Donghu people
General location of the Donghu people, and contemporary Asian polities c. 500 BCE
Dates600-150 BCE
Preceded byUpper Xiajiadian culture
Followed byXiongnu
Yan Kingdom (Han dynasty)

Donghu (simplified Chinese: 东胡; traditional Chinese: 東胡; pinyin: Dōnghú; Wade–Giles: Tung-hu; IPA: [tʊ́ŋ.xǔ]; lit.'Eastern foreigners or Eastern barbarians') was a tribal confederation of "Hu" (胡) nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE[1] and was taken over by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE. They lived in northern Hebei, southeastern Inner Mongolia and the western part of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang along the Yan Mountains and Greater Khingan Range.[2]



The Donghu were located to the northeast of Qin China in the 3rd century BCE.

The Classical Chinese name Chinese: literally means "Eastern Barbarians".[3] The term Dōnghú contrasts with the term Xīhú meaning "Western barbarians" (Chinese: 西胡, meaning "non-Chinese peoples in the west" and Five Barbarians 五胡 (Wǔ Hú) "five northern nomadic tribes involved in the Uprising of the Five Barbarians (304–316 CE)". Hill (2009:59) translates Xīhú as "Western Hu" and notes:

The term hu 胡 was used to denote non-Han Chinese populations. It is, rather unsatisfactorily, commonly translated as 'barbarian'. While sometimes it was used in this general way to describe people of non-Han descent, and carried the same negative overtones of the English term, this was not always the case. Most frequently, it was used to denote people, usually of Caucasoid or partial Caucasoid appearance, living to the north and west of China. (2009:453)

In 307 BCE, the 胡 proper, encompassing both the eastern Dōnghú (東胡, "Eastern Hu") and the western Linhu (林胡, "Forest Hu"), were mentioned as a non-Chinese people who were neighbors of Zhao[4][5] and skilled at mounted archery (a military tactic which King Wuling of Zhao would later adopt).[6] However, the term Hu can also refer to a variety of different races and different ethnic groups.[7] It was used by Han Chinese to describe anyone who is not of ethnic Han Chinese descent and were considered barbarians: for example, Sima Qian also used Hu to call the Xiongnu, who were then ruled by Touman chanyu, once expelled by Qin general Meng Tian north from the Ordos Loop, yet able to regain their territory following the Qin Empire's collapse.[6][8] All Hu workmen were famed for their skills at making bows and carts even without specialization.[9][10]

Horse bit and harness ornaments. Upper Xiajiadian culture. Inner Mongolia Museum
Eastern Han tombs in Shandong often have depiction of battles between Hu barbarians, with bows and arrows and wearing pointed hats (left), against Han troops. Eastern Han dynasty (151–153 CE). Tsangshan Han tomb in Linyi city, Shandong. Also visible in Yinan tombs.[11]
Hu warriors from the mountains (left) and Han troops (right) battling around a bridge, Yinan tombs, Shandong, 2nd century CE.[11]

The peoples categorized as the Five Barbarians, or "Five Hu", were the Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang.[12][13] Of these five ethnic groups, the Xiongnu and Xianbei were nomadic peoples from the northern steppes. The ethnic identity of the Xiongnu is uncertain, but the Xianbei appear to have been Mongolic. The Jie, another pastoral people, may have been a branch of the Xiongnu, who may have been Yeniseian[14] or Indo-Scythian.[15] The Di and Qiang were from the highlands of western China.[12] The Qiang were predominantly herdsmen and spoke Sino-Tibetan (Tibeto-Burman) languages, while the Di were farmers who may have spoken a Sino-Tibetan[16] or Turkic language.[17] The traditional explanation, going back to the second-century Han dynasty scholar Cui Hao 崔浩 is that the Donghu were originally located "east of the Xiongnu" who were one of the "Five Barbarians" ().[18] Modern Chinese apologetics suggests that "Donghu" was a transcription of an endonym and did not literally mean "Eastern Barbarian".[19]

