Ulugqat County
乌恰县 (Chinese)
ۇلۇۇچات وودانى (Kyrgyz)
ئۇلۇغچات ناھىيىسى (Uyghur)
Ulughchat, Ulugh Chat, Wuqia
Ulugqat County (red) within Kizilsu Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Ulugqat County (red) within Kizilsu Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Ulugqat is located in Southern Xinjiang
Ulugqat
Ulugqat
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Ulugqat is located in Xinjiang
Ulugqat
Ulugqat
Ulugqat (Xinjiang)
Ulugqat is located in China
Ulugqat
Ulugqat
Ulugqat (China)
Coordinates (Ulugqat County government): 39°43′09″N 75°15′33″E / 39.7191°N 75.2592°E / 39.7191; 75.2592
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
Autonomous prefectureKizilsu
County seatUlugqat (Wuqia)
Area
 • Total19,118 km2 (7,382 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total60,912
 • Density3.2/km2 (8.3/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard Time[a])
Area code653024
Websitewww.xjwqx.gov.cn
Ulugqat County
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese乌恰
Traditional Chinese烏恰
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese乌鲁克恰提
Traditional Chinese烏魯克恰提
Uyghur name
Uyghurئۇلۇغچات ناھىيىسى
Kyrgyz name
Kyrgyzۇلۇۇچات وودانى
Улуучат ооданы
Uluuçat oodanı

Ulugqat County[2][3][4][5] (also known as Ulughchat County[6][7] and Wuqia County;[6] Chinese: 乌恰县; pinyin: Wūqià Xiàn) is a county in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It is under the administration of the Kyrgyz autonomous prefecture of Kizilsu. The county has two towns, nine townships and one state-owned farm, eight communities and 34 villages under its jurisdiction in 2017, its county seat is Wuqia Town. It contains an area of 19,118.11 km2 (7,381.54 sq mi) and has a population of 56,633 (as of 2017) with main ethnic groups of Kyrgyz, Han and Uyghur peoples.

Wuqia County is one of the two westernmost counties in China. It borders with Artux City to the east, Kashgar City to the south, Akto County to the southwest and the Kyrgyz Republic to the northwest. There are two national-level ports of Turugart (吐尔尕特口岸) and Arkaxtam (伊尔克什坦口岸), which are the link between Central and Western Asia and the bridgehead of opening up to the outside world. The county has harsh natural conditions, dry climate, earthquakes, floods, snow storms, sandstorms and other frequent natural disasters. From 1905 to the present, there have been 56 recorded earthquakes with a major earthquake of magnitude 6.0 Mw  or above, and more than 20,000 earthquakes of magnitude below 6.0 Mw .

There are 11 local ethnic groups in the county, such as Kyrgyz, Han, Uyghur, Hui, Uzbek, Tajik, etc. and the Kyrgyz ethnic group accounts for about 80% of the total population of the county. Its total land area of the county is 19,118 square kilometers with an average elevation of 2,890 meters and its county seat is at 2,200 meters above sea level. Of which, mountains, Gobi and wasteland account for 99.8% of the total area; the total area of desert grassland is more than 10,667 square kilometers, arable land is 23,000 mu (1,533 hectares), per capita arable land is less than 0.5 mu (333 square meters). It is a typical plateau animal husbandry county with traditional animal husbandry as the main county.[8]


Name

Th name Ulugqat is from the Kyrgyz language and means branch valleys (山沟分岔口). The name "Wuqia" is Mandarin Chinese for an abbreviated form of the name "Wulukeqiati" (乌鲁克恰提), based on the sound of the Kyrgyz name "Ulugqat".[9]: 193  It is named after that the Kizilsu Valley divides into two separate branch valleys in the area and the place presents the shape of the three mountain valleys.[10]

History

The county of Wuqia was part of Shule Commandery (疏勒都督府) in the Han period. It was in the territory of First Turkic Khaganate in the mid-sixth century, Uyghur Khaganate in the 8th century, Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate in 40s of the 9th century and Yarkent Khanate in the 16th century.

