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House of Manghud
Emir Alim Khan the last ruler and the last head of Manghud Dynasty
CountryMongol Empire
Nogai Horde
Emirate of Bukhara
Current regionAsia
Founded-1270 (in Nogai Horde)
-1747 (in the Emirate of Bukhara)
Founder-Nogai Khan (in Nogai Horde)
-Rahim Khan (in the Emirate of Bukhara)
Final rulerAlim Khan
Final headAlim Khan
Connected familiesHouse of Barlas
Sunni Islam
Dissolution30 August 1920
Deposition28 April 1944

The Manghud, or Manghit (Mongolian: Мангуд, Mangud; Uzbek: Mangʻit) were a Mongol tribe of the Urud-Manghud federation. Manghuds (Mangkits or Mangits) who moved to the Desht-i Qipchaq steppe were Turkified.[1][2] They established the Nogai Horde in the 14th century and the Manghit dynasty to rule the Emirate of Bukhara in 1785. They took the Islamic title of Emir instead of the title of Khan, since they were not descendants of Genghis Khan and rather based their legitimacy as rulers on Islam. The clan name was used for Mongol vanguards as well. Members of the clan live in several regions of Central Asia and Mongolia.

Manghuds in the Mongol Empire

See also: Nogai Khan and Mongol invasion of Europe

According to ancient sources, they were derived from the Khiyad Mongols. The Manghuds and the Uruuds were war-like people from the Mongolian plateau. Some notable Manghud warriors supported Genghis Khan (1162–1227), while a body of them resisted his rise to power. When the Mongol Empire began to expand westward, the Manghud people were spread westward into the Middle East along with many other Mongol tribes. In the Golden Horde, the Manghuds supported Nogai (d. 1299) and established their own semi-independent horde from the khans in Sarai.[3]

After Nogai's death in 1299, the majority of Manghud warriors joined the service of Tokhta Khan. Their chieftain Edigu, the powerful warlord of the Golden Horde, officially founded the Nogai Horde or Manghit Horde in the 14th-15th centuries. Turkish historians would record their tribal name as Manghit or Nogais, as opposed to the original Manghud or Mangudai.

Military unit of the Mongols

The mangudai or mungadai were military units of the Mongol Empire, but sources differ wildly in their descriptions. One source states that references to Mongol light cavalry "suicide troops" date back to the 13th century.[4] However, a United States Army author believes that Mangudai was the name of a 13th-century Mongol warlord who created an arduous selection process to test potential leaders.[5] The term is used by element of the United States Army as a name for multi-day tests of Soldiers' endurance and warrior skills.[6]

Nogai Horde

Main article: Nogai Horde

Some of the Manghuds assimilated into Turkic people and these Manghuds became Manghit (Mangit) tribe of the Turks. The Nogais protected the northern borders of Astrakhan and Crimean khanates, and through organized raids to the northern steppes prevented Russian and Lithuanian settlements. Many Nogais joined the service of Crimean khan. Settling there, they contributed to the formation of the Crimean Tatars. However, Nogais were not only good soldiers, they also had considerable agricultural skills. Their basic social unit was the semi-autonomous 'ulus' or band. But Nogais were proud of their nomadic traditions and independence, which they considered superior to settled agricultural life.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Kalmyks or the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region about 1630. The Kalmyks expelled the Nogais who fled to the plains of northern Caucasus and to the Crimea under the Ottoman Empire. A few part of them joined to Kazakh Khanate as part of Little jüz.

Manghit dynasty

Alim Khan, the last Manghit khan in Bukhara, 1911

The Manghits had been settled by Genghis Khan around the city of Qarshi.[7] Qarshi would continue to serve as the Manghits' base of power under the Bukhara Khanate.[8] In the 18th century, the basins of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya passed under the control of three Uzbek khanates, claiming legitimacy in their descent from Genghis Khan. These were, from west to east, the Qunggirats based on Khiva in Khwārezm (1717–1920), the Mangits in Bukhara (1753–1920), and the Mings in Kokand (Qǔqon; c. 1710–1876).

The Manghit dynasty was founded by a common Uzbek family that ruled the Emirate of Bukhara from 1785 to 1920. Manghit power in the Khanate of Bukhara began to grow in the early 18th century, due to the emirs position as ataliq to the khan. The family effectively came to power after Nader Shah's death in 1747, and the assassination of the ruling Abu al-Fayz Khan and his young son Abdalmumin by the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi.[9]

From 1747 to the 1780s, the Manġits ruled behind the scenes, until the emir Shah Murad declared himself the open ruler, establishing the Emirate of Bukhara. The last emir of the dynasty, Mohammed Alim Khan, was ousted by the Soviet Red Army in September 1920, and fled to Afghanistan. There is disagreement over whether the dynasty descends from simple Uzbeks[10] or of true Mongolian origin.[11] According to the Russian orientalist N.V. Khanykova, the Manġit dynasty was considered the oldest Uzbek family in the Bukhara Khanate descending from Timur Malik; from the division of which the tuk came the reigning dynasty, in addition, this clan enjoyed some special privileges.[12]

The Manghit dynasty issued coins from 1787 up until the Soviet takeover.[13]

Heads/rulers of the Manghit dynasty of the Emirate of Bukhara

Titular Name Personal Name Reign
Ataliq I
Khudayar Bey
خدایار بیگ
Ataliq II
Muhammad Hakim
محمد حکیم
Ataliq III
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
Amir I
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
Muhammad Rahim
محمد رحیم
Ataliq IV
Daniyal biy
دانیال بیگ
Amir Masum
امیر معصوم
شاہ مراد بن دانیال بیگ
Amir II
Haydar bin Shahmurad
حیدر تورہ بن شاہ مراد
Amir III
Mir Hussein bin Haydar
حسین بن حیدر تورہ
Amir IV
Umar bin Haydar
عمر بن حیدر تورہ
Amir V
Nasr-Allah bin Haydar Tora
نصراللہ بن حیدر تورہ
Amir VI
Muzaffar bin Nasrullah
مظفر الدین بن نصراللہ
Amir VII
Abdul-Ahad bin Muzaffar al-Din
عبدل احد بن مظفر الدین
Muhammad Alim Khan bin Abdul-Ahad
محمد عالم خان بن عبدل احد
Overthrow of Emirate of Bukhara by Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, which, in turn, was forcibly replaced by Bolsheviks.