The usual English translation of Dōnghú is "Eastern Barbarians" (e.g., Watson, di Cosmo, Pulleyblank, and Yu), and the partial translation "Eastern Hu" is occasionally used (Pulleyblank). Note that "Eastern Barbarians" is also a translation for Dōngyì 東夷, which refers to "ancient peoples in eastern China, Korea, Japan, etc."[clarification needed]

Chinese Sinocentrism differentiates the Huáxià "Chinese" and the "barbarians, non-Chinese, foreigner": this is referred to as the Huá–Yì distinction. Many names besides Hu originally had pejorative "barbarian" meanings, for instance Nanman 南蠻 ("southern barbarians") and Beidi 北狄 ("northern barbarians"). Edwin G. Pulleyblank explains:

At the dawn of history we find the Chinese, self-identified by such terms as Hsia and Hua, surrounded and interspersed by other peoples with whom they were frequently in conflict and whom they typically looked down upon as inferior beings in the same way the Hellenes looked down on the barbaroi and, indeed, as human we-groups have always looked down on their neighbors.[20]

The historian Nicola di Cosmo concludes:

We can thus reasonably say that, by the end of the fourth century B.C., the term "Hu" applied to various ethnic groups (tribes, groups of tribes, and even states) speaking different languages and generally found living scattered across a wide territory. Their fragmentation, however, could be turned, when the need arose, into a superior form of political organization (a "state"). This explains why hu appears often preceded by a qualifier that we may take for a specific ethnic group, as with the Lin Hu and the Tung Hu. Whether or not it had originally been an ethnonym, such a designation had been lost by the Warring States period.[21]

In modern Standard Chinese usage has lost its original meaning although it still appears in words like èrhú 二胡 (lit. "two foreign") "Chinese two-string fiddle", hútáo 胡桃 ("foreign peach") "walnut", and húluóbō 胡萝卜 ("foreign radish") "carrot".


Burial at Zhoujiadi cemetery (with and without mussel mask), an ancestor of the Donghu clan, Upper Xiajiadian culture (1000-600 BCE).[22]

The modern pronunciation Dōnghú differs from the Old Chinese pronunciation, which roughly dates from the Warring States period (476–221 BCE) when Donghu was first recorded. Old Chinese reconstructions of Dōnghú include *Tûngɣâg,[23] *Tungg'o,[24] *Tewnggaɣ,[25] *Tongga,[26] and *Tôŋgâ > *Toŋgɑ.[27] William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart (2014)[28] reconstruct the Old Chinese ancestor of as *[g]ˤa. Recently, Christopher Atwood reconstructs a foreign ethnonym *ga, which was borrowed into Old Chinese as 胡 * (> ), while an i-suffixed derivative of *ga underlies two Middle Chinese transcriptions: namely,

The etymology of ethnonym *ga (> 胡 OC * > Ch. ) is unknown.[31] As for *ga's possibly derivation Qay: Golden (2003) proposes several Mongolic etymologies: ɣai "trouble, misfortune, misery", χai "interjection of grief", χai "to seek", χai "to hew", albeit none compelling.[32][33]

Some dictionaries and scholars (e.g. Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat) confuse Dōnghú 東胡 with Tungusic peoples, Tonggu 通古. Russian Mongolist Lydia Viktorova states that:

This is due to the insufficient amount of materials and partly due to the mistakes made. For example, the phonetic identification of the ancient people of the Donghu (Eastern Hu) with the Tungus, made at the beginning of the 19th century by Abel-Rémusat only on the principle of sound similarity between Donghu and Tungus. This led to the fact that for a long time all the descendants of the Donghu were considered the ancestors of the Tungus."[34]

This "chance similarity in modern pronunciation", writes Pulleyblank, "led to the once widely held assumption that the Eastern Hu were Tungusic in language. This is a vulgar error with no real foundation."[35]


Bronze Dagger with figurine, Upper Xiajiadian culture (1000-600 BCE). Inner Mongolia Museum.[36][37]
Bronze helmet, Upper Xiajiadian Culture later period.[38]