It was part of Shufu County in the Qing period. The Ulugqat Branch (乌鲁克恰提分县) was formed from Shufu County in 1913 and the town of Ulugqat was its seat, Ulugqat Branch was changed to Ulugqat Division (乌鲁克恰提设治局) in 1929 and the county of Wuqia was established in 1938 and under administration of Kashgar Administrative Region. The county was amalgamated to Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture with its establishment in 1954.

A magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred in Wuqia County on August 23, 1985, and its county seat was destroyed. Later, the new county seat was rebuilt in Borux (博鲁什), 6 km away to the northeast of the former seat. The inauguration ceremony of the new seat was held on October 17, 1989.[10][9]: 194 

On October 5, 2008, a 6.8 magnitude earthquake collapsed 721 houses; there were no casualties. 100 residents were relocated to emergency shelters; another 100 were to live in newly-built homes.[3]

Demographics

The proportion of nationalities in Ulugqat County, 2018
Nationality Percentage
Kyrgyz
87.2%
Han People
9.8%
Uyghurs
2.6%
Hui People
0.1%
Others
0.3%
Source of the population statistics :[11]

Geography

Wuqia County is located between 39°24′- 40°17′ north latitude and 73°40′- 75°45′ east longitude. It is located in the west of Xinjiang, north of Pamir Plateau, west of Tarim Basin, and two major mountain ranges of southern Tianshan and Kunlun junction. It is adjacent to Artux City in the east, Kashgar City in the south and Akto County in the southwest, it is bordered by the Kyrgyz Republic on the northwest with a boundary line of 410 kilometers. The county is in a temperate arid climate zone, the total area of the county is 19,118 square kilometers, with 10,667 square kilometers of various grasslands, of which 60% of excellent grasslands. There are two national first-level ports of Turugart and the Arkaxtam. The 309 provincial road connects the two ports with Kyrgyzstan, which is a shortcut for import and export trade between China and Central Asian countries.

As of 2013, proven lead and zinc reserves of six million tons, natural gas reserves of 40.9 billion cubic meters, copper reserves of 600,000 tons, coal 12.75 million tons, gold 130 tons, iron seven million tons, limestone and gypsum reserves of 100 million tons, water energy resources one million kilowatts. In July 2014, a 100-ton super-large gold mine was discovered in the county. Wuqia County has two major rivers of the Kizi River (克孜河) and the Qakmark River (恰克玛克河) with a surface water resource of 960 million cubic meters.[12]

Terrain

The terrain of Wuqia County is low in the southeast, high in the northwest and southwest, surrounded by mountains. It is a typical mountainous terrain with an altitude of 1,760 - 6,146 meters and a horseshoe shape. The county is located in the wedge-shaped zone in the west of the Kashgar Delta (喀什三角洲), which is a fold mountains of the Miocene. The landform appears in the mountains of erosion. The mountain area accounts for 76% of the total area of Wuqia County, 14,535 square kilometers. The county is surrounded by mountains on three sides, and the southeast is the Kashgar Delta plain.[13]

Animal resources

Wild animal resources in Wuqia County include snow leopard, brown bear, goitered gazelle, wild boar, marmot, snow chicken, and chukar partridge.[12]

Medicinal plant resources

Wild medicinal plant resources include symphytum, liquorice, ferula sinkiangensis, ephedra sinica, plantago, codonopsis, angelica, dandelion, astragalus, cynomorium, and wolfiporia extensa.[12]

Mineral resources

The mineral resources discovered in Wuqia County include coal, fossil oil, oil shale, iron, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, gold, phosphorus, salt, sulfur, limestone, gypsum, ceramic soil and so on. Among them, coal reserves account for more than half of Kizilsu's coal reserves.[12]

