The Duan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Duàn) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.


The reason the tribe adopted the Han Chinese surname Duan is unknown.

Duan Wuwuchen was given in 303 a hereditary title— the "Duke of Liaoxi" —by the Jin dynasty. Even after their tribe was defeated and absorbed by Former Yan, the Duan clan remained honored and powerful, and several Former Yan and Later Yan empresses, as well as important officials, were members of the Duan clan.[citation needed]

Chieftains of the Duan

Name Duration of reign
Chinese convention: use family name and given name
日陸眷 Rìlùjuàn 250–271
乞珍 Qǐzhēn 270-303
段務勿塵 Duàn Wùwùchen 303 – 310 or 311
段疾陸眷 Duàn Jílùjuàn 310 or 311 – 318
段涉復辰 Duàn Shèfùchén 318
段匹磾 Duàn Pǐdī 318–321
段末柸 Duàn Mòpeī 318–325
段牙 Duàn Yá 325
段遼 Duàn Liáo 325 or 326 – 338


Main article: Para-Mongolic languages

Shimunek classifies Duan as a "Serbi" (i.e., para-Mongolic) language. Shimunek's "Serbi" linguistic branch also includes Taghbach, Tuyuhun, and Khitan.[1]

See also


  1. ^ Shimunek, Andrew (2017). Languages of Ancient Southern Mongolia and North China: a Historical-Comparative Study of the Serbi or Xianbei Branch of the Serbi-Mongolic Language Family, with an Analysis of Northeastern Frontier Chinese and Old Tibetan Phonology. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-10855-3. OCLC 993110372.