Among the northern ethnic groups, the Donghu was the earliest to evolve into a state of civilization and first developed bronze technology. Their culture was associated with the Upper Xiajiadian culture, characterized by the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry supplemented by handicrafts and bronze art.[39] Through the use of cavalry and bronze weaponry in warfare, the Donghu apparently dominated over the Xiongnu on their west.[40][41][42][43] Although "Upper Xiajiadian" is indeed frequently attributed to the Donghu, such attribution remains uncertain given the lack of details in Chinese sources about what the Donghu exactly were, beyond a name (Donghu, Eastern Hu, ie "Eastern mounted nomads") and the account of their destruction by the Xiongnu.[44]

The (ca. 109–91 BCE) Shiji section on Xiongnu history first records the Donghu during the era of Duke Wen of Jin (r. 697–628 BCE) and Duke Mu of Qin (r. ca. 659–621 BCE).

At this time Qin and Jin were the most powerful states in China. Duke Wen of Jin expelled the Di barbarians and drove them into the region west of the Yellow River between the Yun and Luo rivers; there they were known as the Red Di and the White Di. Shortly afterwards, Duke Mu of Qin, having obtained the services of You Yu, succeeded in getting the eight barbarian tribes of the west to submit to his authority.
Thus at this time there lived in the region west of Long the Mianzhu, the Hunrong, and the Diyuan tribes. North of Mts. Qi and Liang and the Jing and Qi rivers lived the Yiqu, Dali, Wuzhi, and Quyuan tribes. North of Jin were the Linhu (Forest Barbarians) and the Loufan, while north of Yan lived the Donghu (Eastern Barbarians) and Shanrong (Mountain Barbarians), each of them with their own chieftains. From time to time they would have gatherings of a hundred or so men, but no one tribe was capable of unifying the others under a single rule.[1]

In 307 BC King Wuling of Zhao (born 356 BC, reigned 325-299 BC), a contemporary of Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), instituted a military reform called "Hu clothes, Cavalry archery" after having been repeatedly harassed earlier in his reign by Donghu horse-archers. In 300 BCE Qin Kai, a general taken hostage from the state of Yan (whose capital "Ji" is now Beijing), defeated the Donghu after having gained the esteem of the Donghu and learning their battle tactics. In 273 BC (26th year of King Huiwen) Zhao defeated the Donghu. In 265 BC Li Mu of the Zhao state, one of the four most prominent generals of the Warring States period, defeated the Donghu after stopping a major Xiongnu invasion. By the time of the rule of the Xiongnu Chanyu Touman (c. 220 BCE to 209 BCE), "the Donghu were very powerful and the Yuezhi were likewise flourishing."[45] When the Xiongnu crown prince Modu Chanyu killed his father Touman (in 209 BCE) and took the title of Chanyu, the Donghu thought that Modu feared them, and they started to ask for tribute from the Xiongnu, his best horses and even a consort of Modu's. Modu conceded. Not satisfied with this they asked for some of the Xiongnu territories. This enraged Modu who attacked and soundly defeated them, killing their ruler, taking his subjects prisoner, and seizing their livestock, before turning west to attack and defeat the Yuezhi (c. 177 BCE).[46] This caused disintegration in the Donghu federation. Thereafter, the Wuhuan moved to Mt. Wuhuan and engaged in continuous warfare with the Xiongnu on the west and China on the south. As they came to be worn out from the lengthy battles, the Xianbei preserved their strengths by moving northward to Mt. Xianbei. When the Han dynasty vassal king Lu Wan defected to the Xiongnu in 195 BC he was created King of Donghu (東胡王) by the Xiongnu. This Kingdom of Donghu fiefdom lasted until 144 BC when Lu Wan's grandson Lu Tazhi defected back to the Han dynasty. The Wuhuan (southern Donghu) inhabitants of the fiefdom continued as vassals of the Xiongnu until 121 BC. Gradually the name Donghu stopped being used. In the 1st century, the Xianbei (northern Donghu) defeated the Wuhuan and northern Xiongnu, and developed into a powerful state under the leadership of their elected Khan, Tanshihuai.[47][48][49][50]

Donghu raided both Zhao and Yan in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC

The Book of Jin, published in 648, linked the Donghu and their Xianbei descendants to the Youxiong lineage (有熊氏),[51] associated with the Yellow Emperor[52] and possibly named after the Yellow Emperor's "hereditary principality".[53] However, many non-Han Chinese rulers were claimed to be the Yellow Emperor's descendants, for individual and national prestige.[54][55]

Chinese historian Yu Ying-shih describes the Donghu.