Climate

Climate data for Ulugqat (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
18.1
(64.6)
23.6
(74.5)
27.4
(81.3)
30.6
(87.1)
33.4
(92.1)
34.6
(94.3)
35.7
(96.3)
29.7
(85.5)
23.8
(74.8)
19.7
(67.5)
14.4
(57.9)
35.7
(96.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
2.3
(36.1)
9.1
(48.4)
16.2
(61.2)
20.4
(68.7)
24.6
(76.3)
26.8
(80.2)
25.6
(78.1)
21.2
(70.2)
14.5
(58.1)
7.8
(46.0)
1.8
(35.2)
14.2
(57.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.6
(18.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
3.4
(38.1)
10.2
(50.4)
14.3
(57.7)
18.2
(64.8)
20.5
(68.9)
19.5
(67.1)
15.1
(59.2)
8.4
(47.1)
1.3
(34.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
7.8
(46.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −12.8
(9.0)
−9.1
(15.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.9
(40.8)
9.0
(48.2)
12.6
(54.7)
14.9
(58.8)
14.1
(57.4)
9.6
(49.3)
3.0
(37.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
−9.8
(14.4)
2.6
(36.7)
Record low °C (°F) −28.1
(−18.6)
−26.4
(−15.5)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−11.6
(11.1)
−3.4
(25.9)
3.8
(38.8)
6.3
(43.3)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
−8.6
(16.5)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−29.2
(−20.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.7
(0.15)
7.8
(0.31)
12.7
(0.50)
16.2
(0.64)
32.4
(1.28)
36.2
(1.43)
36.1
(1.42)
36.7
(1.44)
24.6
(0.97)
10.6
(0.42)
3.7
(0.15)
3.4
(0.13)
224.1
(8.84)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.5 4.3 4.5 4.0 8.0 9.9 9.6 10.4 7.1 3.2 2.2 3.2 69.9
Average snowy days 6.8 7.6 6.1 2.2 0.3 0 0 0 0 1.3 4.1 6.8 35.2
Average relative humidity (%) 59 55 45 37 39 37 38 41 44 45 51 59 46
Mean monthly sunshine hours 187.5 175.0 205.8 234.9 271.6 296.4 310.4 289.5 257.1 241.7 201.5 179.9 2,851.3
Percent possible sunshine 62 57 55 58 61 66 69 69 70 72 69 62 64
Source: China Meteorological Administration[14][15]

Subdivision

Map including Ulugqat (labeled as Wuqia Wu-ch'ia) (DMA, 1983)

The county was divided into two towns and nine townships,[16] and a pasture farm run by the XPCC.[17]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Kyrgyz (Arabic script) Kyrgyz (Cyrillic script) Administrative division code
Towns
Ulugqat Town
(Wuqia Town)
乌恰镇 Wūqià Zhèn ئۇلۇغچات بازىرى Ulughchat baziri ۇلۇۇچات بازارى 653024100
Kansu Town
(Kangsu Town)
康苏镇 Kāngsū Zhèn كانسۇ بازىرى kansu baziri كانسۇۇ بازارى 653024101
Baykurut Town 巴音库鲁提镇 Bāyīnkùlǔtí Zhèn بايقۇرۇت بازىرى bayqurut baziri بايعۇرۇتقا بازارى 653024102
Towns
Ulugqat Township 乌鲁克恰提乡 Wūlǔkèqiàtí Zhèn ئۇلۇغچات يېزىسى Ulughchat yëzisi كۅنۅۅ ۇلۇۇچات ايىلى 653024200
Oksalur Township 吾合沙鲁乡 Wúhéshālǔ Xiāng ئوقسالۇر يېزىسى Oqsalur yëzisi وقسالىر ايىلى 653024201
Boritokay Township 膘尔托阔依乡 Biāo'ěrtuōkuòyī Xiāng بۆرىتوقاي يېزىسى böritoqay yëzisi بۅرۇتوقوي ايىلى 653024202
Kiziloy Township 黑孜苇乡 Hēizīwéi Xiāng قىزىلئوي يېزىسى qizil'oy yëzisi قىزىلوي ايىلى 653024203
Toyun Township 托云乡 Tuōyún Xiāng تويۇن يېزىسى toyun yëzisi تويۇن ايىلى 653024204
Terak Township 铁列克乡 Tiělièkè Xiāng تېرەك يېزىسى tërek yëzisi تەرەك ايىلى 653024205
Bostanterak Township 波斯坦铁列克乡 Bōsītǎntiělièkè Xiāng بوستانتېرەك يېزىسى bostantërek yëzisi بوستونتەرەك ايىلى 653024207
Jigin Township 吉根乡 Jígēn Xiāng جىغىن يېزىسى jighin yëzisi جىعىن ايىلى 653024208

