Mongol Empire c.1207, Ongud and their neighbours

The Ongud (also spelled Ongut or Öngüt; Mongolian: Онгуд, Онход; Chinese: 汪古, Wanggu; from Old Turkic öng "desolate, uninhabited; desert" plus güt "class marker"[1]) were a Turkic tribe that later became Mongolized[2][3] active in what is now Inner Mongolia in northern China around the time of Genghis Khan (1162–1227).[4] Many Ongud were members of the Church of the East.[5] They lived in an area lining the Great Wall in the northern part of the Ordos Plateau and territories to the northeast of it.[4] They appear to have had two capitals, a northern one at the ruin known as Olon Süme and another a bit to the south at a place called Koshang or Dongsheng.[6] They acted as wardens of the marches for the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) to the north of Shanxi.[7]

History and origin

The ancestors of the Ongud were the Shatuo Turks,[8][9] who, in turn, descended mainly from the two remnant tribes of Western Turkic Khaganate: namely, the Chuyue, the Türgesh-associated Suoge, and the Anqing of Sogdian origins. In the seventh century they moved to east of modern Dzungaria, then under the rule of the Tang dynasty. By the ninth century, the Shatuo were scattered over north Shanxi and modern Inner Mongolia. In 808, 30,000 Shatuo under Zhuye Jinzhong defected from the Tibetans to Tang China and the Tibetans punished them by killing Zhuye Jinzhong as they were chasing them.[10] The Uyghurs also fought against an alliance of Shatuo and Tibetans at Beshbalik.[11] The Shatuo Turks under Zhuye Chixin (Li Guochang) served the Tang dynasty in fighting against their fellow Turkic people in the Uyghur Khaganate. In 839, when the Uyghur khaganate (Huigu) general Jueluowu (掘羅勿) rose against the rule of then-reigning Zhangxin Khan, he elicited the help from Zhuye Chixin by giving Zhuye 300 horses, and together, they defeated Zhangxin Khan, who then committed suicide, precipitating the subsequent collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate. In the next few years, when Uyghur Khaganate remnants tried to raid Tang borders, the Shatuo participated extensively in counterattacking the Uyghur Khaganate with other tribes loyal to Tang.[12] In 843, Zhuye Chixin, under the command of the Han Chinese officer Shi Xiong with Tuyuhun, Tangut and Han Chinese troops, participated in a raid against the Uyghur khaganate that led to the slaughter of Uyghur forces at Shahu mountain.[13][14][15] A Shatuo warlord, Li Keyong, mobilized 10,000 Shatuo cavalrymen and served the Tang dynasty as an ally. In 923, his son Li Cunxu defeated the Later Liang dynasty and became emperor of the Later Tang dynasty.[16][17][18][19]

After the overthrow of the Li family, Shatuo commanders established the [Later Jin, the Later Han and the Northern Han.

In the 13th century, a part of Shatuo probably included in the Mongol Empire as an Ongud tribe, another part as White Tatars.[20][21] According to a number of authors, the Onguds were already Mongolized tribe in the 13th century (Nikolai Aristov,[2] Ochir[3]). Academicians Boris Vladimirtsov[22] and Vasily Bartold[23] believed that ethnically the Onguds were already the southern Mongols. According to the Mongolian chronicler Sanan-Setsen, the Onguds at the time of Genghis Khan were part of the Su Mongols.[24]

The Ongud chief Ala Kush Tegin revealed the Naimans plan to attack Genghis Khan in 1205 and allied with the Mongols. When Genghis Khan invaded the Jin Dynasty in 1211, Ala Kush Tegin supported him. Genghis married his daughter Alakhai Bekhi to one of Ala Kush's sons. However, political opponents killed Ala Kush Tegin. Genghis put down the rebellion and took the family under his protection, with his daughter the de facto ruler.[25] Alakhai Bekhi ruled the Ongud as regent for several underage princes until the reign of Güyük Khan (1246–48).

Many famous post-Genghis Mongols are of Ongud descent, including the well-known traveler, diplomat, and monk of the Church of the East, Rabban Bar Sauma (1220–1294). The Ongud proved good allies to Kublai.[26] For example, the Ongud ruler George married Kublai's two granddaughters and fought against Kaidu, whose protégé Duwa captured and killed him later in 1298. A number of Öngüd were said to have been converted to Catholicism by John of Montecorvino (1246–1328).