The Tung-hu peoples were probably a tribal federation founded by a number of nomadic peoples, including the Wu-huan and Hsien-pi. After its conquest of the Hsiung-nu, the federation apparently ceased to exist. Throughout the Han period, no trace can be found of activities of the Tung-hu as a political entity.[18]

Di Cosmo says the Chinese considered the Hu 胡 as "a new type of foreigner", and believes, "This term, whatever its origin, soon came to indicate an 'anthropological type' rather than a specific group or tribe, which the records allow us to identify as early steppe nomads. The Hu were the source of the introduction of cavalry in China."[56]

General appearance of the numerous Scythoïd Hu monumental statues from Shandong, featuring people with a high nose, deep eyes and a pointed hat. Eastern Han period, 2nd century CE.[57]

Pulleyblank cites Paul Pelliot that the Donghu, Xianbei, and Wuhuan were "proto-Mongols".

The Eastern Hu, mentioned in the Shih-chi along with the Woods Hu and the Lou-fan as barbarians to the north of Chao in the fourth century B.C., appear again as one of the first peoples whom the Hsiung-nu conquered in establishing their empire. Toward the end of the Former Han, as the Hsiung-nu empire was weakening through internal dissension, the Eastern Hu became rebellious. From then on they played an increasingly prominent role in Chinese frontier strategy as a force to play off against the Hsiung-nu. Two major divisions are distinguished, the Hsien-pei to the north and the Wu-huan to the south. By the end of the first century B.C. these more specific names had supplanted the older generic term.[58]

Pulleyblank also writes that although

there is now archaeological evidence of the spread of pastoral nomadism based on horse riding from Central Asia into Mongolia and farther east in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E., as far as we have evidence it did not impinge on Chinese consciousness until the northward push of the state of Zhao 趙 to the edge of the steppe in present Shanxi province shortly before the end of the fifth century B.C.E. brought them into contact with a new type of horse-riding “barbarian” that they called Hu 胡. … In Han times the term Hu was applied to steppe nomads in general but especially to the Xiongnu who had become the dominant power in the steppe. Earlier it had referred to a specific proto-Mongolian people, now differentiated as the Eastern Hu 東胡, from whom the Xianbei 鮮卑 and the Wuhuan 烏桓 later emerged.[59]


Lineage of the Donghu (Eastern Hu)

The Dōnghú later divided into the Wuhuan in the Yan Mountains[60] and Xianbei in the Greater Khingan Range:[61][62] the Wuhuan are ancestors of the Kumo Xi,[63][60] while the Xianbei are ancestors of the Khitan[64][62] and the Mongols.[65][66] Another people of Donghu descent were the Rouran (Proto-Mongolic tribe).[67][68]

In the past, scholars such as Fan Zuoguai and Han Feimu also mistakenly[why?] thought that Jurchens (ancestors of the Manchus) descended from the Donghu.[69] In 1980, Russian scholar Lydia Leonidovna Viktorova criticized the 19th century phonetic identification of the ancient people of the Donghu (Eastern Hu) with the Tungus.[34]

A genetic study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology detected the paternal haplogroup C2b1a1b among the Xianbei and Rouran. This lineage has also been found among the Donghu. Haplogroup C2b1a1b has a high frequency among Mongols.[70]

Ethnic origins

Hu statues from Wu Baizhuang tomb (吳白莊), Late Eastern Han period, Linyi, Shandong.[71]