Family Tree

Manghud Dynasty

Bukhara Khanate
Manghud Ataliqs
Bukhara Emirate

r. 1712–1716
r. 1740–1743
r. 1758–1785
r. 1745–1756
r. 1756–1758
r. 1785–1785
r. 1785–1799
r. 1799–1826
r. 1758–1758
r. 1826–1826
r. 1827–1860
r. 1826–1827
r. 1860–1885
r. 1885–1910
r. 1910–1920


Their descendants, the Nogai and Karakalpak people live in Dagestan and Khorazm. Others are the present-day Khalkha Mongols who live in Mongolia and the Baarin banner in Inner Mongolia. While the Manghits are found among the Tatars in Russia, the Bashkirs and the Kazakhs.

The daughter of the last Emir Alim Khan, Shukria Alimi Raad, worked as a broadcaster for Radio Afghanistan. Shukria Raad left Afghanistan with her family three months after Soviet troops invaded the country in December 1979. With her husband, also a journalist, and two children she fled to Pakistan, and then through Germany to the United States. In 1982 she joined the Voice of America, working for many years as a broadcaster for VOA's Dari Service, editor, program host and producer. She was interviewed in BBC Farsi, where she talked about her father and how the Emirate of Bukhara fell into the Soviets hand. At the end she talked about how she wanted to raise her kids as Tajiks and that she herself is a Tajik.[14] Alim Khan also had a son named Shahmurad, who denounced his father in 1929 (at the age of seven) and later served in the Soviet Army. During his governance in Bukhara, he also had a son named Qasem who was killed by the Bolshevik revolutionaries. Qasem had only one son who, when he was 13 years old, escaped from Bukhara to Iran-Mashhad with his stepfather. When he arrived in Iran, he took the name Husein Bukharaei. He married Bibimeymanat Mohsenolhoseini in Mashhad. They had 6 sons and 4 daughters. Husein Bukharaei died in 1993. Their children (Hasan, Lo'ba, Ali, Narges, Qasem, Reza, Fatemeh, Mohammad, Mahmoud, Mahboubeh) all live in Mashhad. In 2020, the BBC World Service made a documentary called "Bukhara" about the last ruler of Bukhara, which refers to the fate of the family of Amir Alam Khan. Alim Khan's descendants include granddaughter Nailaj Naebzadeh from his daughter Razia Alimi, and great-granddaughter Kadeij Naebzadeh. They live in United States. Nailaj Naebzadeh was born in United States. Just like her aunt, Shukria Alimi Raad, her mother Razia Alimi too escaped from Afghanistan during the invasion of the Soviet Army in 1979.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Очир А. (2016). Монгольские этнонимы: вопросы происхождения и этнического состава монгольских народов. Элиста: КИГИ РАН. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-5-903833-93-1. ((cite book)): Unknown parameter |agency= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Adle, C. and I. Habib, eds., History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in Contrast, from the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, January 2003, Volume V.
  3. ^ A.V.Vernadsky - The Mongols and Russia
  4. ^ Chambers, James (2003). The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe. Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-7858-1567-9.
  5. ^ Lt. Col. Edward F. Dorman III (Summer 2004). "Staff forges Warrior Ethos during Mangudai II". Blackjack Provider. 2: 4.
  6. ^ Pfc. Chris McCann (2005-09-22). "Mungadai challenges 2-71 Cav officers". Fort Drum Blizzard Online. Archived from the original on 2007-08-01. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  7. ^ Saifi, Saifullah (2002). "The khanate of bukhara from C 1800 to russian revolution". University.
  8. ^ Wilde, Andreas (2016). What is Beyond the River?: Power, Authority, and Social Order in Transoxania 18th-19th Centuries. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 978-3-7001-7866-8.
  9. ^ Soucek, Svat, A History of Inner Asia, (Cambridge University Press:2000), page 180.
  10. ^ Uzbek-Mangyts - Emir Shahmurad: "we are not a royal family, our ancestors are simple Uzbeks" about some events in Bukhara, Hokand and Kashgar, Notes of Mirza-Shems Bukhari, published in the text, with translation and notes, by V.V. Grigoriev. Kazan, 1861
  11. ^ -Grzhimailo G.E. Western Mongolia and the Uryanhay Territory . - Directmedia, 2013-03-13. - S. 531–533. - 907 p. - ISBN 9785446048205.
  12. ^ N.V. Khanykov. Description of the Bukhara Khanate. SPb. 1843, p.66
  13. ^ P. Donovan, The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara The Coinage of the Mangit Dynasty of Bukhara Archived 2010-05-03 at the Wayback Machine, 'ANS Magazine' Vol. 6/1 (Spring 2007).
  14. ^ "The Establishment of BBC World Service Persian Radio", Persian Service, I.B.Tauris, 2014, doi:10.5040/, ISBN 978-1-8488-5981-4, retrieved 2023-08-13

Further reading