English; the first volume was published in 1994[2] the fourth volume, completing the Hebrew portion, was published in 1999,[3] and the fifth volume, on Aramaic, was published in 2000.[4] The work was re-issued in 2001 as an unabridged two volume set.[5]

It differs from Brown–Driver–Briggs in being ordered alphabetically, instead of by root. It includes a bibliography, as well as references to the Masoretic Text and the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Vulgate, the Septuagint, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Ben Sira.[3]


  1. ^ Brettler, Marc. "Lexica - Tools for Studying the Hebrew Bible". Tools for Studying the Hebrew Bible. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  2. ^ Gordon, Robert P. (1997). "Review of The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Volume I". The Journal of Theological Studies. 48 (1): 143–144. doi:10.1093/jts/48.1.143. JSTOR 23966768.
  3. ^ a b Elliott, J. K. (2001). "Review of The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament". Novum Testamentum. 43 (2): 196–197. JSTOR 561035.
  4. ^ "The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Volume 5 Aramaic". Eisenbrauns. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  5. ^ Koehler, Ludwig; Baumgartner, Walter; Stamm, Johann Jakob (2001). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (2 vol. study ed., unabridged. ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. ISBN 9789004124455.