The ethnic composition of the Donghu people remains unclear. It is suggested that the majority was of Mongolic and Tungusic origins, and that they stood in contact with other Steppe nomadic entities, such as the Xiongnu and the Saka people further West. The Donghu were ethnically related to the Xianbei, Jinggouzi and Rouran, which are described as either Proto-Mongols or Para-Mongols.[72][73][74]

While often being referred as tribal confederation, they may rather be an only loosely united group of nomadic tribes "that occupied territories between the Mongolian steppes and the Great Xing'an Mountains of China".[75]


See also: Rouran Khaganate § Genetics, Xianbei § Genetics, Xiongnu § Genetics, Huns § Genetics, and Pannonian Avars § Genetics

A genetic study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in August 2018 detected the paternal haplogroup C2b1a1b among the Xianbei and Rouran. This lineage has also been found among remains associated with the Donghu people.[76] The authors of the study suggested that haplogroup C2b1a1b was an important lineage among the Donghu, and that the Rouran were paternally descended from the Xianbei and Donghu. Haplogroup C2b1a1b has a high frequency among Mongols.[70]

Genetic data support a close genetic relationship between the Donghu, the ancient Jinggouzi people, and the Xianbei. The closest modern extant people to the historical Donghu are the Oroqen people of Northern China.[73]