After 1221 many Onguds were resettled in Khwarezm, where they served as governors for the Golden Horde. They formed part of the Argyns and the Mughal tribe. The Onguds in Mongolia became an otog of the Tumed in the 15th century. The Onguds gradually vanished from historical records and likely assimilated into other Turkic and Mongol tribes beginning in the post-Yuan period. The Mongols of Inner Mongolia, Mongolia and western China eventually converted to Tibetan Buddhism from the 16th century onwards.[27]

Art and architecture

The University of Hong Kong possesses a collection of around a thousand 13th- and 14th-century bronze Nestorian crosses from the Ongud region collected during the 1920s by F. A. Nixon, a British postal official working in northern China. Although their designs vary, Maltese crosses with a square central panel displaying a swastika, the Buddhist good luck symbol, predominate.[28]

The Ongud Monument Ensemble was constructed by the Turkic tribes during the 6th-8th centuries for their noblemen. This consists of over 30 man-like figures, a lion and a sheep, and about 550 standing stones in alignments reminiscent of Carnac or Avebury. There is also a large tomb made of 4 sculptured slabs. Each slab has the front face decorated with a trellis-pattern like the walls of a yurt, and a simple frieze on top.

See also


  1. ^ Rybatzki, Volker. (2004) "Nestorian Personal Names from Central Asia" in Verbum et Calamus. Semitic and related studies in honour of Professor Tapani Harviainen. Studia Orientalia 99. p. 271
  2. ^ a b Аристов Н. А. (2003). Труды по истории и этническому составу тюркских племен (PDF). Бишкек: Илим. p. 103. ISBN 5-8355-1297-X. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  3. ^ a b Очир А. (2016). Монгольские этнонимы: вопросы происхождения и этнического состава монгольских народов (PDF). Элиста: КИГИ РАН. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-5-903833-93-1. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  4. ^ a b Roux, p.40
  5. ^ Phillips, p. 123
  6. ^ Halbertsma, Tjalling H. F. (2008). Early Christian Remains of Inner Mongolia: Discovery, Reconstruction and Appropriation. Brill. pp. 150–157. ISBN 978-90-04-16708-7.
  7. ^ Saunders, John Joseph (2001). The History of the Mongol Conquests. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.
  8. ^ Song Lian et al., History of Yuan, "Vol. 118" "阿剌兀思剔吉忽里,汪古部人,係出沙陀雁門之後。" Alawusi Tijihuli, a man of the Ongud tribe, descendant(s) of the Wild Goose Pass's Shatuo
  9. ^ Paulillo, Mauricio. "White Tatars: The Problem of the Öngũt conversion to Jingjiao and the Uighur Connection" in From the Oxus River to the Chinese Shores: Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia (orientalia - patristica - oecumenica) Ed. Tang, Winkler. (2013) pp. 237-252
  10. ^ Yuan, Hong (14 November 2022). From the Khitans to the Jurchens & Mongols: A History of Barbarians in Triangle Wars & Quartet Conflicts. iUniverse. ISBN 9781663242587.
  11. ^ Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, the: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781838608682.
  12. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 246.
  13. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 247.
  14. ^ Dardess, John W. (10 September 2010). Governing China: 150-1850. Hackett. ISBN 9781603844475.
  15. ^ Ven, Hans van de (26 July 2021). Warfare in Chinese History. BRILL. ISBN 9789004482944.
  16. ^ C. P. Atwood, Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.424
  17. ^ Theobald, Ulrich (2013). "Shatuo Türks 沙陀突厥"
  18. ^ Golden, Peter Benjamin (1992). "An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis Ans State Formation in the Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East". Turcologica. 9. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3-447-03274-2. p. 165
  19. ^ Atwood, Christopher P. (2010). "The Notion of Tribe in Medieval China: Ouyang Xiu and the Shatup Dynastic Myth". Miscellanea Asiatica (16): 593–621.
  20. ^ Wang Kuo-wei, "Wang Kuo-wei researches", Taipei, 1968: 4985
  21. ^ Ozkan Izgi, "The ancient cultures of Central Asia and the relations with the Chinese civilization"//The Turks, Ankara, 2002, p. 99
  22. ^ Владимирцов Б. Я. (2020). Чингис-хан. Litres. p. 58. ISBN 978-5-04-137262-0.
  23. ^ Бартольд В. В. (1968). Сочинения. Том V. Работы по истории и филологии тюркских и монгольских народов. Москва: Наука. p. 210.
  24. ^ Проблемы этногенеза и этнической культуры тюрко-монгольских народов: сборник научных трудов. Калмыцкий гос. университет. 2007. p. 52. ISBN 978-5-91458-011-4.
  25. ^ Weatherford, Jack. (2010). The Secret History of the Mongol Queens. Broadway Paperbacks, New York.
  26. ^ John Man Kublai khan, p.319
  27. ^ Tang, Li (2011). East Syriac Christianity in Mongol-Yuan China. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 148. ISBN 978-3-447-06580-1.
  28. ^ F. S. Drake, 'Nestorian Crosses and Nestorian Christians in China under the Mongols', Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1962