Tourism

Wucai County is located in Tianshan, Kunlun Mountains at the intersection of the Pamir Plateau, the natural landscape is unique, the border ethnic customs rich, with a unique folk customs, geological features. There are the last place in mainland China sunset - Simhana (斯姆哈纳), there is Tianshan and Kunlun intersection of the Grand Canyon's majestic landscape, there are well-known Yuqitash Steppe (玉其塔什草原), Hongshan Valley (红山谷), Quanhua (泉华), Shanghai Forest Ranch (尚亥森林牧场), Oksalur Township Millennium populus euphratica forest (吾合沙鲁乡千年胡杨林), shell mountain of ancient sea ruins (古海遗址贝壳山), earthquake-resistant monument (抗震纪念碑) and other tourist attractions. Pamir is one of the birthplaces of highland culture. The main ethnic group of the neighboring Kyrgyz Republic and the Chinese Kyrgyz have formed the unique and profound advantage of human resources open to Central Asia in Wucai County.[18][16]

Notable persons

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.

References

  1. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  2. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (2010). 建筑抗震设计规范 [GB50011-2010: Code for Seismic Design of Buildings] (in English and Simplified Chinese). Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press. p. 203 – via Google Books. Ulugqat County
  3. ^ a b "Quake-hit Xinjiang county returns to normal". Sina Corp. 16 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 6 October 2020. Life and work are returning to normal in the quake-hit areas after a 6.8-magnitude earthquake shook Ulugqat county in Xinjiang, on October 5, 2008, causing no casualties but 721 collapsed houses.
  4. ^ Xiao-ying Chen; Yusupjan Setiwaldi; Yisilayin Osman (October 2016). "Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis in Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang". 中国寄生虫学与寄生虫病杂志. 34 (5): 409–13. PMID 30130008. Sixty-two villages were selected as investigation spots from 19 towns in agricultural and pasturing areas of Ulugqat County, Artux City, Akto County, and Akqi County during 2011-2012.{...}The morbidity(1.1%) was highest in Ulugqat County and the antibody positive rate(4.9%) in children was highest in Artux City.
  5. ^ Mei Xinyu. "Gas Trade for the Better". Beijing Review. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Line D of the China-Central Asia gas pipeline network starts from Galkynys Gas Field of Turkmenistan, passes through Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, and enters China via the Ulugqat County in the south of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
  6. ^ a b "Full Text: Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang". China Daily. 17 September 2020. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020. from Wuqia (Ulughchat) County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture,{...}from Boritokay Township, Wuqia (Ulughchat) County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture
  7. ^ "Table 1: List of Government Bids Related to Re-Education Facilities". Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2020. Ulughchat County, Kizilsu Prefecture
  8. ^ 乌恰县概况. xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-05-09. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  9. ^ a b Xie Yuzhong 解玉忠 (2003). 地名中的新疆 (in Simplified Chinese). Ürümqi: 新疆人民出版社. ISBN 7-228-08004-1.
  10. ^ a b 乌恰县的历史沿革. xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  11. ^ 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 [3-7 Population by Nationality by Prefecture, State, City and County (City)]. tjj.xinjiang.gov.cn (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 2020-06-10. Archived from the original on 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  12. ^ a b c d 乌恰县自然地理. xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2019-10-10.
  13. ^ 乌恰县气候概况. xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  14. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  15. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  16. ^ a b Latin name of administrative divisions in Wuqia County is based on the official authority of Wuqia County. see 乌恰县行政区划和居民地名称. xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  17. ^ 2018年乌恰县行政区划代码. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2018-10-31. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  18. ^ 乌恰县国民经济和社会发展 第十三个五年规划纲要 (草案). xjwqx.gov.cn. 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2019-10-11.