See also


  1. ^ a b Sima Qian (author); Watson, Burton (translator), 1993. Shiji, "vol. 110 - Account of the Xiongnu"; p. 132.
  2. ^ Origins of Minority Ethnic Groups in Heilongjiang Archived March 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Liang (1992) and DeFrancis (2003).
  4. ^ Shiji "Hereditary House of Zhao" quote: "今中山在我腹心,北有燕,東有,西有林胡、樓煩、秦、韓之邊,而無彊兵之救,是亡社稷,柰何?" translation: "Now Zhongshan is at our heart and belly [note: Zhao surrounded Zhongshan, except on the Zhongshan's north-eastern side], Yan to the north, Hu to the east, Forest Hu to the west, Loufan, Qin, Han at our borders. Yet we have no strong army to help us, surely we will lose our country. What is to be done?"
  5. ^ Stratagems of the Warring States, "King Wuling spends his day in idleness", quote: "自常山以至代、上黨,東有燕、東胡之境,西有樓煩、秦、韓之邊,而無騎射之備。" Jennifer Dodgson's translation: "From Mount Chang to Dai and Shangdang, our lands border Yan and the Donghu in the east, and to the west we have the Loufan and shared borders with Qin and Han. Nevertheless, we have no mounted archers ready for action."
  6. ^ a b Pulleyblank E. G. (1994) “Ji Hu: Indigenous Inhabitants of Shaanbei and Western Shanxi,” in Edward H. Kaplan, ed., Opuscula Altaica: Essays presented in honor of Henry Schwarz. ed. by. Bellingham: Western Washington University. pp. 518-519 of 499-531
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania By Barbara A. West [1]
  8. ^ Shiji "Ch. 110 Account of the Xiongnu"
  9. ^ Zhouli (Rites of Zhou) "Dongguan Kaogong Ji (Winter Office(r)s: Records on the Examination of Craftsmanship)" 4 quote: 「胡無弓車。……胡之無弓車也,非無弓車也,夫人而能為弓車也。」Translation by Jun (2013): "Among the nomads Hu there are no special craftsmen of bow and chariot but all the men there are proficient in the art."
  10. ^ Jun Wenren (translator) (2013) Ancient Chinese Encyclopedia of Technology: Translation and Annotation of the Kaogong Ji (the Artificers' Records). New York: Routledge. p. 3
  11. ^ a b Bi, Zhicheng (2019). "Stone Reliefs of the Han Tombs in Shandong Province: Relationship Between Motifs and Composition" (PDF). Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. 368: 175–177.
  12. ^ a b A History of Chinese Civilization, Jacques Gernet, Cambridge University Press 1996 P.186-87
  13. ^ Peter Van Der Veer, "III. Contexts of Cosmopolitanism" in Steven Vertovec, Robin Cohen eds., Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context and Practice Oxford University Press 2002 p. 200-01
  14. ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87-104.
  15. ^ Dorothy Wong, Chinese Steles: Pre-Buddhist and Buddhist Use of a Symbolic Form University of Hawaii Press P.44
  16. ^ (Chinese) 段渝, 先秦巴蜀地区百濮和氐羌的来源 Archived 2018-09-08 at the Wayback Machine 2006-11-30
  17. ^ Guo Ji Zhongguo Yu Yan Xue Ping Lun, Volume 1, Issue 1, J. Benjamins 1996. page 7.
  18. ^ a b Yu (1986), p. 436.
  19. ^ Hao and Qimudedaoerji (2007), p. 17.
  20. ^ Pulleyblank (1983), p. 411.
  21. ^ Di Cosmo (2002), p. 130.
  22. ^ Ban, Lin (2022). ""Shelter My Soul with Your Body" – A Burial Custom Influenced by Shamanism: A Case of Covering a Dead Face with the Right Ribs of a Local Sheep in Inner Mongolia, China" (PDF). The most typical early form of metal mask was a combination of sackcloth, copper clasps and mussels found in the Zhoujiadi cemetery in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia, of the Xiajiadian upper culture (Yang and Gu 1984). (...) Besides, both Zhoujiadi M45 and Iheura M2 can be identified as remains of the Donghu clan, with Zhoujiadi M45 considered to be an ancestor of the Donghu clan... ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. ^ Dong 1948:?.
  24. ^ Karlgren 1957:303, 34.
  25. ^ Zhou 1972:?.
  26. ^ Baxter 1992:754, 763.
  27. ^ Schuesler 2007:215, 281.
  28. ^ Baxter, William H. and Laurent Sagart. 2014. Old Chinese: A New Reconstruction. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-994537-5.
  29. ^ Book of Zhou "稽胡一曰步落稽,蓋匈奴別種,劉元海五部之苗裔也。或云山戎赤狄之後。" tr. "Jihu, another appellation is Buluoji, probably a splinter kind of Xiongnu [and] descendants of Liu Yuanhai's five tribes. Or said [to be] successors of Mountain Rong [or] Red Di".
  30. ^ Atwood, Christopher P. "The Qai, the Khongai, and the Names of the Xiōngnú" International Journal of Eurasian Studies II. p. 47-53
  31. ^ Schuessler (2007), p. 281
  32. ^ Golden, Peter B. (2006). "Cumanica V: The Basmils and Qipčaqs" in Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi 15: notes 24–25. p. 17 of 13-42
  33. ^ Golden, P.B. (2003) "Cumanica II: The Olberli (Olperli): The Fortunes and Misfortunes of an Inner Asian Nomadic Clan" in Nomads and their neighbours in the Russian Steppe note. 49 p. 17 of 5-29
  34. ^ a b Viktorova, Lydia Leonidovna (1980). Mongols: Origin of the People and Source of Culture (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka. p. 183. Это отчасти связано с недостаточным количеством материалов, отчасти - с допущенными ошибками. Например, фонетическое отождествление древнего народа дунху (восточные ху) с тунгусами, сделанное в начале XIX в. Абелем Ремюса лишь на принципе звукового сходства дунху - тунгус, привело к тому, что всех потомков дунху долгое время считали предками тунгусов.
  35. ^ Pulleyblank (1983), p. 452.
  36. ^ Psarras, Sophia-Karin (January 1999). "Upper Xiajiadian". Monumenta Serica. 47 (1): 90, Figure 19. doi:10.1080/02549948.1999.11731324.
  37. ^ "Certificate".
  38. ^ Yang, Jianhua; Shao, Huiqiu; Pan, Ling (2020). The metal road of the Eastern Eurasian steppe: the formation of the Xiongnu Confederation and the Silk Road. Singapore: Springer. p. 249 Fig 4.12 No25. doi:10.1007/978-981-32-9155-3. ISBN 978-981-32-9154-6.
  39. ^ Lin (2007)[page needed]
  40. ^ Ma (1962)[page needed]
  41. ^ Liu (1994)[page needed]
  42. ^ Wang (2007)[page needed]
  43. ^ Lü (2002), pp. 15–16.
  44. ^ Psarras, Sophia-Karin (January 1999). "Upper Xiajiadian". Monumenta Serica. 47 (1): 4–6. doi:10.1080/02549948.1999.11731324. ISSN 0254-9948. The study of Upper Xiaiadianis hampered by the small number of well-reported excavations, the conditions of the tombs themselves, and by confusion concerning the nature of the culture and its dating. In general,"Upper Xiajiadian" is considered to refer to a nomadic culture,frequently attributed to the Donghu.(p.4) The attribution of any non-Chinese culture to a name provided by early Chinese texts is risky. Unless material evidence appears to coincide with written evidence (assuming there is indeed written evidence other then the notation of a name), we cannot be sure such attribution is justified. In the case of the Donghu, we have scant textual evidence.(p.5) In any case, attributing Upper Xiajiadian to the Donghu compounds the problems the material remains themselves present. At this time,I see no benefit in making any specific attribution (p.6)
  45. ^ Watson (1993), p. 134.
  46. ^ Watson (1993), p. 135.
  47. ^ Ma (1962)[page needed]
  48. ^ Liu (1994)[page needed]
  49. ^ Wang (2007)[page needed]
  50. ^ Lü (2002)[page needed]
  51. ^ Fang Xuanling et al., Jinshu, vol. 108 Murong Hui text: "慕容廆,字弈洛瑰,昌黎棘城鮮卑人也。其先有熊氏之苗裔,世居北夷,邑于紫蒙之野,號曰東胡。" tr.: "Murong Hui, courtesy name Yìluòguī, a Xianbei man from the Jí Citadel, Chānglí. He/They descended from the Youxiong lineage in former times; for generations [they] had been dwelling [among] the Northern Yi, [their] settlement in the wilderness of Zimeng, [their] appellation Eastern Hu."
  52. ^ Sima Qian, Shiji, vol. 1 [2] txt: "自黃帝至舜、禹,皆同姓而異其國號,以章明德。故黃帝爲有熊,..." tr.: "From the Yellow Emperor to Shùn, [and then] , all [had] the same tribal surname (姓) yet [each] called [his] nation differently; [each] used [a different appellation] to stamp [his] bright virtue; therefore, the Yellow Emperor['s nation] was Youxiong..."
  53. ^ Giles, Herbert Allen (1898), A Chinese Biographical Dictionary, p. 338 cited in Unschuld, Paul U.; Tessenow, Hermann, eds. (2011), Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: An Annotated Translation of Huang Di's Inner Classic – Basic Questions, 2 volumes, p.5
  54. ^ Lewis, Mark Edward (2009), China's Cosmopolitan Empire: the Tang Dynasty, Harvard University Press. p. 202
  55. ^ Abramson, Mark Samuel (2008), Ethnic Identity in Tang China, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 154
  56. ^ Di Cosmo (1999), pp. 951–52.
  57. ^ Several photographs and descriptions in: 徐, 龙国 (2017). "山东发现的汉代大型胡人石雕像再研究" (PDF). 美术研究 (Art Research).
    "The above-mentioned stone statues are images of Hu people, and scholars have no objection to this. Hu people are the general name given by the Han people in the Central Plains of our country to the foreign ethnic groups in the north and west in ancient China. In the cognitive field of Han people, the concept of Hu people is relatively vague, and it has a tendency to change with time. The Hu in the pre-Qin period refers specifically to the Xiongnu, but in the Han and Jin dynasties generally Hu refers to the Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Di, and Qiang. The scope of "Hu people" also expanded from the north to the west."
    "The image of a barbarian with a high nose, deep eyes, and a pointed hat found in Shandong is likely to be some white ethnic group related to the Scythian culture, it is also speculated that it may be the Yuezhi or an ethnic group earlier than the Yuezhi."
  58. ^ Pulleyblank (1983), p. 452
  59. ^ Pulleyblank (2000), p 20.
  60. ^ a b New Book of Tang vol. 219 "奚亦東胡種, 為匈奴所破, 保烏丸山. 漢曹操斬其帥蹋頓蓋其後也." tr. "The Xi are also a Donghu race. Defeated by the Xiongnu, their refuge was Wuwan mountains. During Han time, Cao Cao slew their leader Tadun. [Xi] are probably their descendants"
  61. ^ Book of Later Han "Vol. 90 Accounts of the Wuhuan & Xianbei - Xianbei" quote: "鮮卑者,亦東胡之支也,別依鮮卑山,故因號焉。其言語習俗與烏桓同。…… 漢初,亦為冒頓所破,遠竄遼東塞外,與烏桓相接,未常通中國焉。" Xu (2005)'s translation: "The Xianbei who were a branch of the Donghu, relied upon the Xianbei Mountains. Therefore, they were called the Xianbei. [...] At the beginning of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), (they) were defeated by Maodun, and then fled in disorder to Liaodong beyond the northern border of China Proper ..."
  62. ^ a b Xu 2005, p. 24.
  63. ^ Suishu vol. 84 "奚本曰庫莫奚東部胡之種" tr. "The Xi were originally called the Kumo Xi. They are a race of Eastern Hu"
  64. ^ New Book of Tang "Vol. 219 - Northern Barbarians - Khitans" quote: "契丹,本東胡種,其先爲匈奴所破,保鮮卑山。" Xu (2005)'s translation: "The Khitan were of Donghu origin. Their ancestors were defeated by the Xiongnu, and then sought refuge in the Xianbei Mountains."
  65. ^ Xu 2005, pp. 75, 86, 175–179.
  66. ^ Janhunen 2006, pp. 405–6.
  67. ^ Book of Wei vol. 103 "蠕蠕,東胡之苗裔也,姓郁久閭氏" tr. "Rúrú, offsprings of Dōnghú, surnamed Yùjiŭlǘ"
  68. ^ Pulleyblank (2000), p. 20, n. 57
  69. ^ Zarrow, Peter (2015-09-23). Educating China: Knowledge, Society and Textbooks in a Modernizing World, 1902–1937. Cambridge University Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-107-11547-7. Fan and Han noted that the Jurchens were of the Eastern Hu race (Donghuzu)
  70. ^ a b Li et al. 2018, pp. 1, 8–9.
  71. ^ Guan, Liu; Bing, Huang (2023). "The hybrid origin of the dragon-wrapped column in Han dynasty China". Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering. 22 (4): 1970–1994. doi:10.1080/13467581.2022.2153057. Other evidence to support our argument is that Western, Asian-style architectural elements such as Hu statue columns and arched doorways (Figure 35) indicate the influence of foreign styles in some of the large, high-grade Han pictorial stone tombs currently found in this region, such as the afore-mentioned Wu Baizhuang 吳白莊 tomb in Linyi 臨 沂, Shandong.
  72. ^ Vidaković, Nenad (2012-04-01). "From the Ethnic History of Asia – the Dōnghú, Wūhuán and Xiānbēi Proto-Mongolian Tribes". Migracijske i Etniĉke Teme. 28 (1): 75–95. ISSN 1333-2546.
  73. ^ a b Wang, Haijing; Chen, Lu; Ge, Binwen; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui (August 2012). "Genetic data suggests that the Jinggouzi people are associated with the Donghu, an ancient nomadic group of North China". Human Biology. 84 (4): 365–378. doi:10.3378/027.084.0402. ISSN 1534-6617. PMID 23249313.
  74. ^ Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yongbin; Chen, Yongzhi; Ochir, A.; Sarenbilige, null; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui (August 2018). "The genome of an ancient Rouran individual reveals an important paternal lineage in the Donghu population". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 166 (4): 895–905. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23491. ISSN 1096-8644. PMID 29681138.
  75. ^ Dalziel, Nigel; MacKenzie, John M, eds. (2016-01-11). The Encyclopedia of Empire (1 ed.). Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe153. ISBN 978-1-118-44064-3.
  76. ^ Li et al. 2018, p. 4, Table 2.


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